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RECENT LITERATURE OF GERMANY.

THE veteran historian Prof. Schlosser of Heidelberg has brought out the first number of his 'Universal History for the People,' which promises to form a manual of lucid views of history in a small compass, that has long been a desideratum. A bold attempt at a history of the most recent portion of the present century is making by Dr. Burckhardt in a History of the World from the foundation of the Holy Alliance to the death of Frederick William III. of Prussia.'

Dr. Burmeister has published Contributions to the History of Europe in the 16th century, from the archives of the Hanse Towns.' This work is a welcome parallel to the Belgian records published by M. Delpierre and other writers, and a useful accompaniment to the publications that do so much honour to the French Government. When will the pedantic official restrictions be removed that prevent English authors from having unrestrained access to our rich fund at home? If the Government set the example, the private archives of our great nobles would also soon be unlocked. While on this subject we cannot but address the well-known summons to Austria, the possessor, by conquest and inheritance, of the archives of Prague and of Venice, as well as of the bishoprics of Trent and Brixen :— "Auf, mächtiges Oesterreich!

Vorwärts! Thu's den andern gleich!"

We miss from the present Easter catalogue a new volume of Palacky's History of Bohemia.

Leutsch has published a critical essay on the Belgæ of Julius Cæsar.

In Natural History, Reichenbach's 'Icones Floræ Germanicæ,' of which several numbers have appeared, should have been noticed earlier. A Cabinet of Conchology,' by Martini and Chemnitz, in forty-three numbers-Berge's Käferbuch,' or the natural history of beetles-and Süssmilch's Birds of Europe,'-deserve attention. Dr. J. Roth has published a treatise on globular formations in MineVOL. XVII. No. XXXIV. 2 Y

rals, and their effects as displayed on their characteristic distinctions; and M. Hartmann a work on 'Gasteropodes' found in the earth and in fresh-water. M. Koch, of the forest department in Bavaria, has published a work on Arachnideæ.'

In Philology we notice Wilhelm Grimm's second edition of 'Graf Rudolph,' and Kausler's 'Illustrations of old Netherlandish Poetry and Literature. Theodore Benfey has produced a work which must be valuable to students of Biblical Antiquities as well as the friends of oriental literature, entitled The Relation between the Egyptian Language and the Semitic Dialects."

Wachsmuth's Hellenic Antiquities' have advanced to the seventh number of the second edition. A series of biographies of distinguished characters, illustrative of the rich collection of modern Medals in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, has been published by M. Bergmann, Custos of the Museum.

A popular System of Geology has appeared from the pen of Professor Von Leonhard of Heidelberg. In Medicine, Drs. Maffey and Rausch have written on the degree and mode of human degeneration, with especial relation to that frequent affliction of mountainous countries,—the kind of idiotcy called “Cretinism" in the Alps.

In the Periodical Literature of Germany a new historical magazine, published at Berlin, supported by M. Boeckh and W. Grimm, G. H. Pertz and L. Ranke, has just completed its first year. A second periodical for Legal Science presents an equally imposing list of contributors, including Von Savigny, C. F. Eichhorn, Rudorff, etc.

The character of a large portion of the most recent publications of Germany almost precludes a notice of their appearance in a review of the scientific productions of the country. The increased severity of the censorship in Prussia, where obnoxious political articles are now not only suppressed but handed over to the police to be punished directly or indirectly, has a blighting effect upon talent in a country in which the source of national power is generally recognised to lie in mental progress and freedom of thought. Details of persecuting trials instituted against professors, authors and deputies of legislative assemblies, accompanied by tyrannical or sophistical perversion of laws and legal forms by judges or ministers, have but little interest for foreign countries, although of vital local importance. We regret to see a large portion of every German catalogue still occupied with publications of this kind, the enumeration of which would only serve to blight the hopes already checked, that England and Europe were led to entertain of the prospects of Germany on the visit of a distinguished guest some years back. As this attempt to suppress public opinion, as might easily have been

foreseen, has given but a fresh stimulus to discontent, and called forth less measured language in criticism than used to prevail, it was impossible to avoid alluding to a characteristic feature of the German literature of the day. But we forbear from entering into its details, in the hope that the causes will not prove permanent which so lamentably divert talent from its true field of activity. Our Quarterly publications, which already had a creditable rival in Cotta's 'Vierteljahrschrift,' have found a second in a Hungarian Review published in German.

INDEX

TO THE SEVENTEENTH VOLUME OF

THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN REVIEW,

OR EUROPEAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL.

ACOSTA (Josephus), on the origin
of the Americans, 51.
Eschylus, his 'Choëphora' compared

with Alfieri's 'Oreste,' 381-385.
Afghanistan, state of affairs in, 648;
victories of the British in, 650; re-
linquishment of, 651; campaign in,
664.

Africa, exportation of slaves from,

583.

Agriculture, its state in England, 460;
knowledge of, possessed by the Ro-
mans, 462; manures, ib.; ancient
farming in England, 463; small
farms, 464; rise and progress of
modern husbandry, 466; prices of
wheat from 1701 to 1760, ib.; in-
closure-acts, 467; rise of profits
from 1795 to 1813, 468; its state
after the peace of 1815, 469; corn-
law of 1815, 470; restrictive laws
on, 471; effects of improved culti-
vation of land, 472; Parliamentary
Committee of 1836, 473; English
Agricultural Society, 475; on want
of capital in, 477; small clay-farms,
ib.; length of leases, 480; various
outlays required on land, ib.; drain-
age, 481; subsoil ploughing, 482;
mixture of soil, 484; capability of
improving land, 486; light-land
farms in Hertfordshire, 487; down-
land farms of Wiltshire, 489; im-
VOL. XVII.-No. XXXIV.

ports of rape-seed, etc., 491; wages
in the north and south-west coun-
ties, 492; effects of landlords' im-
provements, 493, 499; profits ac-
cruing from drainage, 496; Lord
Ducie's improvements, 497; effects
of intelligence on, 563-565; stop
to slavery from improvements in,
567; in the West Indies, 590.
Air-pump, Dr. Arnott's new, 593.
Akbar Khan, defeated by the British,
650.

Alexander the Great, siege of Tyre
by, 62.

Alfieri, how appreciated in England,
358; his youth, 359; travels and
visits England, 361; his adventures
in Holland, 362; his favourite au-
thors, 363; begins his studies, 365;
his method of composition, 367;
proper standard of his writings, 369;
distinguished from Shakspeare, 370;
his Saul,' 371; analysis of his
play of Filippo,' 374,-379; com-
pared with Eschylus, 380-385; his
merits as a poet, 386, 389.
Ameers of Sinde, negotiations with
the, 659; their defeat at Mecanee,
664.

America, metallic currency of, 28;

Jones's history of ancient, 49;
claim to the discovery of, 51; ori-
gin of slavery in, 567; slave popu-

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