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that a part of the population of Egypt resembled the modern Hindoos. The general complexion was black, or at least a very dusky hue."— Researches into the Physical History of Man, p. 388.
Herodotus argues that the Colchians must have been originally Egyptians, because they were black-skinned and woolly-haired. According to Diodorus Siculus, the Ethiopians considered the Egyptians as one of their colonies, at the head of which was Osiris; and it is certain that the Ethiopian type, as evinced by prominent jaws, thick lips, broad flattened nose, and receding forehead, is distinctly visible in the great Sphinx at Gizeh, and in many other ancient works of Egyptian art.
Bruce imagines the early Egyptians to have been Cushites, or woolly-haired negroes, nearly allied to the Shangallas of Abyssinia. Sir William Jones thought it probable that the black Ethiops of Meroe were identical with the first Egyptians; while Cuvier, on the other hand, maintains that neither the Gallas, who border on Abyssinia, nor any race of negroes, produced that celebrated people who gave birth to the civilization of ancient Egypt, and from whom we may say that the whole world has inherited the principles of its laws and sciences. All writers, however, seem to agree that the more we penetrate into the antiquity of the Egyptian race, the greater is its approximation to the negro character; so that if we could push our researches still further back, it is not unreasonable to conclude that the primitive people would, in every physical respect, be found identical with the modern inhabitants of the Guinea coast.
Mr. Lawrence, from whose lectures on physiology we have borrowed the preceding quotations, closes a very full inquiry into the moral and intellectual qualities of the different inhabitants of the earth by the following passage:
"Variety of powers in the various races corresponds to the differences, both in kind and degree, which characterize the individuals of each race; indeed, to the general character of all nature, in which uniformity is most carefully avoided. To expect that the Americans or Africans can be raised by any culture to an equal height in moral sentiments and intellectual energy with Europeans, appears to me quite as unreasonable as it would be to hope that the bulldog may equal the greyhound in speed; that the latter may be taught to hunt by scent like the hound, or that the mastiff may rival in talents and acquirements the sagacious and docile poodle." (p. 501.)
How, then, are we to account for the fact that the first woollyhaired and flat-foreheaded natives of Egypt were the first parents of Grecian art and European civilization? how explain the phenomenon that when the advantages of education have been afforded them, many negroes, in modern times, have exhibited a proficiency equal to that of Caucasian heads fashioned after the most approved model?
Blumenbach made a collection of English, Dutch, and Latin poetry by different negroes, and we are told on the same authority that an African, named Amo, from the coast of Guinea, took the degree of doctor at the university of Wittenberg, and displayed, in two disputations, extensive and well-digested reading in the physiological books of the time. Ignatius Sancho, Gustavus Vasa, and others, have achieved no mean renown in literature; our missionary societies are at this moment employing blacks with depressed skulls and woolly
polls, as teachers of the Word to their benighted countrymen; and what shall we say to a whole black people-those of St. Domingo, who, after triumphing in a long and desperate struggle, and under every possible disadvantage, over one of the most powerful nations in the world, accomplished their liberty, established a representative republic under a president, in conjunction with a senate, and a house of representatives, recognised the Catholic religion as that of the country, but repudiated the jurisdiction of the pope, abolished tithes, and all ecclesiastical dignitaries, regulated the price for every spiritual service that might be voluntarily required, made an entire toleration, extending to dissentients of every sort, the law of the land, and cultivated the arts of peace until St. Domingo at this moment maintains "a commerce in native produce nearly three-fourths as large, in proportion to her population, as our own United Kingdom, which is the great manufacturing mart of the world."*
After this it would really seem to require some hardihood and more blindness to dispute the assertion of quaint old Fuller, that the negro is still God's image, though carved in ebony.
Mr. Lawrence, however, whose admirable lectures have suggested these remarks, maintains, as we have shown, that in morals, energy, and intellect, the race collectively must ever remain inferior to the Europeans. Yet he proceeds to state (p. 271), "the general results of these inquiries lead us plainly to the conclusion that the various races of human beings are only to be regarded as varieties of a single species." But if climate, barbarism, civilization, or other causes, have produced all the existing differences, physical and moral, in the great human family descended from Adam and Eve, may not a discontinuance or reversal of those causes restore, or at least approximate them to the original type from which they deviated? It would seem as if Mr. Lawrence's two positions were hardly compatible with each other. Perhaps the question was better solved by the Sicilian Duke de
-, who exclaimed, in a party where one of the speakers had adduced various proofs of the intellectual capacity of the blacks,
"Ah, oui, certainement! Nous avons eu des esprits forts parmi les negres. Par exemple, il y avait autrefois le célèbre Scipion l'Africain.
VENUS AND THE PHRENOLOGISTS.
GALL and Spurzheim have observed that the head of the Venus de Medici was too small for an intellectual being. May not this have been a sly touch of satire on the part of the sculptor, if we can suppose him to have been a phrenologist? Great beauties have no right to expect that they should also possess great talents. Were nature so liberal to one it would be injustice to others: she does not heap all her gifts upon a favourite, but generally withholds a full equivalent for what she bestows. Greyhounds outstrip their fellows in fleetness, but they have no scent;-peacocks surpass other birds in splendour of plumage, but they have a most discordant voice; belles have personal charms, but are apt to be deficient in mental recommendations. The admirable Chrichton was a monster-or a fiction; for nature, like an individual mother, by concentrating all her favours upon one, would only make it a spoilt child.
* Brief Notices of Hayti, &c. By John Candler.
ENDS AND MEANS.
"The Earl of Manchester," says Clarendon, "thought all means lawful to compass that which is necessary; whereas the true logic is, that the thing desired is not necessary, if the ways are unlawful which are proposed to bring it to pass."
Clarendon might have urged the additional and unanswerable objection that where the evil is certain, and the contemplated advantage only contingent, we run the risk, if we act upon Lord Manchester's position, of perpetrating a crime in vain-one of the worst predicaments in which a man can be placed. We have, in fact, no right to do wrong with any purpose, however laudable; no, nor even with our own property; notwithstanding the counter-opinion of a certain peer.
Nothing can expose the infirmity of human nature to a more perilous trial than affording it a good excuse for the indulgence of its bad propensities. This has been the watchword and defence of the inquisition, and a hundred other tyrannies and enormities—this has been the cry when miscreants, pretending a regard for the interests of heaven, give vent to the hell that is within them, and plunge into cruelties and abominations of which the devil would be ashamed.
A PLEA FOR PLURALITIES.
WHEN Hervey, the author of the "Meditations," waited upon Dr. Thomas, the Bishop of Peterborough, for institution to Collingtree, which was only six months after he had been inducted into Weston, he said to him,
"I suppose your lordship will be surprised to see James Hervey come to desire your lordship to permit him to be a pluralist; but I assure you I do it to satisfy the repeated solicitations of my mother and my sisters, and not to please myself."
Bad as it is, the excuse is a very ancient one; but when Hervey followed the example of the first man who ate forbidden fruit to please a woman, he ought, as a good and orthodox clergyman, to have reflected upon the consequences of that act. This, however, does not seem to have been one of " Hervey's Meditations." But he doubtless cherished a real regard for his relations, and as there is no affection so fervent, no casuistry so ingenious as that which ministers to our own gratifications, he probably argued that although his application might be abstractedly wrong, it was relatively right.
PROSCRIPTION OF A PROSCRIBER.
"Let any man," says Lord Bolingbroke in his letters on the Study of History, "read this fragment of Osellius Fuscus, allusive to the proscription of Cicero by Marc Antony, and choose which he would. wish to have been, the orator or the Triumvir-' Quoad humanum genus incolume manserit, quamdiu usus literis, honor summæ eloquentiæ pretium erit, quamdiu rerum natura aut fortuna steterit, aut memoria duraverit, admirabile posteris vigebis ingenium, et uno proscriptus seculo, proscribes Antonium omnibus."
RIVAROL, speaking of Mirabeau said,
"That man would do any thing for money-even a good action."
THE BARNABYS IN AMERICA.
BY MRS. TROLLOPE.
THE embarkation of the whole party, the lingering Tornorinos, and their baggage included, had very much the air of a regular escapade. All the men, women, and children around them, however, were too completely occupied by their own concerns to bestow any great attention upon those of others till the bustle was over, and the "Lady Washington" steamboat fairly under way.
As the steam hissed and the paddles played, Mrs. Allen Barnaby smiled, rejoicing with no common joy at being thus quitte pour la peur of an interview with her dear friend John Williams. His letter, however, was still unopened and still to be read, and the major gently hinted that it might, perhaps, be as well to look at it, just for the sake of civility, though of course, going at the rate they did, its contents could signify but little, as all that was at all important in the negotiation between them had been completed by her receiving the dollars, and there could be no danger of their being overtaken in time to undo it. However, the major and his lady retired to an unoccupied spot upon the deck, where the letter being opened, and lovingly held between them, they read together the following words:
"Thee hast not, it may be, intended to deceive us; but, whether intending it or not, thou hast done so. It may be that in thy eyes, and in those of thy people, the young men and women who minister to the pleasures of the worldly, by exhibiting themselves upon the stage, are in no way rendered thereby unfit to associate with such persons as Rachel Williams; but it is not so with us. Neither should I, nor those who act with me, be well pleased to purchase the co-operation of a female who permits her young daughter to appear clothed in man's attire before the eyes of our fellow-citizens. Wherefore, friend Barnaby, I do require of thee to restore unto me the money which I have unwarily put into thy hands, and be advised by me, for thy own good, to abstain henceforth from intermeddling or intermixing with the Society of Friends, for the which thy habits and opinions render thee in no way suitable. Thee mayest return the notes by the steady female who will deliver this into thy hands; or I will call upon thee to receive the same, as soon as thee shalt be stirring, and ready to see me, "I remain, thy friend, "JOHN WILLIAMS."
The major looked down upon the merry up-turned face of his wife with so comical a leer that it made her laugh outright, in which gay humour he joined very cordially for a minute or two; and then, recovering his gravity, said, very demurely,
"Well, my dear, what do you wish to do about it?"
"Wish?" she replied in the same tone, "why, my dear, I wish he may get it." To which piece of facetiousness she added, "and I wish also, that the fishes may come in for their share of this very profitable
Feb.-VOL. LXVII. NO. CCLXVI.
And then, suiting the action to the word, she withdrew the letter from her husband's hands, and, tearing it into very little bits, dropped it by sundry instalments into the waves, which their rapid movement caused to froth and foam as it hurried past them.
Their passage to New York was agreeable in every way. The weather was fine, the sea calm, the breakfasts, dinners, and suppers abundant, and their spirits very considerably above par. Even Patty was in good humour, notwithstanding her forced exit, for she was amusing herself by arranging lots of schemes for the future, by which she and her beautiful Don might emancipate themselves from the tyranny of the "old fogrums," and return to what it was so very evident must in the end secure them very large fortunes, as well as fun for everlasting. The terror into which the Don himself had been thrown, by what he perfectly well knew was a positive failure, rendered the sort of tacit forgiveness and restoration to favour which he had found at the hands of his august parents-in-law, very like a return to Paradise. His precious Patty had never yet known what it was to be hungry without having the means of satisfying the craving; but he had, and this made a very remarkable difference in the value they respectively set upon the paternal protection. However, he by this time knew his beloved too well to risk the harmony which at present existed between them, by venturing to hint at any such dull realities, and continued to listen to her plots and plans, her hopes and wishes, her intentions and resolves, with an approving smile that rendered any thing like a dispute impossible.
At length the beautiful commercial metropolis of the western world was reached. The beams of the setting sun danced over the waves which, however sheltered from the winds, were for ever and ever agitated by the oars, the paddles, and the keels of ceaseless industry, and the whole scene was so animated, and so brilliant, that even the languid Tornorino exclaimed,
"N'est pas beau Patti !"
Our amiable and sociable travellers had, as usual, contrived to make acquaintance with some of their fellow-passengers, and by dint of answering all questions readily, and with a judicious mixture of admiration of the glorious country, and insinuations of their own high station in the humble little island from whence they came, their progress from the Battery to the most fashionable boarding-house in Broadway was marshalled by two members of congress and a senator, who all seemed anxious to testify their good-will towards strangers so every way respectable.
On reaching the boarding-house no questions were asked about recommendations; they entered with Mr. Crop, Mr. Griskin, and Mr. Fad. This was recommendation enough, for besides their legislative honours, Mr. Crop was a general merchant in an enormous way of business, Mr. Griskin a partner in seventeen banks in different towns in the Union, and Mr. Fad the editor of three newspapers and nine other weekly or monthly periodicals, all of which he thought might benefit by intimate association with so liberal and well-informed a traveller as the major had already proved himself to be. A few words from each of these distinguished gentlemen, whispered in a little side parlour to the head of the establishment was sufficient to procure for