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Maxim'ian stationed a powerful fleet and army on the eastern coast, under the command of an officer bearing the title of "Count of the Saxon shore." Of these Counts the most famous was Carausius. He was a Menapian by birth, and had been brought up to the sea from childhood.

The Saxon shore was the name given to that portion of the coast between Norfolk and Sussex. It was probably so called either from the descents made on this coast by the Saxon pirates, or, as some suppose, from settlements which they had already made in this district.

The Menapians were a tribe who dwelt near the mouth of the Rhine. They were much given to maritime pursuits.

Having been suspected of treachery, Carausius was ordered by the Emperors to be put to death. He escaped, however, and, by his wealth and power, prevailed on the British legions to acknowledge him emperor, A.D. 287. His power soon spread; his fleets were everywhere triumphant, and the adjoining coast of France was added to his dominions. When Constantius was associated in the imperial government, he attacked Carausius and prepared to invade Britain. In the meantime Carausius was treacherously assassinated by his friend Allectus, A.D. 293. Constantius now reconquered Britain, and soon after died at York, A.D. 309. He was succeeded by his son Constantine, whose mother, Helena, is said to have been a British lady. During his reign the country enjoyed peace; but, in A.D. 337, the Caledonians, otherwise called Picts and Scots, commenced their invasions from the north, and from this time the Roman power in Britain began to decline.

The Picts were Britons who lived beyond the Roman walls, and still retained their independence. The Scots were a people who had passed from Hibernia, or Ireland, to Caledonia. Hibernia was called from them Scotia, a name afterwards applied to North Britain. The Scots lived on the western, and the Picts on the eastern, side of Caledonia. Their combined armies sometimes advanced as far south as the Thames, and on one occasion they even plundered London.

9. THEODÓSIUS, a Roman general, repelled an inva

sion of them, A.D. 367, and in the following year reconquered the whole of the south of Caledonia, which he called Valentia in honour of his master, the Emperor Valentin'ian. This success was but temporary, and, as the Roman legions were gradually withdrawn from Britain to defend Italy, the Picts and Scots recovered their former power and recommenced their irruptions. Several legions were sent to the assistance of the Britons, but these were recalled ▲.D. 420, and by A.D. 430 it is probable that the Roman army had taken its final departure from Britain.

Doubtless many of the Roman colonists remained behind, but they must have soon lost their language, and have become mixed up with the native population. It is computed that upwards of forty barbarian legions, consisting of Thracians, Dalmatians, and natives of Germany, after having served their time as soldiers in the Roman army, were settled in various parts of Britain.

Britain was divided by the Romans into five provinces:I. Britannia Prima, the country south of the Thames and Bristol Channel.

II. Britannia Secunda, now forming the principality of Wales.

III. Flavia Cæsariensis, the country inclosed by the Thames, Severn, Humber, and German Ocean.

IV. Maxima Cæsariensis, extending from the Humber to the wall of Severus.

V. Valentia, the country between the walls of Severus and Antoninus. (See §§ 6, 7.)

The principal cities in Britain at this time stood on the sites of London, Colchester, Gloucester, York, Bath, Caerleon, Chester,, St. Albans, Cirencester, and Winchester.

10. Introduction of Christianity. It is doubtful when Christianity was first introduced into Britain, but most probably it was in Apostolic times, or immediately afterwards.

There is some reason for believing that Claudia, who is mentioned by St. Paul, 2 Tim. iv. 21, was a British lady. The earliest event in the history of the British Church, which is clearly proved, is the martyrdom of St. Alban. It took place in the Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303.


From the Departure of the Romans to the Accession of Egbert.

A.D. 430 to A.D. 800.

1. WHEN the Romans left Britain, the civilized inhabitants were in a most helpless state. Relying upon their martial protectors, they had neglected the arts of war, and were now thoroughly defenceless. The Picts and Scots continued their incursions, and, becoming emboldened by the weak resistance offered to them, spread desolation all through the country.

The Britons now sought the aid of the Romans, and addressed the following letter to E'tius, the governor of Gaul:-"To Etius, thrice consul. The groans of the Britons. The barbarians drive us into the sea. The sea drives us back on the swords of the barbarians; so we have nothing left but the dreadful choice of being drowned or butchered." Their entreaty, however, was in vain. They were left to fight for themselves.

2. Britain was at this time divided into a number of petty states, between which war was continually waged. Instead of uniting against their common foe, they weakened each other by civil factions, and allowed themselves to be trampled on by despotic usurpers. At length these states were reduced to two distinct monarchies, one of which was ruled over by a native prince, named Vortigern, and the other by a prince of Roman descent, named Ambrósius. Between these a fierce contest was carried on, and Vortigern, to overthrow his rival, and repel the Picts and Scots, obtained the assistance of two Saxon chieftains, Hengist and Horsa. They landed in Kent A.D. 449, with about 1600 men, and Vortigern, with this aid, was soon enabled to overcome his enemies. The Saxons, however, were so pleased with Britain that they refused to leave it, and, having invited over large numbers of their countrymen, turned their arms against the Britons themselves.

The history of this period is very obscure, and some have even doubted the existence of such personages as Hengist and

Horsa. Old writers say that Vortigern married Rowena, the daughter of Hengist, and that soon after his marriage, having been invited by his father-in-law to a peaceful banquet, he and the chief British nobles present were all treacherously massacred at the order of their host. But this story is highly improbable. An ancient British poet, in alluding to these events, says: "After overthrowing our enemies they joined with us in the rejoicings of victory, and we rivalled one another to give them welcome. But woe to the day when we loved them! woe to Vortigern and his cowardly advisers!"

The names Hengist and Horsa appear to have been epithets derived from the White Horse, which was depicted on their standards, Hengist meaning a horse, and Horsa a mare. In connexion with this it should be noticed that the White Horse is still the ensign of Kent, which was the first Saxon kingdom founded in Britain.

3. The Saxon conquest of England was, from this time, carried on by successive invasions of that people for about a hundred and fifty years (A.D. 450-600). During this period nearly the whole of what we now call England was subdued, and divided into petty states. These were originally eight in number, but were afterwards reduced to seven. Hence the AngloSaxon kingdoms have generally been called the Heptarchy.

This term is not strictly correct, for, by the time that the two northern provinces were united into one, some of the southern ones could scarcely be said to exist. A more proper name for these kingdoms, after they were regularly consolidated, would be Triarchy; Wessex, Mercia, and Northumbria alone remaining of the original eight.

The various Saxon kingdoms were founded in the following order :

Kent [A.D. 450, by Hengist], including the modern county of Kent.

Sussex [A.D. 480, by Ella], including the modern county of Sussex.

Wessex [A.D. 500-520, by Cerdic, and Kenric his son], including the modern counties of Hampshire, . Dorset, Devonshire, Wilts, Gloucester, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and Bucks.

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Essex [A.D. 530-550], including Essex, Middlesex, and part of Herts.

Bernicia [A.D. 550, by Ida], including Northumberland and Durham.

Deira [A.D. 550], including Lancashire and Yorkshire.

Bernicia and Deira were united into one province about A.D. 600, and were afterwards known under the single name of Northumbria.

East Anglia [A.D. 570], including Norfolk, Suffolk, and the Fen District.

Mercia established as a kingdom by Penda A.D. 626], including all the midland counties.

The Saxons who invaded Britain belonged to different tribes, but were all of the great Teutonic stock. The chief of these tribes were the Jutes from the northern part of Denmark; the Angles from the southern part; the Saxons Proper, who inhabited portions of the modern countries of Belgium, Holland, and Hanover; and the Frisians, who lived between the Saxons Proper and the sea. The name England is most probably a corruption of Angle-land, the Angles being the most numerous of the Saxon immigrants. In such numbers did they come over, that Bede the historian tells us their fatherland remained a desert for centuries afterwards.

The Britons were driven into the mountainous parts of Wales and Cornwall, and many of them fled to Brittany. From this time they are always spoken of in History under the Saxon name of Welsh, which means strange or foreign.

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Similarly Germans still call Italy Welsch-land, that is, the land of foreigners.

4. Memorable Events.-In 597 Ethelbert, king of Kent, together with a number of his subjects, was baptized by Augustin, a Roman missionary, sent over to England by Pope Gregory.

It is said that Gregory, having seen some young Angles exposed for sale in the city of Rome, was so struck with their beauty that he determined on converting their countrymen to Christianity as soon as it should lie in his power. He inquired the name of their nation, and was told that they were Angles. He replied, "Rightly are they so called, for they have an

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