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The eye of the spectator is supposed to be above this figure.

lique circles, ZbRqZ, and Z c R bZ (crossing the right and primary circle at an angle of forty-five degrees), the horizontal circle b h cfqh b (the plane of which passes through the projecting point), and the two smaller circles beqfceb, and bdcfq db, parallel to it, above and below, at the distance of forty-five degrees. The human figure is so placed within this sphere, that the internal central point between the shoulders, is the centre of the sphere. The postures and motions of the arms are referred to, and determined by, the points at which the circles intersect each other. The circle marked q, for the right arm, becomes c for the left, and the contrary. According to this scheme, the postures of the arms are determined, and noted as follows:

First, in the Vertical Direction. When the arm hangs down, at rest, Fig. 23, it is noted .

R. When directed downwards, within forty-five degrees of the nadir, Fig. 27 to 31, it is noted d.

When directed towards the horizon, Fig. 32 to 36 h.

When elevated forty-five degrees above the horizon, Fig. 37 to 41 When pointing to the zenith, Fig. 24

Second, in the Transverse Direction. When the arm is extended as far as convenient, across the body, say forty-five degrees from the right circle, Z À R, Fig. 27, 32, 37, it is noted c.

When extended in the plane of the right circle, or directly forward, Fig. 28, 33, 38

When directed forty-five degrees obliquely from this position, Fig. 29, 34, 39

9 When in the plane of the primary circle, Fig. 30, 35, 40

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In speaking of angles and elevations, determined by degrees, mathematical precision is not intended, and is not necessary: it is sufficient for the present purpose that the position described should he nearly in the angle or direction mentioned.

When forty-five degrees backwards of this position, Fig. 31, 36, 41

b. From the combination of the three vertical and five transverse positions (Fig. 24 and 25), exclusive of the positions R and Z, fifteen primary positions of the arms are formed. In the illustration of these primary positions of the arms, all the figures in the upper line (Fig. 27 to 31), direct the arm downwards, but to different points in the transverse circle; all the figures in the second line (Fig. 32 to 36), direct the arm towards the horizon; and all those in the third (37 to 41), elevate it towards the upper transverse circle. If they are taken in the vertical direction, those in the first column (27 32, 37), point across; those in the second (28, 33, 38), forwards; those in the third (29, 34, 39), oblique; those in the fourth (30, 35, 40), extended; those in the fifth (31, 36, 41), backwards. The Fifteen Primary Postures of the Arms more particularly noted.

Noted. 27 directs the arm downwards across,

dc. 28 downwards forwards,

df 29

downwards oblique, - da.

downwards extended, dc. 31

downwards backwards, db.


First Line.

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Second Line.

32 directs the arm horizontal across, 33

horizontal forwards, 34

horizontal oblique, 35

horizontal extended, 30

horizontal backwards,

hc. hf. hq hx. hb.


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Third Line.


37 directs the arm elevated across, 38

elevated forwards, 39

elevated oblique, . 40

elevated extended, 41

elevated backwards,

ef. eq. ex. eb.


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These are the simple primary postures of the whole arm, which, with the latitude allowed, will be found sufficient to represent most of the ordinary gestures. Bythe latitude allowed, the reader is to understand that deflexion from the true point in reference to which the posture is named:since a

near approach to the proper point is sufficient to give the posture the name of that point.

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The collo quial eleva tions of the arm (Fig.42, 43, 44), are



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