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the speaker. This gesture is used in reproach and indication, from the last of which it has its name, indez.

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Collected, 1, Fig. 57 and 58. When the ends of all the fingers are gently inclined towards, or touch the end of the thumb.

With the fingers collected, as in a, the hand is brought near the lips, or opposite shoulder, then removed in the contrary direction, with the fingers extended, as in b.

Holding, h, Fig. 59, 60, 61. The finger and thumb


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are pressed together, either the fore or middle finger, or both; the other fingers are contracted, more or less, according to the degree of energy required by the sentiment.

Hollow, w, Fig. 62. When the palm is held nearly





supine, and the fingers turn inwards, without touching.

Thumb, m, Fig. 63 and 64. Pointing with the thumb, the fingers being clasped down, and the thumb ex. tended.

Grasping, g, Fig. 65. The fingers and thumb seizing the garments,

or the hair. “That gesture,” says Quintilian, “which urges on

the words, contracting and opening the hand with alternate and rapid motion, is

rather admitted by common usage, than according to art.” (See Fig. 66.) Second Class of the Postures of the Hands, depending

on the manner of presenting the Palm. Prone, p, Fig. 67. The hand is prone when the

palm is turned downwards.

Supine, s. The

68 hand is said to be supine, when the palm is turned upwards, as in Fig. 68. Inwards, n, Fig. 69. When the palm is turned to

wards the breast and the hand is

held on the edge. 70

Outwards, 0, Fig. 70. When the palm is turned from the body, and

towards the object, the thumb downwards, the hand held on the edge.

Vertical, v, Fig. 71. When the palm is perpendicular to the horizon, the fingers

pointing upwards. 71 Forwards, f. When the palm 's presented forwards, the arm hanging down, or placed in one of the extended, or backward positions.




Backwards, b. When the palm is turned backwards, the arm hanging down, or placed in one of the extended, or backward positions.

Third Class of the Postures of the Hands, arising from

the combined disposition of both Hands. of this class a few only are noticed, and those are they which are most in use among public speakers; others may be supplied as occasion may require. It is found necessary to use two letters for the notation of each of these postures.




Applied, ap, Fig. 72. When the palms are pressed Logether, and the fingers and thumbs of each are mutually laid against each other.

Clasped, Ip, Fig. 73. When all the fingers are inserted between each other, and the hands pressed closely together.

Folded, Id, Fig. 74. When the fingers of the right hand, at the second joint, are laid between the thumb and fore-finger of the left, the right thumb crossing the eft.

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Crossed, cr, Fig. 75. When the left hand is placed on the breast, and the right on the left, or the contrary.

Inclosed, in, Fig. 76. When the knuckles at the middle joint of one hand, moderately bent, are received within the palm of the other, the fingers of which stretch along the back of the inclosed hand nearly to the wrist, the thumbs crossing, or rather, laid at length over each other.

Touching, tc, Fig. 77. When the points of the fingers of each hand are brought lightly into contact.

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Wringing, wr, Fig. 78. When both hands are first clasped together, and elevated, then depressed, and separated at the wrists, without disengaging the fingers. Enumerating, nu, Fig. 79. When the index finger

of the right hand is laid successively upon the index, oi the different fingers of the left. If the number of divisions be more than four, the enumeration should begin from the thumb. Sometimes

the finger and thumb of the right hand hold the finger of the left, which represents the divisio i.


Fourth Class of the Postures of the Hands, arising from

the Part of the Body on which they are occasion. ally placed.

The fourth class of the postures of the hands arises from the part of the body on which they are occasiona.ly placed. The notation letter by which these are represented, is a capital ; and it occupies the place in




the Systematic Table to be found in another part of this work), of those two small letters which represent the position of the arm in the vertical and transverse direction. The parts of the body and head most remarkable, in this respect, are, the breast, noted B(Fig. 80); the eyes, E (Fig. 81); the lips, L (Fig. 82); the forehead, F (Fig. 83); the chin, C (Fig. 84).



The Motions of the Arms and Hands. In ascertaining the import of any posture of eitner arm, or hand, it is important to consider the posture in connexion with the action by which it is produced ;

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