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from Elizabeth, that wise queen avoided all occasion for a breach with Spain; and when her ambassador, sir Thomas Chaloner, who when employed in Germany had found nothing but courtesy there, requested to be recalled, because his coffers had been searched, she admonished him, that an ambassador must take all things in good part, so as his prince's honour were not directly violated. Early, however, in her reign, "finding the realm greatly unfurnished of armour, munitions, and powder," she began to provide against war, that she "might the more quietly enjoy peace." Arms and weapons were purchased for her at Antwerp; but the Spaniards refused to allow the exportation, in policy, not with any hostile disposition at that time. They were procured, therefore, from Germany, at great cost, but so largely that the land was said never to have been so amply stored at any former time with "all kinds of convenient armour and weapons." "Very many pieces of great ordnance of brass and iron she cast; and God," says Camden, "as if he favoured what she undertook, discovered a most rich vein of pure and native brass, which had been long time neglected, near Keswick *, in Cumberland, which abundantly sufficed for that use, and afforded brass to other countries also. The stone, also, called lapis calaminaris, which is most necessary for the brass works, was now, by God's favour, first found in England, and that in abundance. And she, also, was the first that procured gunpowder to be made in England, that she might not both pray and pay for it too to her neighbours. The noblemen, too, and common people, with no less cheerful diligence, provided them arms every where; so as in noblemen's houses most complete armories were furnished. Musters and views of arms were often kept, and the youth trained to the science of war, and audacity of skirmish

* In his Britannia Camden says, "that this place was formerly noted for mines, as appears by a certain charter of Edward IV." And Philemon Holland adds, that the miners "have here their smelting-house by Derwent side, which with his forcible stream and their ingenious inventions, serveth them in notable stead for easy bellows-works, hammer-works, forge-works, and saving of boards, not without admiration of those that behold it." These works, however, were on the side of the Greta, not the Derwent.




ing. In those days, also, the queen restrained, by a
strict proclamation, the covetousness of merchants, which
supplied munition for war to the emperor of Russia
against the Polonians, and also to the enemies of Chris-
."* For the better maintenance and increase of
the navy, the free exportation of herrings and all other
sea fish, in English bottoms, was allowed for four years,
and so farther during pleasure: a partial exemption
from impressment was granted to all fishermen; and
for their encouragement and "the repairing of port towns
and navigation,' Wednesdays, as well as Saturdays,
were ordered to be observed as fish-days, under penalty
of a heavy fine; and this, it was stated, was meant
politicly, not for any superstition to be maintained in
the choice of meats." + Her navy was, ere long, so well
appointed, that she had no need (like her father and
predecessors) to hire ships from Hamburgh, Lubec,
Dantzic, Genoa, and Venice. "Foreigners named her
the restorer of the glory of shipping, and the queen of
the north sea." For the protection of the fleet she
built Upnore Castle; and she increased the sailors' pay.
"The wealthier inhabitants of the sea coast," says Cam-
den, "in imitation of their princess, built ships of war,
striving who should exceed; insomuch that the queen's
navy, joined with her subjects' shipping, was, in short
time, so puissant, that it was able to bring forth 20,000
fighting men for sea service."

The world in those days offered occupation enough A. D. to restless spirits. At one time many of the young 1566. English gentry, "who, according to their innate courage, thought themselves born to arms, not to idleness," repaired to Hungary, as volunteers against the Turks. A few years later they began to flock into the Low Countries, taking different sides, some for principle, others preferring that service in which best entertainment was to be found; the far greater number, however, engaged in the protestant cause, the strong feeling that had been excited by the Marian persecution in their Camden, 56.:

Camden, 56. Holinshed, 202.

+ Eliz. C. 5.


own country, being roused by the cruelty of the Spanish government under Alva,- a great but merciless man, who in his last illness accounted those actions which have entailed an everlasting reproach on his name among his good works! He had used his influence in Spain to restrain* the violence with which the English in that country were persecuted on the score of their religion, either because that persecution was urged by a rival statesman, or because he deemed it politic at that time to keep up a friendly understanding with England, certainly not from any principle of toleration or feeling of compassion. But when governor of the Netherlands he clearly saw that in England lay the strength of that protestant cause, for the extirpation of which he was exerting all A. D. the energies of his strong head and obdurate heart. No 1568. direct or open offence had as yet been offered by either party, when some French privateers whom the prince of Condé had equipped, but who infested the seas as pirates, fell in with five Spanish vessels which with dif ficulty escaped, some getting into Falmouth, the others into Plymouth and the Southampton river. The French also put into an English port, waiting to renew the pursuit, whenever the Spaniards should depart from their asylum.

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The Spanish ambassador, being apprised of this, applied to the queen: he informed her that there was money on board, for the payment of the king's troops in the Low Countries, and requested that she would protect it in her harbours, and grant it a safe convoy to Antwerp; or if advisable, let it be carried through the country to a port where it might be safely re-embarked. This the queen granted, and promised security both by sea and land. Even in harbour the freebooters would have mastered one of these ships, if they had not been beaten off by the English and after this danger, the money was landed. No sooner had this been done than the Spanish resident began to fear that it was trusted to dangerous hands, and he imparted his suspicions to Alva.


* Camden, 61.



Meantime cardinal Chastillon, who was then in England, assured the queen that the money was not in fact the king of Spain's, but belonged to certain Genoese, from whom Alva intended to take it as a loan, against their will. The matter was then laid before the council, and it was debated whether this money, which was to be employed for the destruction of the protestants in the Low Countries, should not be borrowed by the queen, security being given; a practice then usual among princes, and to which Philip himself had sometimes resorted; and upon this the queen resolved, though most of her advisers were of a different opinion, and feared to exasperate a powerful king, who was already sufficiently incensed against the English. This resolution was communicated to the Spanish ambassador, with a solemn engagement to restore the money, if it should be proved to belong not to the merchants but to the king of Spain. Alva, on the very day that this communication was made to the resident, upon the first suspicion seized the goods of all the English in the Netherlands, and arrested the owners. He thought to intimidate a government, the strength of which had not been tried, and the foundations of which he was then working to undermine. But the courageous queen immediately made reprisals upon the ships and property belonging to the Netherlanders.*

Ships were now sent out to cruise against the English, not only from the Netherlands, but from the ports of Spain, where the English merchants and mariners were arrested by the inquisition, and condemned to the galleys, and their goods confiscated. When this was known in England, privateers were fitted out with the utmost activity; but they acted with such indiscriminating rapacity, that it became necessary to issue proclamations forbidding all men from purchasing any merchandise from sea rovers. Meantime Alva was prosecuting what

* Camden, 120. Pieter Bor, Oorsprongk, &c. der Nederlandsche Oorlogen, i. 272.

The property embargoed here is said to have far exceeded in value what was seized in the Netherlands, though Pieter Bor states the yearly value of our exports to those countries at more than twelve million crowns of

he hoped would prove a far more effectual plan of operations against Elizabeth, and in her person against the protestant religion, whereof she was the chief earthly support. The hostile disposition of Philip towards England was such, that he had reprimanded this minister not long before for having written as if he were well inclined towards what the king called that "lost and undone kingdom *;" for the inquisition had now obtained as much influence over the councils of that monarch, prudent as he was deemed, as over his conscience. The language of the popes was, that for the diseases which then afflicted Christendom fiery cauteries were required; that corrupt members must be cut off; that nothing was more cruel than to show mercy to the heretics; that all who fell into the hands of the true servants of the church ought immediately to be put to death, and that no king who suffered himself to be entreated in their favour could satisfy his Redeemer. They acted themselves in the spirit of these exhortations. Pius V. laid a plot for restoring the Romish religion in England, by taking off Elizabeth, and raising the queen of Scots to the throne. Her agents in this country conducted it with great dexterity, so as to engage in it some who were in Elizabeth's council, and in her favour as well as confidence, but who were now actuated by ambition, or by envy and hatred of their rivals, or by a dreadful persuasion of duty to the papal church; and all things seemed ripe when the dispute concerning the money which the English government had detained afforded Pius a favourable opportunity § for engaging Philip in the conspiracy. Philip lent an obedient ear. Alva was ordered to hold 3000 harquebussiers in readiness for embarkation: the marquis Vitelli was sent to London under the pretext of an embassy, but with the intent that he should take *Turner's Elizabeth, 454. n. 2.

Ib. 461. 480. n. 45. 481. n. 56.

Unâ quidem ex parte ipsi Scotorum reginæ-opem ferre, eamque omnino liberare; ex alterâ vero lapsam in Anglia religionem renovare cogitabat, simul et illam malorum omnium sentinam, seu, ut appellabat ipse, flagi. tiorum servam de medio tollere, si minus posset ad sanitatem revocari. Gabutius, Vita B. Pii. V. Acta ii. SS. Mar. t. i. p. 658.

Oblatam occasionem haud contemnendam esse ratus. Ib.

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