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right well, were at length compelled to retreat, leaving among the slain a brother of Arripay's, a gallant man-atarms, who distinguished himself by his great exertions before he fell.*

Here Pero Niño learnt from his prisoners that the Welsh were in arms, and had baffled the king's forces: this made him regret the more that Martin Ruiz should have refused to co-operate in this expedition; for with such a force he felt confident that they might have taken many towns, that the strength of the country would have been drawn from the coast, and that they might have levied contributions, and returned with great reputation and wealth. "If he had twenty galleys, as others have had there before and since," says his standard bearer, "it is to be believed that he would have done marvellous things." Gutierre Diez was, indeed, devotedly attached to his lord; and had it not been for his labours, Pero Niño's name would now be known only to Spanish genealogists. But though he was an excellent alferez, and a good chronicler, he was by no means the best of geographers; for he says that they went up the Southampton river, and came in sight of London, which stands about two leagues from the open sea, a great river called the Thames coming from the north, and encompassing the place on which it stands, and on the other side is the Isle of Wight. They found a Genoese carrack lying there, which the English had captured; and they would have brought it off, but it had no sails: they were then about to burn it, when the Genoese came off to them in a boat, and, representing themselves as friends to the king of Castille, said their carrack had been taken, though it was provided with the king of England's safe-conduct, and that they were now

* Cronica del Conde D. Pero Niño, part ii. c. 27.

+ -dixo el capitan que queria ir ver á Londres; é mandó facer la via de allá. Ellegaron las galeras á un puerto que llaman Antona cerca de Londres. Londres parescia en un llano una grand cibdad: debia aver de la mar larga á alla dos leguas. Vienele de la parte del norte un grand rio que anda cercando la tierra donde alla está, que llaman el Artamisa. Es ahi luego de la otra parte una isla que llaman Isla Duy. It is remarkable that the editor has taken no notice of this extraordinary mistake.

making suit for its restitution, wherefore they prayed that it might be left unhurt. The reasonable request was granted the galleys then made for the Isle of Wight, where they landed, and after some skirmishing found it necessary to re-embark, and then returned to France.*

Reflecting upon this expedition, the author says that a man who makes war against Christians may be saved if he pleases; for in such a war the king is to see whether his cause be just or not, and the subjects, according to the law of Castille, are bound to do what he commands them. But in such a war the Christian must observe four things: he must never put to death one whom he has in his power, either as a prisoner, or as one who is overcome and at his mercy: he must neither rob churches, nor offer any injury to those who have taken refuge in them; nor help himself to any thing that may be found there, except a meal for himself and his horse: he must offer no violence to any woman, whether married or single; and he must neither burn houses nor standing corn, because the mischief falls upon the innocent and helpless. These rules, he says, Pero Niño ordered to be observed every where, except in Arripay's country, because he had burnt places in Castille. Soon after their return to Harfleur, Martin Ruiz arrived there, and was reproached by Pero Niño as caring little for the king's service: high words ensued; and Niño at last said, that he had not acted like a good knight, and that he would compel him to acknowledge this. The French interposed to prevent the combat, to which this would otherwise have led, and they parted in enmity. Encouraged by the success of their late enterprise, or, rather, by the little resistance which they had found, the Spanish captain and Mosen Charles, with a reinforcement of three French vessels, set forth upon another expedition; but they were driven back by storms, and, as it was now late in the season,

* Cronica del Conde D. Pero Niño, part ii. c. 28.
† Ib. c. 29, 30.



no farther operations were thought of till the spring ; and Pero Niño, moving with his galleys up the Seine, cast anchor at Rouen. He found his quarters most agreeable, not only because the French are an affable, hospitable, and joyous people, owing, as the chronicler believed, to the happy influence which the planet Venus exercises over their climate, but also because, in the vicinity, at a place called Girafontayna by the Spanish writer, the old admiral of France, Regnault de Trie*, who had retired from the service by reason of his age, kept a noble house, and had, moreover, for his wife the most beautiful woman in all France. The way, indeed, in which Pero Niño was entertained there forms so striking a contrast to his adventures on the English coast, and represents so fully the best manners of high life in that age, that a brief description of it may be regarded by the reader as a pleasant digression.

The old admiral's infirmities had compelled him to retire from court as well as from war: but his house or palace was as well furnished and provided as if it had been in the city of Paris; a river, the banks of which were adorned with groves and gardens, was in its front on the other side was an enclosed fish-pond, so large and well stocked that fish enough for 300 persons might at any time be taken there, by drawing off the water. Game of every kind abounded in the woods; and there was an establishment of hawks, hounds, and horses, suited to the admiral's rank and riches. His lady was of the best lineage in Normandy, and kept the greatest state: she had in her family ten damsels of condition, whose only business was to attend to their own persons, and wait upon her as her companions, for besides these she had many ladies of her bedchamber.†

Mosen Arnao de Tria, the Spanish writer calls him. He was lord of Fontenay, (which is, probably, the Girafontayna of the chronicler,) and resigned the admiralship, in 1405, in favour of Pierre de Breban, sieur de Landreville, surnamed Clugnet, and called, by Monstrelet, Clugnet de Brabant.-Johnes's Monstrelet, i. 105. n.

Non avian cuidado de ninguna cosa si non de sus cuerpos, é de aguardar á la Señora tan solamente.

Her chamber, which was in a court or quadrangle, communicated with the admiral's by a drawbridge. She and her damsels rose early, and repaired to the adjoining grove, each with her prayer-book and her beads, and there, at due distance from each other, went through the string of their devotions; after which they gathered flowers, returned into the palace, went to the chapel, and heard mass. Mass being over, roasted fowls, larks, and other birds, were set before them in a silver dish, and they drank wine with their breakfast, they who chose, but madame seldom took any thing in the morning; when she did, it was but little, and only for complaisance. This done, the ladies mounted their palfreys, which were the most beautiful of their kind, and richly caparisoned the knights and gentles, Pero Niño and his officers among them, who were the guests of honour, accompanied them, some making green chaplets, and

thers singing lays, and delays, virelays, and ronde_ lays, and chazas, and complaints, and ballads, and chansons, — all the forms of poetry which were then in vogue. The admiral was too infirm to ride with them; but when they returned to dinner, he, who notwithstanding his infirmities was very courteous, was ready to receive them. He and madame and Pero Niño seated themselves at the board, and the master of the hall then placed a knight and an esquire to a damsel alternately flesh or fish, according to the day, and fruits, were served, all of the choicest kind, and in the best manner; and while the dinner continued, he who knew how to converse of arms or of love had fair opportunity of being heard and answered. Meantime there were joculars playing upon various instruments. When grace had been said, and the boards were removed, the minstrels entered, and madame danced with Pero Niño, and his officers with her damsels the dances lasted an hour, after which madame kissed the captain, and every one from that example saluted his partner. Spices and wine were then served, and the company retired to take their afternoon's sleep.



When the company re-assembled, the pages were ready with horses and hawks. Madame herself carried a falcon-gentle on her wrist; herns were let fly; dogs took the water; drums beat; and ladies, as well as men, entered with spirit into the sports of the field, till, satisfied with their success, they repaired to a pleasant `part of the grounds, and there sat down to a cold collation. The gallantries of chanting verses and twining chaplets were repeated on the way home. Supper followed; after supper madame walked out; they played at ball till night closed; the hall was then lighted with torches ; the minstrels were again in attendance; they danced till a late hour; and concluded the operations of the day with fruit and wine. Madame ordered all these things, for the admiral was past all care of his affairs. How the admiral soon died; how Pero Niño and madame came to an understanding with each other; how they could not marry immediately-she, because it would have been indecorous, he, because he was in the king of Castille's service; how she agreed to wait two years for him, that he might quit that service with honour, and arrange his affairs in Spain; and how, before the end of that time, he found himself so engaged in war with the Moors that he thought it necessary to break off the engagement, are matters with which this history

has no concern.

From Rouen Pero Niño went to Paris, to obtain pay for his people according to the conditions of alliance. This had been so long delayed, that he must have laid his galleys up for want of money, unless certain merchants had advanced it upon his personal credit. The chiefs who ruled the kingdom during the king's malady would have deferred payment, pleading the disordered state of affairs, if he had not persisted in demanding it, and assumed a resolute tone. The money was then forthcoming; and the duke of Orleans, in whose hands the chief authority was vested, took him into his household, with the office of chamberlain, in

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