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that, except in the case of a perverted | part of their fruit with the meal of appetite. We would indeed refer, as milk, and a part with their dinner. Let such an exception-though we have our not the parent be anxious about a want doubts, after all, whether it is one or not of nutriment in fruit, as if a meal made --to the apple or the pear, which may of simple fruit would not hold out. No possibly be rendered a little more nutri- parent ever fears that milk will not tious by simple boiling, baking, etc. hold out, or potatoes. And yet there The specific properties of fruits, as are few ripe, perfect fruits-probably fruits, are almost wholly lost when they none except melons and cucumbersare used with wine, or in pies or pud- that do not contain about as much dings; and worse than lost when they nutriment to the pound as milk or are made into sauces, or preserves, or potatoes. sweetmeats.

There is not, there cannot be, a more We think a good deal of health is lost wholesome breakfast in hot weather for by the errors to which, in the two pre- adults or for children, than a breakfast ceding paragraphs, we have adverted ; made up entirely of fruits; as strawand we call upon the common sense of berries, raspberries, cherries, whortleall our readers to set about a reform in berries, etc. Nor is there one more this matter. It is due to themselves, at delightful, ere the taste and habits have a more advanced age; but it is espe- been perverted and depraved. Let cially due to their children. No child, those testify on this subject who have not perverted—and that strangely per- tried the method; other testimony is verted, too-would ever prefer cherries, merely negative. or whortleberries, or apples, in a pie or But if mixtures are adopted, milk, or a pudding, to the simple use of the fruit bread, or homony, or rice, are probably as it comes from the hand of the Creator, the best adjuncts. Potatoes may answer, and cooked in nature's own manner. but we do not like them so well. Still We might safely challenge the whole less do we like peas, and beans, and world to prove the contrary.

soups, and butter, and cheese, and even 10. How Fruit should be taken.- plain puddings. Simple bread, good Fruit should usually be taken as an bread, and plain milk, are the best. article of food, either as a whole meal As to the irregular use of fruits or a part of one. Perhaps no error in between our meals, as is the way of regard to fruit has done more mischief most children, and even of some adults, than that which prevails—at least in we conceive it to be abominable. Nopractice-that fruit is not food; that thing sooner breaks up digestion, and we may cat our usual allowance of food, induces derangement of the stomach and afterwards a quantity of fruit in and bowels, than eating irregularly addition.

between meals, even when the substance Some of the German physicians re- eaten is in itself unexceptionable. It is, commend that the breakfast for the in fact, one of the most prolific causes young, especially for those who are not of our summer and fall complaints; and very vigorous, should consist cither of hence the importance of understanding fruit alone, or of fruit and milk. Thou- this whole subject, and of governing sands and thousands make a whole ourselves and our families accordingly. breakfast of fruit. But where milk is There is one circumstance which rentaken by the young, we prefer that it ders it particularly necessary to avoid should be taken at breakfast, to the overloading or irritating the alimentary partial or entire exclusion of the fruit. canal, during the summer scason, esThose who make their breakfast of milk, pecially with the skins, seeds, stones, however, if they are under four or five hulls, etc., of fruits whose pulp is in years of age, and especially if they take itself wholesome. It is this: the great it at six o'clock, may take a small meal heats, by acting so long on the skin, of fruit at nine o'clock; while those weaken this covering membrane who are older, and do not need more bodies; and whatever weakens this, than three meals a day, may take a weakens, at the same time, by what is


called sympathy, the lining membrane use is sanctioned by custom, almost all of the alimentary canal. Our food, are wholesome, when used in accordance therefore, and our drink, under these with the principles we have endeacircumstances, ought to be lighter and voured to develope in this essay. The less irritating than usual, instead of being foreign fruits, except perhaps the grape, more heavy and more likely, by their and the dried fruits, raisins, figs, prunes, nature, to cause disturbance; and the etc., owing to the reasons we have stomach, above all, ought to have its elsewhere given, should be chiefly seasons of rest between our meals, in- avoided. stead of being constantly plied with any Some of the fruits are adapted, as we thing whatever.

have seen, to one season, some to anoAlthough the fruits come exactly in ther. A few of them can be preserved the season when they are wanted, if in tolerable perfection almost the year used as God in nature intended they round. Such are the apple and some should be, they come exactly when they kinds of pears; and, with suitable pains, should not, if we are to abuse them, as the grape. Many of them may be preis too frequently the custom. If they served, by drying, without having their are used without regard to the rules we properties essentially impaired. Such have laid down, and especially in defi- are the apple, the peach, the currant, ance of those rules, nothing could be the whortleberry, and the plum. worse for us. Even as they are now

We have said that the fruits in comoften managed by some people, it would mon use are almost all good in their not be far from truth to say, that they season and place, if used properly; and come to them in the worst season of the we have more than intimated the difyear, and in the worst circumstances. ficuity of selecting. The sweet and Their abuse of them, in the winter, or mildly sour apple, the milder and more even late in the fall, or early in the tender sort of pear, some kinds of spring, would not be half so dan- peaches, strawberries, raspberries, blackgerous.

berries, whortleberries, melons, and bilWhen we consider how much imper- berries, may be said, as a general rule, fect and bad fruit, together with multi- to be among the better class of fruits; tudes of other crude substances-greens, and next to these are the winter apple, salads, pickles, cucumbers, horse-radish, the cherry, the gooseberry, the currant, mustard, radishes, etc. etc.-is thrown the mulberry, the best grapes, and some into the human stomach between the sorts of plums. months of May and October—the very Of the currant and mulberry, to which time, as we have said before, when they we have assigned a secondary place in are most injurious—we are often struck our catalogue, we ought, however, to with surprise that the amount of disease remark, that there are some kinds of in the community is no greater than it them far preferable to others. The actually is. Surely the human consti- sweetest of the former, and those which tution is very strong, or it could not are least sweet of the latter, are prebear up under such an accumulation of ferable. abuses, especially when they are re- As a general rule, then, we would peated from year to year; and are often only say, in closing, choose those sorts continued through life!

or kinds of fruit which are either mode11. Kinds of Fruit.—The question rately sweet, or gently acid; and those will here arise in the minds of many

individual fruits, of each general sort What kinds of fruit are best?

or kind, which are the ripest and most tion to which we were well nigh ready perfect. And having made your choice, to make a very laconic, if not paradoxi- endeavour to use them in accordance cal reply, and say— All are best.' Nor with the laws of life and health in would the reply be so far from truth, as general, and with the principles we some might at first suppose. Of the have endeavoured to develope in this various kinds of domestic fruits, whose essay.

A ques

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It is far from being our purpose, at the various layers, which form what I have
present time, to write an extended or called the crust of the eye, may be cut,
learned essay on the eye. What we or punctured, or lacerated, almost with-
aim at, is simply a few plain, practical out any pain; and as for the internal
remarks, on the frequent abuses of this glassy contents of the globe of the eye,
organ. •The light of the body is the there is no more sensation there than in
eye,' says the Scripture ; 'if, therefore, so much horn or putty. We are aware
thine eye be single, thy whole body that this opinion is contrary to the
shall be full of light; but if thine eye general impression; it will, nevertheless,
be evil, thy whole body shall be full of be found substantially correct.
darkness. This alone is a strong tes- We have admitted that the outer
timonial, by Him who made the eye, covering at the fore part of the eye is
to its value, and to the importance of its very sensible. We allude to that pro-
integrity; and an indication of the jection of the skin which, running over
mental error or darkness which may the edges of the eye-lids, forms their
result, if this more important window of lining, and then goes from thence over
the soul becomes, by any means, clouded about half the fore part of the ball or
or darkened.

globe of the eye. The central part of
But the physical evils which may this covering is, as is well known, very
befal us, in consequence of imperfection thin and transparent, and is called, in
or abuse of the eye, are much more the language of books, the cornea, while
numerous than any other. They may, the coat or membrane, as a whole, is
however, be chiefly arranged in two called the tunica conjunctiva.
classes-local and general. We shall This coat is always kept moist in the
treat first of those which may be called healthy eye of a living adult by the

tears. These are secreted or formed in
The adult human eye is about an inch a small gland, which lies in the upper
in diameter, though the size varies part of the socket in which the eye-ball
exceedingly in different individuals of is placed ; and are brought to the spot
nearly the same size. It consists essen- where they are wanted in small channels
tially of a mass of thick fluid, in its or pipes. When they are in too great
general appearance not unlike melted quantity, they are conducted away in a
glass, covered with a coat or crust, and small pipe, and escape through the
this crust consisting of several layers.
The eye, or eyeball, as it is sometimes These tears keep the membrane which
called, thus constructed, is loosely im. covers the fore part of the eye, especially
bedded in a deep socket of bone, at the the cornea, from becoming too dry.
lower and fore part of the cranium or The eye-lids, by being closed at will,

protect the eye from external injuries,
The loose bed for the eye, to which at least in part. The position of the
we have adverted, consists of a spongy, eye is peculiarly favourable to its secu-
fat substance. Its looseness or spongi- rity. İmbedded deeply in the socket,
ness is designed, in part at least, to it can receive no injury, at least readily,
admit motion without friction. The except in front. But to guard it froin
eye has, or should have, a good deal blows even here, in addition to the strong
of motion. We may roll it, by means eye-lids which I have already mentioned,
of muscles attached to its different sides, the bones at the edge of the socket of
in every direction we please; and even the eye project a little, and so do the
project it, not a little, from the socket. contiguous bones of the nose.

The sensibility of the eye is not very brows and eye-lashes are also, to some
great, except in a small portion of the extent, a defence, especially from small
fore part of its outside covering. Those dust, and too strong a light.


The eye.

But, notwithstanding all these arrange

Let all who are accustomed to this ments of the Divine Author of the eye to error, be their eyes ever so strong at defend it from harm, it is a very frequent present, take warning. The ultimate sufferer, and in various ways.

We are

effects, should the immediate sensations reminded of one form of injury which be less trying, are like those of sudden the

eye often sustains by the remarks of changes from a very high to a very low the preceding paragraph concerning temperature of the body in generallight. The eye is often injured by excess the vitality of the eye is greatly exhaustof light, especially when long continued. ed, and the result may even be utter It is indeed true that the Author of blindness. nature, and of the eye among the rest, Most persons are probably aware, that has so wonderfully constructed this when an individual who has long been organ, that it can adapt itself, in time, blind from what is called a cataract, is though not always immediately, to operated upon, and the cataract removed, almost any quantity or degree of this no skilful surgeon lets in the full light stimulas. This is done by means of what of day upon the eye at once; for if he is called the iris--a moveable circular did, it might produce the most terrible curtain situated in the fore part ot the results. Every reader of ancient history eye, a little behind the cornea. When will recollect ihe dreadful effects which we are in a dark place, this curtain, the have sometimes followed cutting off the iris, so shrinks or withdraws towards eye-lids as a punishment, as in the case the circumference of the eye, as to leave of the tyrant Dionysius; that of the a very large opening in its centre, in Carthagenians in their punishment of order that as many rays of light as can Regulus, etc. possibly be collected, may reach the It is curious to observe what pains retina, or expansion of the optic nerve, have been taken to adapt the eye to the at the inner back part of the eye. On general course of things in nature. In the contrary, when we go from a dark most parts of the earth, the brilliant place to a light one, the iris extends light of the sun is not ushered in at itself again towards the centre, and thus once, but by a gradually increasing twirenders the opening very small. This light. Did we open our eyes in the opening, which so readily enlarges or morning to the full blaze of a meridian contracts, is usually called the pupil of sun, or a sun fully risen, how different

would be the effect. In like manner, Now, although Divine Providence has the sun's light does not go out suddenly kindly furnished us with this curtain, to at evening, but fades away slowly. save the eye from being utterly destroyed How erroneous, then, are some of the by those numerous exposures to which customs of artificial life. Many exclude it is subjected, either from carelessness all light from their sleeping rooms, until or ignorance, still the eye is subjected the light is ready to burst upon them in to many injuries from sudden changes. its full strength. And of those who If we strike up a light suddenly in a rise early in the morning, while it is very dark room, the iris not being able yet dark, how few take pains to come to adapt itself to the great number of to the light gradually. The change is, rays saddenly thrown upon the retina, very often, from total darkness to the we experience a sensation of pain; or if full blaze of a lamp or candle ; and this we do not perceive it, the nerve is over

measure of precaution, stimulated, and the sight is certainly such as kindling a gradual fire in the injured. And even when we go into a first place, or throwing a shade over dark room too suddenly, the eye seems the eyes to save them from the first to adjust itself to the few rays of light glare. which remain, with considerable diffi- It is, indeed, true that the eye is rested culty.

in the morning, and restored, as well as But the greatest injury is done to the the rest of the system; and will, thereeye, when, from great darkness, it is fore, bear these abuses better than it brought suddenly to a strong light. will in the evening. Happy for mankind

the eye.


without any

that it is so, for otherwise there would is concerned. And there are a few who
be many more weak eyes among us than use astral or other lamps, which answer
there now are. Nevertheless, even in as a sort of substitute for eye-lids.
the morning, these abuses should be If our long evenings, and our lamps
avoided. So also should that of sitting and candles, and open stoves and fire-
without a light at evening, till it is places, could be transferred to the
quite dark, and then introducing a light | morning—if people would retire to rest

at dark, and rise as much before dayTo illustrate the danger of morning light in the morning, as they are now errors, to which we have alluded, we accustomed to sit up after the light is might mention the case of an individual gone at evening, the injury to the eyes, who, after awaking two or three morn- of which we are speaking, would be less ings in succession, with the sun shining than it now is. We do not say that full in his face, was seized with a violent artificial light would not be hurtful, let ophthalmia, which caused, for years, a us come to it on rising as gradually as vast amount of suffering; and that of a we might. Still, the injury would be student, a room-mate of our own, who far less than now, because the eye, being sustained much injury from striking up rested and restored, with the rest of the a lamp at four o'clock, without taking system, by sleep, as we have elsewhere any pains to guard against its ill effects. said, would be better able to resist And as to the evening error to which debilitating impressions; and here, by we have referred, Dr. Reynolds, of the way, is one argument for early Boston, mentions, in his writings, the retiring and early rising. case of a lawyer who brought on a If our rooms are so constructed that serious discase by performing his studies the light in them is usually about equal in a gloomy and somewhat dark room, to the light out of doors in a moderately and then passing into one of brilliant cloudy day; if we rise at three or four light to take his meals.

o'clock, and have our evenings in the Here we are reminded of another morning; if we are cautious about very common, but very serious error- coming suddenly to the light when we that of using our artificial lights in such rise; if we turn our faces from the fire, a way that there is nothing interposed when sitting by it, and have our lamps between them and the eye. Now the and candles shaded, or, what is still Author of nature has prevented the better, placed above us, as the sun is glare of the sun's rays (except when above us in the firmament; if we wear that body is just above the horizon, something on our heads when we go out either soon after rising or just before in the sun; if we avoid the use of liglits setting), from reaching the eye, by and fires as much as possible in the placing the eye-lid in such a position evening; and, finally, if we avoid other that it serves as a sort of screen. We, evils to be mentioned hereafter, there is however, in our houses, seem to forget great reason for believing we shall or overlook this indication of nature, or seldom have weak eyes, or require the rather of her Divine Author, and place use, prematurely, of spectacles. our lamps and candles in such a position Heat is one exceedingly common and that the purpose of the eye-lids, so far fruitful source of mischief to the eye. as the evening is concerned, is defeated. It is on this account, and on this alone, And, to add to all this, many persons | principally, that we object to open stoves sit around a fire whose light also shines and fire-places, and prefer furnaces, full in the eyes, perhaps till ten or eleven could they be suitably constructed. o'clock, or till midnight.

Nevertheless, we should prefer fire-places We know very well that what we to furnaces, if people would turn away say is very far from being true of all. their faces from the fire when they sit Some there are, indeed, many, in these by it. days of fuel, who stoves

Heat, in excess, injures the eye furnaces. Thuis of course

saves the directly and indirectly. Directly, by eyes, so far as the glare of light merely exciting too much the tender vessels,


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