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the probable age of the widows in receipt of the pension. The amount of contributions paid, and the extent of benefit guaranteed to the widow. The probable yearly income derived from gifts and other sources. The capital in hand. And in respect of the children's branch of the fund, the numbers and ages of children registered during the last twelve years. The numbers which have gone off by over age, the probable number of deaths, and, consequently, the balance which remains chargeable. The number of members yearly on the books of the fund during the last twelve years. The number of members re-marrying during the same period. The probable proportion of children in a situation to become chargeable, to the number of members contributing to the fund. Finally, the temporary nature of the benefit and of the period during which the contribution for the same is payable.
Tables proposed for adoption by the members of the North London District Widow and Orphan's Fund :
(Intermediate ages in proportion.)
As the committee desires me to render general advice on the affairs of the Society, I have to express, in the first place, my extreme regret to learn that the members are unwilling to give necessary particulars of their own ages, and those of their wives and children, and other useful and proper information to the management of the Society. The members will on due reflection be aware that the facts alluded to, are absolutely necessary for the desirable object of reducing the contributions required for provision of the benefits to the lowest amount. It is the province of the Actuary to work up the materials thus obtained, in such a manner as to ascertain with precision the prime cost of the benefit in view; and I may state, after some experience in the matter, that much has yet to be done before data completely satisfactory can be obtained for the purpose of establishing Widow and Orphan Funds among the members of Friendly Societies. I therefore strongly advise the managing committee to agree upon a form of particulars to be required from every member on enrolling himself, his wife, or children; and I sincerely trust that the members will cheerfully assist in contributing their small share towards the elucidation of most important points, directly affecting their own interests. It is superfluous, perhaps, to add that on such information being obtained, it should be carefully registered in a way capable of rendering the completest summary at any moment at which it may, in future, be required. Any return which would accurately show the mortality occurring among the members' children under 14 years of age would be almost invaluable. This ought not to be a matter of very
great difficulty, seeing that registration of their children at the earliest age is always a matter of the highest expediency to the members.
There is another matter to which I cannot forbear calling attention, and that is the interest realised on the capital laid up for accumulation. It must be obvious to any one who will give the subject a moment's thought, that it must in the course of years make a great difference to the fund, whether it annually receives but £30 in each £1000 invested instead of £50, or, in other words, three per cent. per annum, instead of five per cent. But this is a point which seems to me not to have been sufficiently adverted to, as I perceive that the bulk of the Society's capital remains in the three per cents, while there are far more profitable securities open to the selection of the management, under the provisions of the XXXII. Section of the Act 18 and 19 Vic., cap. 63, regulating the affairs of Friendly Societies.
One other point, and I conclude. Some notice should be taken of the effect on the fund caused by a disparity of age between husband and wife. Practically speaking, so far as the information available on this point gives any light, there exists no great disparity between the ages of the present members of this Society and the ages of their wives. But to show that the question may not be unimportant in the case of re-marriages, I subjoin the quarterly premium which should be paid in cach of three instances when the member himself is aged 35 years, but where the wife may be 15 years younger, or of equal age, or 10 years older. For example
As regards the disparity of age between mother and child, the question is scarcely of practical moment, because the benefit to the child is merely a temporary contingent life annuity closing at a very youthful age, and therefore likely to be outlived in the father's lifetime.
ALEXANDER GLEN FINLAISON,
National Debt Office, 15th August, 1859.
On Monday, September 5, an important meeting of the members of the Widow and Orphan Fund took place at St. Martin's Hall. Owing to the laws of this particular fund being enrolled under the now obsolete Act of 1829, all the members subscribing-about 5,600-had been specially summoned, and nearly 600 attended. It appeared that the fund was established 20 years since, and its surplus capital at the close of 1858 was £8,800, but some members not considering the contribution sufficient, it was determined to consult Mr. Finlaison, the Government Actuary, with what result we have already seen. A lengthy discussion was entered into, and eventually a resolution was carried to adjourn the further consideration of the matter for 12 months. We understood this was defeated by a requisition calling another meeting, which will be probably held in March.
Our Library Table.
UNDER this heading it is not our intention to notice all or even the most prominent books that have appeared during the quarter, but only such as have been especially sent for review in these pages. We shall have pleasure, from time to time, in bringing before the notice of our readers
such volumes as we consider worthy their patronage; and, in compliance with the expressed wishes of several subscribers, we propose to somewhat enlarge this section of the Magazine.
The first volume that invites attention is
HARDWICK'S MANUAL FOR FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. This valuable work(1) is the result of several years' active experience of the principles and practice of Odd-Fellows' and other Friendly Societies, and attempts to give, in one connected narrative, not only the history of the rise and progress of the People's Provident Institutions, but such advice and instruction as cannot but prove highly useful to all who are interested in the success of these interesting associations. Mr. Hardwick is well known to our readers, as one of the most active members of our great and flourishing Unity; and it is with considerable pride that we are able to say, that to an Odd-Fellow is due the credit of having produced a volume which, from the able manner and method of its treatment, must be henceforth considered as the Handbook of Friendly Societies. Here we find the science of vital statistics cleared of its technicalities, and rendered plain to the understanding of the most unlettered members of an Odd-Fellows' lodge or a Foresters' court. The process whereby these and like valuable institutions have risen from small beginnings till they have come to be a power in the land is traced in a clear, succinct, and intelligible manner. As our author truly observes, they are not the offspring of "elaborate scientific inference, or of the wisdom, patriotism, or philanthropy of the wealthy, the intelligent, or the great. But they are the spontaneous development of that germ of all social union,-man's innate sense of the insufficiency of isolated individual effort to secure happiness and prosperity. Benevolent and charitable feeling in the outset solely dictated the rates of payment and benefits; for the best and most conclusive of all human reasons, that little or no scientific knowledge, based upon experiment, was then available for such purpose. Learned actuaries should therefore never forget that much of the 'scientific formula' propagated by 'authority' for many years has proved miserably deceptive, and instead of correcting, has but served to augment the evils which have arisen from the possession of insufficient statistical data." Mr. Hardwick fearlessly and justly exposes the errors into which the members of many Friendly Societies have fallen; but while he condemns the fault he points out the remedy. In the course of this investigation he says, "the errors in the financial constitution of Friendly Societies, and the necessity for immediate and radical reform, will be demonstrated in the most friendly spirit, but, nevertheless, without fear or compromise. My views and objects in relation to this subject are, indeed, not destructive, but thoroughly conservative. I shall labour with equal industry and zeal in the indication and enforcement of the means best adapted for the attainment of their future prosperity and financial safety." And in this kindly tone the whole book is written. It would seem almost unnecessary to recommend its perusal to the members of the Manchester Unity, since they not only know its author as an indefatigable and steady friend of the working man, but have proved themselves, on many and important occasions, to be anxious to carry on their institution in a manner which must eventually ensure its financial safety as a great Insurance Society for the People. But, lest there be any among us who, from want of leisure or other causes, have hitherto contented themselves by simply "paying their pence," and receiving the benefits when needed, without
(1) A Manual for the Patrons and Members of Friendly Societies. By Charles Hardwick, P.G.M. of the Manchester Unity, author of the " History of Preston," &c. 12mo., 2s. 6d., cloth. London, Routledge & Co.
altogether appreciating the spirit and constitution of our society, let us advise them to make a careful perusal of the work this day published. It has been our pleasure and privilege to watch the progress of Mr. Hardwick's Manual through the press, and we think we shall scarcely exceed the truth when we say, that, for close reasoning and argumentative power, as well as for a thorough comprehension of the subject discussed, the book will bear comparison with works of much higher pretensions. In fact, no Lodge or Court should be without it. No one now-a-days denies the usefulness of working-class associations; and it should be the special object of all those among their members who seek to render them really valuable to their fellow men to study by every means to place them on a firm and safe footing. "The rapid and prodigious growth," says Mr. Hardwick, "and the unquestionable advantages resulting to society generally from their operation, have latterly attracted the favourable attention of the middle and upper classes. At the present time, in various parts of Great Britain, Benefit and Friendly Societies include among their honorary, and even working, members, philanthropic individuals belonging to almost every grade of society, and holding every shade of opinion with reference to social, political, or religious matters. That results exercising the most important and beneficial influence upon the temper, condition, and general character of the industrious classes have attended the operations of these self-created and self-sustaining Provident Institutions, is at the present day evident and undeniable. Yet, although their objects are now cheerfully acknowledged to be worthy the countenance and support of all classes of society, considerable diversity of opinion has been expressed as to the probability of the present machinery ultimately proving adequate to the fulfilment of all the engagements into which their members have mutually entered. Men eminently calculated, from their professional acquirements, to arrive at considerable knowledge of the subject, have ventured to prophesy their ultimate decay unless immediate steps be taken to materially improve their financial constitutions. If, on the one hand, many false and exaggerated statements have been put forth to their disparagement, the members of these valuable societies ought, on the other, never to forget that the financial schemes originally introduced for the purpose of effecting their praiseworthy objects were necessarily, to a great extent, of a hap-hazard or merely fortuitous character." Now, however, we are possessed of the statistical information, derived from the experiences of the societies themselves, which enables us to correct the miscalculations of those who have gone before us in the path of self-improvement, and it will be our own fault if we do not profit by the opportunities placed within our
The next book on our library table is
THE POETICAL WORKS OF ELIZA COOK. (1)
No name on the roll of modern English poets is better known to the people than that of Eliza Cook. Her songs are sung in almost every household, and her poems form appropriate pieces for public recitation. In the present Number we have selected one which has been received with especial favour for several years past; and many of our members who have adinired the "Heart's Charity," as recited by Mr. Hardwick, will now have an opportunity of learning the stirring lines for themselves. This new and cheap edition of Miss Cook's poems forms a welcome addition to the valuable poetical series published by Messrs. Routledge. "I have long had an earnest desire," says the gifted authoress, in her short preface to the pre
(*) Poems, by Eliza Cook. A new edition, in one volume, 12mo, cloth elegant, gilt edges, 5. London: Routledge & Co.
sent edition, "to present my writings to the public in a form and at a price that would place them within the reach of the 'many,' and on the prompting of this desire I have foregone propositions for an expensive work,feeling that I shall derive much greater pleasure from seeing my poems widely circulated than from any increase of pecuniary benefit."
Eliza Cook's poems have for a lengthened period been especially popular amongst those whose means are too limited to patronise expensive books. The tone of her writings is, in the widest acceptation of the term, thoroughly English. Her sympathies have ever been on the side of popular freedom, and with the hopes and aspirations of the toiling millions, whose cheerful industry, manly self-reliance, and respect for public order, form the bone and sinew of the English character. This elegant volume,-for it is elegant as well as cheap,-will therefore, doubtless, command an extensive circulation. In addition to its other attractions, we can state, from personal knowledge, that it presents to the public, for the first time, a really faithful and characteristic portrait of its gifted author. Perhaps no popular female writer has had greater cause to complain of what may be termed a species of pictorial libel than Eliza Cook. A popular opinion prevails that she is a stalwart heroine of some six feet in height, with a fist like a prize fighter; on the contrary, she is scarcely of the middle height, and although possessed of a somewhat larger head than the average of women, she has, relatively, perhaps the smallest hand that ever wielded a pen. We are sorry to say, however, that the severe physical suffering to which she has been so long subjected is even yet but slightly alleviated; though, as she herself says, "I am hopeful that a gradual restoration to a better state of health will enable me to resume my minstrel vocation, and that I may still find willing ears to listen to my song,-that the cheerful strain of my noontide dream and the minor plaint of my twilight musing may again win for me the responsive echoes which excited my young spirit and crowned my young ambition." To which aspiration we say, in all heartiness and sincerity, God speed!
Another poet claims recognition at our hands. Before us is lying a neatly printed little volume, entitled (3)
POEMS AND LANCASHIRE SONGS BY EDWIN WAUGH. Though Mr. Waugh's lyrics are best known in the vernacular of Lancashire, the present volume is not by any means confined to songs and poems in the dialect of the cotton metropolis. Mr. Waugh's muse is essentially a popular one. His Lancashire Songs are all replete with truthful and idiomatic portraitures of the peculiarities of a race of people fast disappearing before the innovating influences of railways, electric telegraphs, and the triumphs of commercial enterprise. Our poet first became generally known beyond his own locality by the publication of a singularly truthful ballad, entitled, "Come whoam to thy childer an' me." This single poem has proved so extremely popular in Lancashire and Yorkshire, that considerably more than a hundred thousand copies of it have been sold in a remarkably short period. It has been set to music, and is not only a great favourite in the local concert room, but it is chaunted with singular relish in nearly every village in the poet's native county. We are credibly informed that it has already produced its author about one hundred pounds! Truly poets do not always go unrewarded. The volume before us is well worthy the acceptance of working men and all true lovers of genuine song. "Let me write the songs of the people," said a wise man, "and they who will may make their laws." This sentiment appears to
() Poems and Lancashire Songs. By Edwin Waugh. chester, E. Slater. 12mo, cloth,, 5s.
London: Whittaker & Co. Man