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New Windsor, or as it will henceforth be called in this article, Windsor, is situated in the hundred of Ripplesmere, in Berkshire, twenty miles east by north from Reading, and twenty-two west by south from London. It is only divided from the town of Eton, in Buckinghamshire, by the river Thames, and the two towns are connected by a good stone bridge, to which Windsor is built up on the south and Eton on the north.

Swift, in his Journal to Stella, writing during the reign of Queen Anne, says, "Windsor is a delicious situation, but the town is scoundrel ;" and really, though it has doubtless improved greatly since then, it is far from perfection in the reign of Queen Victoria. Alas! how slow is human progress. Next to the Castle, the Guildhall is the principal building. It was erected in the year 1707, and is supported with columns and arches of Portland stone. In a niche on the north side of the structure is a statue of Queen Anne, in royal robes, with a sceptre in her right hand, and the orb in her left. Underneath is a Latin inscription, which has been Englished thus:—

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Whether "S. Chapman, Mayor," was the author of this sublime piece of flattery or not, and whether "the matchless Anna" laid her sword upon his shoulders and dubbed him knight, I neither know nor care. In another niche, on the south side, is a statue of "the matchless Anna's" consort, Prince George of Denmark, in a Roman military habit. It was erected in 1713, by Sir Christopher Wren. The council room of the corporation contains portraits of several royal and other eminent persons. I may mention that Edward the First created Windsor both a corporate and parliamentary borough. It is not a place of much trade, though its ale is considered to be excellent. Archbishop Laud, who has much persecution to answer for, did a good deed in giving fifty pounds a year to the parish of Windsor, to be employed two succeeding years in apprenticing poor boys, and every third year in giving marriage portions to poor maidens of that town. There are many other excellent charities at Windsor, which I cannot here particularise. Fairs are held annually on Easter Tuesday, the fifth of July, and the twenty-fifth of October; and a market every Saturday. The barracks are capable of accommodating about a thousand men. The church is said to contain some excellent carving by Gibbons, and several good monuments. But enough of the town, and a little more of the country. Yet we must glance at the glorious old Castle, with its thousand historical associations; and then, hurrah for a ramble through the park and across the forest. It is to me a sort of hallowed ground about Windsor; and if at times I use expressions which seem to some of my readers too enthusiastic, I can assure them that they are no more so than my feelings are; for the historical associations connected with Windsor and its vicinage will ever cause the heart of every true Briton to beat high with glorious emotions.-But, for the present, I close my note book. Industrial School, Bury.



See Vol. I., pages 442—4.

As a general rule it will be found that in those years when the claims for "travelling reliefs" are large, not only is there a comparative diminution in the number of members initiated, but a great decrease by members leaving, chiefly, no doubt, from not being able to pay their contributions. In the year 1848 the Unity consisted of fewer members than in 1857, yet in the former year there was paid out for "travelling reliefs" nearly five times as much as in 1857. The chief officers have repeatedly stated-and it cannot be denied that the Order is affected by the position of the working classes; or, in other words, by the want of trade and the demand for labour. In the years 1846, 1847, and 1848, it will be remembered the state of the British empire was wretched; the appeals necessarily made and responded to for the distressed Irish and Scotch cannot be forgotten. The figures for those years will best illustrate the effect. During 1847, 12,870 members were initiated, and 14,073 ceased to belong to the Unity; whilst the sum paid to travellers amounted to £1,230 13s. 3d. In 1848, 10,645 members were initiated in the Unity, and 13,666 left it; the travelling reliefs having, during the same time, increased to £1,959 10s. 7d. Taking 1849, there was paid out £1,126 17s. 10d. for the same purpose; the initiations decreased to 9,372, and the number leaving being 11,783. From that time, the troubles of the country having subsided, an improvement is observable in the experience of the Unity. The initiations, it is true, were somewhat irregular until 1853 (vol. i. p. 443), but the gradual decrease in travelling reliefs shows a marked correspondence with the varied state of trade; and the increase in 1857 over the amounts previously paid, as well as the decrease of members initiated, only serves to prove the rule stated. It will be curious to observe in the Quarterly Report for April 1859, the experience of 1858 to test the correctness of these views. The members and friends of the Order must be gratified to find the comparatively small, and continually decreasing, number of members separating from the Unity in lodges-"expelled," "suspended," "seceded," or "closed;" the column showing "Lodges closed and funds divided" being a remarkable one of its kind. Those who insist that were the Unity so deserving of support as it is claimed to be, it would have a greater number of members, are in some measure answered by Table II., and the information now offered. Looking to the numbers leaving by migration, non-payment of contributions, or from causes unknown, it will be found that in 1857 the per centage was only 1.642, or 1 in every 60 members; whilst in 1848 it was as high as 5.482, or 1 in every 18. It may well be asked, how is this? It is known that amongst the classes forming the Unity, many change their residences through uncertainty of employment, and in 1848 this cause operated; but another, the reaction consequent upon the excitement of 1845, &c. (in the Unity) had doubtless an influence. The majority of members were either ignorant of, or indifferent to, their rights under the laws; and though they might have availed themselves of the privileges of joining other lodges, every facility being given for continuing their membership, they neglected to do so. The experience of

subsequent years attests that the members generally are getting more careful, and the humblest, in adhering to the forms prescribed by law, obtain some idea of the spirit of our association, and an appreciation of its substantial advantages. But not to these causes alone is the steady position of the Unity attributable, nor will they account for the increase of numbers coming in-in spite of wars, rumours of wars, and commercial failures. Why there should be 10,613 initiated in 1852, and 21,319-more than double the number-in 1855, must be guessed, by reference to Table V. With regard to the first period embraced in the table, take the words of the Report of April, 1852, “Lodges were initiating members at a rapid pace, members were paying a less rate of contributions, and lodges were expending their funds in such a manner that, had it not been put an end to, must have brought them to such a state that redemption would have been impossible. From this period may be dated a commencement of a gradual decrease in numerical strength, and the reconstruction of the Manchester Unity on principles which have materially increased its funds, and not only increased them, but husbanded them in such a manner as to strengthen and consolidate the Unity." Still, the changes effected were far from satisfactory, and for that reason the fluctuations in numbers continued; but the Preston A.M.C. (1853) took the bold step of adopting a graduated scale of payments, and since then the initiations have enormously risen; "thus justifying those earnest members who introduced and carried into effect that important change, and confirming the well-grounded opinion which attributes the great increase of new members to that alteration." In truth, our late experience proves that the young man joins us because he is not taxed with an exorbitant initiation fee, and the middleaged man because a greater contribution is asked from him on account of increased age, both feeling satisfied that a society which makes such a proper difference has taken some pains to deal equitably with all its members.


In considering the subject of payments and benefits in the Manchester Unity, the members may be divided into four classes, namely:-those who oppose any change, however necessary, because it is new, and refuse to reason upon it, for the selfish motive that it may cause a trifle more work in book-keeping; these are about one-sixth of the whole number-those who regard the matter as a curiosity, and so are nearly indifferent about it, about another sixth,-those who are wholly indifferent, or having had their grumble on something they do not understand, unwillingly submit to any thing; these form about one-third-and those who are intent upon the study of the proper principles of Friendly Society combination who are zealous for their true application in the Unity-who sacrifice their time and comfort for the benefit of the Order, and whose only reward is in their own conscience that they have aimed to do their duty: those form the remaining third. Yet it is a subject which, above all others, should receive close attention. For the early days of the Unity allowance may be made on account of the imperfection of statistical knowledge to those who were the workers; but now, to neglect scientific deductions, especially those from our own experience, is highly blameable, is in fact suicidal. A dashing opponent might drag forth the Quarterly Reports for 1845 and challenge us thus, "Here are your own published documents, showing, that in your lodges the contributions of members varied from 3d. to 74d. per week, and the benefits, so far as regarded sick allowance, were from 7s. up to and

including 15s. per week; the funeral donation to single members varied £5 to £25, and taking into account the married members, the funeral donations were from £11 to £48 including that paid on the death of a wife,' and expenses of conducting the lodges were also taken out of the contribution,' and their tables (Griffith, Davies, &c.) were put before you for adoption, whilst before and since you have been repeatedly bidden by various writers to alter your financial laws. What have you done?" We should answer, "the fact of being bidden has not hastened but rather retarded our movements. Our members are not always willing to submit to the biddings of those who set out by finding fault with them, and follow with some violent suggestion which must, without alteration, be adopted. Since 1844 we have been gradually pressing onward from a conviction that it was necessary to do so, and yet, although the Unity is the most advanced of Friendly Societies, it has unfortunately received the greatest share of abuse. What we have done is this, we have compelled every district and lodge to have a separate fund for expenses of management, to which members contribute apart from the funds for benefits. In 1844 it might be true that the man of 30 was only asked for a total payment of the value of £19 14s. 5d. to secure the benefits (Table V.) he required, and to cover management expenses, but it is also true that from 1847 to 1853 another would be asked for £20 18s. 8d. instead ; and equally true that now a man of that age entering our ranks must pay £23 Os. 11d., besides extra contribution for those management expenses. We have fixed the payments according to the age of those entering for benefits, as your large Assurance Offices would. We are now discussing (to please those who ask for it) a scale of payments for redeeming part of the annual contribution payable, and though it is not likely to be adopted, it will instruct members as to the value of their payments, if it has no other good effect. Beside making necessary a certain method of conducting business in every lodge, we have endeavoured to attain some uniformity in the amount of benefits, and the difference now in the scales of lodges is not the same as in 1844, though we are free to confess that variations still exist, and if we speak of contributions "generally paid” (Table V.); we mean general in the majority of lodges. It may, we consider, be safely said we are now so far on the high road of improvement, we shall not think of halting till we have reached the desired end. By such apologetic answers we may for a time avoid the criticisms of our friends, but there is yet much to be done before the Manchester Unity can be safely shielded from the attacks of opponents. Shall it be said of us that we are boasting of our intentions, whilst we are committing waste with valuable time wherein we should be doing? Surely not. Yet before we agree to do, let us be certain we understand cach other.

The captious, the curious, the indifferent, the complaining, and the earnest workers, must all agree that every member entering a Friendly Society should pay an exact equivalent for the benefits to be assured to him; or, in other words, a sufficient amount to meet the liability he adds to the common risks; and that every society should be properly based to secure the intended benefits to its members. Starting with this understanding, we then meet these questions: What is the exact equivalent ? What is the sufficient amount? How shall we know that a society is properly based? Now, we will suppose we are dealing with the general population, without reference to place of residence or peculiarity of employment, or any other special circumstance affecting strict calculations. Two men, one aged 20, the other 30, step forward, desirous to become Odd-Fellows, for the same benefits. He aged 20 we know may be expected to live longer than the other aged 30, the difference in age being ten years,

but the strict difference of the value of life is about seven years and three months (Table VIII) in favour of the younger man; that is, on the average of deaths in the experience of the Unity, he is expected to live that much longer than the elder. Let both pay 4d. per week each during life, and the effect will be this: the young man living for 41 years contributes £35 10s. 8d., and the elder living 34 years, about £29 9s. 4d., for the same benefits! This would evidently be unfair. The obvious remedy is to adjust the contributions, so that both shall pay nearly an equal amount in value, and the member aged 30 should be called upon to pay 6d. per week instead of 4d. It is of course presumed that 4d. per week is the proper amount to be required from the member aged 20, for his exact equivalent, to be improved at interest; so that the other, aged 30, in consequence of there being less time to accumulate compound interest on his contributions, and his expectation of life being less, and his greater liability to sickness on account of increased age, does, in fact, in contributing 6d. weekly, only pay his exact equivalent. It is an admitted truth, proved by all scientific inquiries, that as a member's age increases, a greater amount of contribution must be required from him to entitle him to participate in an equal benefit from a common fund. This is now so far worked upon in practice, that some societies, following the Unity in adopting a scale of payments graduated according to age, have offered similar benefits on payment of a smaller amount of contribution; for instance, 3d. at age 20, and 4d. at age 30. Here the difficulty presents itself. If the Unity considers it necessary that 4d. and 6d. contribution should be paid at those ages for certain benefits, how can other societies accomplish the same object for a lower payment? The answer is in a few words, the society is not obtaining a "sufficient amount;" and though for a time, perhaps for years, it may wear a false appearance of stability, there must be a failure, and, as in most other cases, the result is, those who die first are the luckiest, and those who live longest and pay the most money are the greatest sufferers. We see, then, the necessity for well considering the subject, and that in such a supposed case a society would be losing by both memberstheir contribution might be called a "proportionate equivalent" to the liabilities, but not the "exact equivalent" or "sufficient amount." It may be urged in the extremity of argument that the society asking the lowest subscription may be as well based as any other; it would then be necessary to start again from the beginning, and enter into a full exposition of the principles of Friendly Societies. For the present we will only say that no society can be considered properly based which has not for its guidance some past experience in sickness and mortality; nor can it be properly based unless its tables of payments and benefits are calculated upon that experience, and, whether for sickness allowance, funeral money, or annuities, have a close correspondence with each other. The experiences may have been imperfectly recorded or insufficient, and on a future examination different results might be obtained; but at one period or other, the past must be referred to, as pointing to what may possibly happen in the future Let us now consider, as an instance, a new lodge about to be opened, expected to consist of mixed members of the ordinary occupations (not such as miners, &c., liable to extreme sicknesss and mortality), and within the prescribed by general law. The first thing to be considered is the want" felt by those likely to join, or, as it is said, "the benefits to be given." Presuming those stated at the head of Table V. to be adopted, and that all those who join are married, and that the wives' ages are equal with those of the members, we find on turning to Table VI. the value of the benefits, as ascertained by C.S. Ratcliffe, from the past experience of the Unity. The next thing to be done is to determine how

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