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phraseology, evidently adopt its divisional spirit, and separation appears to be their ne plus ultra of Ecclesiastical Reform. But all is chaos that does not lead to union and harmony; and a religion or a philosophy, a doctrine or a theory, that ends in a disruption, is but a draught of sea water to a man that is thirsty. Union is the goal, but a false ought to be superseded with a true union, and not with a separation. The form of the separation doctrine is defective, and, like all defective doctrines, it teaches truth to a certain stage, and mistakes the stage for a terminus. It is true that a real union of Church and State can never be accomplished by any financial legislature and sectarian church; but it is also true that the separation of a financial legislature and a sectarian and financial church can accomplish no good end that a wise man can long for, although it may delight the soul of a political Revolutionist. But a unanimity of men and women upon the fundamental principles of State and Church policy is the very consummation of all that is devoutly to be wished, as the root of a system of terrestrial government. When that, however, takes place, there will be no sects, no religious controversy, and the moral will take the precedence of financial legislature. This may be regarded by many as a dream; but it is a simple, natural development, that will take place as easily, and happen as inevitably, as manhood and womanhood and their consequent union.

The end of the growth and development of the law is its establishment in the conscience and the feelings. In the one it produces good morals and manners, and in the other a pure taste; and these two correspond to the two primordial missions of Judea and Greece, in which originate the germs of the moral law of Christendom, and of the laws of taste in literature and the fine arts. After these come civil and ecclesiastical laws, and then the national and international laws. The history of these reveals the growth and progress of the idea of law in the human mind in the civilised world; and the ultimate will derive its form and spirit from the traditionary channels of communication which all these preserve between the past, the present and the future. There is no new creation, no new idea, required. It is merely a natural development and completion of the old. Nothing else is possible; for even a grafting of all the fruits of the great orchard of society on one stock would still be a preservation of the original sap, than which no other is provided for the planet we belong to.

But the end of law is in the conscience and the heart; and the great object of all improvement is to place it there, like a law of etiquette for morals and manners, which will regulate society by its own spiritual force and omnipresent vigilance, acting from within as a self-reprover and self-regulator in the conscience, and acting from without as

a scrupulous and an absolute public opinion, which will tolerate no loose and self-serving deviation from the laws of strict propriety, and condemn the violator to such hard and certain penance, that in all the elevated regions of society we shall at least have a pure atmosphere, with which the valleys will be refreshed and purified.


The Coming Day,


A DRAMA closes with the subject-matter with which it begins, with this difference: that the problem is then solved which was unsolved at first, or the end accomplished which was first attempted. The unities are preserved throughout, for they are the laws of order. Without these unities it is no longer a drama, but a relation of events; a representation of successive occurrences; not a flowerplant, with root and efflorescence, but a quantity of vegetable fibre with leaves and petals forcibly united. The Drama is a growth, and its ultimate reproduces the principle of the root, enlarged, multiplied, beautified, ramified, and evolved into a multifold unity, which derives its life and vigour from the primitive germ.

The unities of the Drama are threefold: unity of Action, unity of Time, unity of Place. The ancients very stiffly adhered to these unities. The early dramatists had not even a division of acts or a change of scenes. They understood the idea of unity in its lowest sense. But the principle was right, as a root, and the as a root, and the germ grew, but

not to maturity in their day.

The French, in

reproducing Greece, adopted this limited, immature


sense, but gave a little expansion to it. Our Romantic North-western Drama, however, refused to be enthralled by the original restrictions, and boldly leaped over the fences of classical arrangement. Like the Fifth Act of the Divine Drama, it is as wide as the world. It seems to defy the principle of the unities, but yet it adheres to it, only translating it into a higher meaning.

To illustrate this: an old Classical Drama, begun in Jerusalem, would be continued in Jerusalem: it would close where it began. This is the literal meaning of unity of place. But an English Legitimate Drama, begun in Jerusalem, can travel through Greece, Italy, and France, and over all the Continent, and finish in the City of London, if the author so chooses. But, in so doing, it carries the first Jerusalem idea along with it, ramifies it, modifies it, enlarges it, multiplies it, and translates it, as circumstances dictate; and thus, though the primitive locality is entirely abandoned in a territorial sense, it is maintained in a spiritual or ideal sense. In other words, the unity of place is translated into a higher meaning than the old literal sense of the Classical Drama would admit of.

The same law of translation applies also to unity of action. In a great historical Drama that lasts for ages, the parents who begin the Drama are represented in succession by the children who conduct it. Moses told the children of Israel that they would be scattered amongst all nations, but

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