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11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.]

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows.



John In 1694 Sir John Somers, writing to the heiress, Mary, married John Ferris. Swinfen represented Tamworth in Richard King, states: "Sir Stephen Evans and Sir Evance was one of Cromwell's Parliament, 1659, and after the John Foche are very considerable men in Restoration sat for Stafford (1660), Tam-the City, and very useful to you upon all Commissioners of Excise, and was worth again (1661-79, March-July, 1679, occasions of loans." appointed one of the Commissioners to and 1681), and Beeralston (1690, till his W. D. PINK. the Lieutenancy of the City of London in death). 1694. He was concerned with army clothing contracts, was first Governor of the Hollow Sword-Blade Company, and connected with other chartered companies. It appears that Evance is still the prohe was born in New England, probably of Welsh parentage. RHYS JENKINS. nunciation of Evans in, at any rate, some parts of Wales.

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"THE BROAD ARROW" (11 S. ix. 481). For what they may be worth, I have extracted the following from the History of the Worshipful Company of Pewterers of London,' by C. Welch, F.S.A. :

1474-5. "Itm. delu'yd a ponchon of yrn (iron) wt ye brode arowe hede fore the forfet marke.' In an inventory of goods belonging to the Pewterers' Company :


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It. a punchon of Iron wt arowe hede grauyn therein."

REV. RICHARD SCOTT (11 S. ix. 430, 498). abrode-There is, it is true, some probability that the Dublin graduate mentioned by MR. HIPWELL in his kind reply was identical with the Rev. Richard Scott, M.A., who came from Fakenham to King's Lynn in 1797, but positive testimony to that effect has not hitherto been forthcoming.

1564-5. "Itm. pd. for a hammer & a chesell & mending the Brode Arowhedd to saye the Tynne. iijs. iiijd."

Although the above references in no way King's refer to the broad arrow as the " mark," it is at this early date evidently one used under authority, and is first spoken of in 1474 as the "forfet " mark, wherewith, it is supposed, all wares of inferior metal or workmanship were branded, and ultimately forfeited by the maker and melted down. Secondly, in 1564 it is mentioned as the mark used for assaying the tin, and more directly implies under royal authority than when it was used as a company mark for confiscated wares.


Foden Road, Walsall.

(11 S. ix. 487).-
In Kipling's story' With the Main Guard'
(see Soldiers Three ') the Irishman Mul-
vaney, a splendid soldier ruined by the
habit of drinking, helps his comrades
through a night of terrible heat in India
by his wonderful gift of story-telling. On
being complimented upon what he has done,
he looked at me wearily; his eyes were sunk
in his head, and his face was drawn and white.
Eyah,' said he, 'I've blandandhered thim
Answer me that,
through the night somehow, but can thim that
helps others help thimselves?
C. L. S.
EVANCE (11 S. ix. 230, 272, 298, 373, 453,
494). The Calendars of Treasury Papers
and of State Papers, William and Mary,
contain a number of entries in reference to
Sir Stephen Evance-or Evans, as the name
is more frequently spelt in these volumes.

A few additional clues may, perhaps, enable some of your readers to clear the or another. The one way up matter Richard Scott, aged 20, who entered Dublin University as a Sizar on 16 June, 1778, was the son of a farmer in co. Clare; he had been University Matriculation Books). educated previously by a Mr. Numan (Dublin



R. S. H.

PROVIDENCE : THE VOYAGE CAPT. BLIGH (11 S. ix. 489).-In the June catalogue of second-hand books on sale by R. Hall of Tunbridge Wells occurs the following:

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Indies in H.M.S.

Bligh (Lt. W.) Voyage to the South Sea for the Bounty, to the West the purpose of Conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree including account of the Mutiny and subsequent voyage-plate and charts, 4to, 1st ed., 1792." A copy is in the London Possibly this may be the book to which A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. MR. TEW refers. Waltham Abbey, Essex. Library.

DIDO'S PURCHASE OF LAND (11 S. ix. 47, Volks353, 474,).-See 'Die Historie von einer Frau genannt Melusine' in 'Deutsche buecher,' Langewiesche, 1912, p. 378. This is a reprint of the 1456 German version, by There is a curious woodcut Tuering von Ruggeltingen, of a contemporary French version of the Latin of Jean d'Arras. illustrating the measuring of the land.


"IONA" (11 S. ix. 490). In the Gaelic ELFOU (11 S. ix. 470).--Perhaps Edfû is language at the present day it is called "I meant, which lies between Luxor and the (pronounced as e in English), which simply First Cataract on the Nile. The Greek name means island," but the ancient form of one of the nomes of Upper Egypt was "Ioua," used by Adamnan, the ninth | Apollinopolis Magna. Ptolemy IV., PhiloAbbot of Iona, who died in the year 703, pator (B.C. 222), founded a temple there. is still occasionally employed. A. R. BAYLEY.


The engraving evidently represents the "Ioua is a genuine form, ordinarily famous temple at Edfu, on the left bank of used by Adamnan in mentioning Ioua the Nile, in Upper Egypt. Edfu is the insula, the island of Hy, an adjective with | Απόλλωνος πόλις οι Απόλλωνος πόλις μεγάλη a fem. termination derived from a root-form of the Greeks, and the Apollinis of Pliny, Iou. But in his second preface he says Nat. Hist.,' 5, 9 (11), 60. that Columba was homonymous with Iona (Jonah) the prophet, whose name in Hebrew signifies "dove." This explanation, coupled with the connexion between Columba and his island, led to the erroneous form Iona, and the conversion of an adjective into a place-name. J. T. F.


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OLD ETONIANS (11 S. ix. 489).-(11) Robert Shapland Carew, admitted 5 July, 1765, left 1767, was only son of Shapland C. of Castle Boro, co. Wexford, by Dorothy, dau.

and coheir of Isaac Dobson. He was M.P.
for Waterford, 1776-1800, and co. Wexford,
1806-7. He married Anne, dau. and heir
of the Rev. Richard Pigott, D.D., of Dysart,
Queen's Co., in May, 1783, and was father
of a son of the same name, who was created
Baron Carew. He died 29 March, 1829.

Makshufa, Harefield Road, Uxbridge.
DANISH LYRICS (11 S. ix. 489).-The most
prominent lyrical poets of Scandinavia of
recent or contemporary date are Holger
Drachmann, Viggo Stuckenberg, J. Aakjær,
and Valdemar Rórdam, in Denmark; O.
Levertin, Gustav Fróding, Pelle Molin, and
V. v. Heidenstam, in Sweden; and H.
Wildenvey and Olaf Bull in Norway. Stuck-
enberg, Leverti, and Fróding are dead.

National Liberal Club.

PRIVY COUNCILLORS (11 S. ix. 449, 490).— MR. A. L. HUMPHREYS at the latter reference is in error in his statement that "a Privy Councillor must be a natural-born subject of Great Britain." A notable exception was Max Müller, who was appointed as a “naturalized British subject.' I saw him in his robes after the honour was bestowed on him, and he was justly proud of the distinction. His wish that we should meet again in Florence was, I painfully recall, his last adieu to me on that occasion.



EDWARD BENSLY. [Several other correspondents take simply a misprint.] seems certainly the right view-that "Elfou

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WEST INDIAN FAMILIES (11 S. ix. 489).— See Sketch Pedigrees of some of the Early Settlers in Jamaica,' by Noël B. Livingston (Kingston, Educational Supply Co., 1909, 8vo, pp. 139, iv.). A wealth of material, admirably indexed, will be found in the for public examination at the Record Office Slave Compensation Papers, made available 1913. They comprise 1,847 volumes, and are catalogued under T. 71.

in March,

123, Pall Mall, S.W.


RAWDON FAMILY (11 S. ix. 428, 475).—In Wilson and Spence's History of York,' 1788, vol. ii. p. 433, will be found the following monumental inscriptions in the church of St. Crux (Holy Cross), York, concerning some members of the above family :—

"Laurence Rawdon, late of this city, Alderman, who departed this life in the 58th year of his age, July 5th, 1626.

and two daughters, Roger, Robert, Marmaduke, Margery, his wife, by whom he had three sons Elizabeth, and Mary. She deceased on the 17th April, 1644; Also the body of Elizabeth, her grandchild, daughter of Sir Roger Jacques, Knt., who deceased in the 20th year of (her) age, Oct. 20th, 1651."

Tomas Rawdon was Sheriff of York in 1615; Christopher Rawdon was Sheriff in 1739. In 1628 Sir Roger Jacques, merchant, served the office of Sheriff, and in 1639 he was Lord Mayor.


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Notes on Books.

Shaftesbury's Second Characters.' Edited by Benjamin Rand. (Cambridge University Press, 7s. 6d. net.)


THE present volume brings us a real contribution to the available literature of the early eighteenth century. It comprises four treatises on art and rather three treatises and the material for a fourth-the work of the last year of Shaftesbury's life, which was spent, for the sake of his declining health, at Naples. Of these treatises the first, the Letter concerning Design,' was printed for the first time in the fifth edition of the author's best-known book, the Characteristics; and the second, The Judgment of Hercules,' was published in French in the Journal des Sçavans for November, 1712, appearing in English form separately in 1713, and in the second

edition of the Characteristics in 1714. The

fourth treatise, Plastics -inchoate, but none the less clear as to intent, and of wider range than the others-is published here for the first time, as are also the notes of the design for grouping the four together as a single work under the title of 'Second Characters.'

Dr. Rand, who has already done important work in regard to Shaftesbury, gives a sufficient Introduction. Shaftesbury's name-on the whole a deservedly high one-gains by this addition to his achievement. The Judgment of Hercules' may strike the modern reader as enunciating rather obvious principles in regard to unity and propriety in the treatment of an historical scene in painting; these principles did not, however, appear so self-evident to Shaftesbury's contemporaries, and, even now, if used as a test in criticizing the new or newly approved work which occupies attention at the present day, might prove to be not so much ignored of set purpose as neglected. The beginning of the essay; 66 moments with its distinction of the possible for the artist's portrayal, remains admirable and suggestive.

The Letter' on design is virtually a confession of faith in the soundness of æsthetic perception and judgment in the people at large-remarkable as coming from a man of Shaftesbury's position, whom ill-health, too-excluding him from public work-might have been expected to render somewhat narrowly fastidious in his estimate of the average. Moreover, he has the insight to perceive the dependence of a people's soundness in art upon their civic rectitude and wisdom.

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Shaftesbury's translation of the Tablet of Cebes' is given in the third place-in lieu of the Appendix concerning the Emblem of Cebes,' which remained unexecuted at his death. enables the student to acquaint himself with an allegory which, in Shaftesbury's view, offered considerable opportunity for what we may call creative comment," as well as here and there a pithy, suggestive counsel, though it cannot be pretended that, in itself, it is anything but a dull and frigid scheme for an interpretation of human life. From

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Plastics, an Epistolary Excursion on the Original Progress and Power of Designatory Art,' it is tempting to draw matter for discussion at 'almost every page. We will allow ourselves only to mention as examples the fourteenth section,

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on the
five parts in painting," which includes
some penetrating remarks on affectation; and
the sixteenth section, where the functions of the
forth. "Deus intersit.
"in the
Always necessary," says Shaftesbury,
high heroic,' and he goes on to contrast the
poverty (pictorially) of common history, where
66 machine is introducible, with the scenes in




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which the Christian "machine " appropriately enters, to the advantage of the latter, though these in their turn must, he thinks, yield to which ancient mythological "machine may with truthfulness be employed, because Christian scenes are almost exclusively martyrdoms or other "invenuste subjects." We may notice that he says Domenichino's 'St. Jerome' is the best picture in the world, and that. criticizing Raphael's Transfiguration,' he bids us observe how "the false double piece (viz., the part above) serves, however, as the machine part with infinite advantage."

As he says himself in the notes on the Idea of the Book, Shaftesbury's design was to convey, through the medium of criticism of art, a subtler and more profound criticism of human life, capacity, and morality. In this he has been followed by many writers from Lessing onwards; but, familiar as the line of thought is nowadays to the shallowest tyro who can dawdle over Ruskin, it strikes one here as new and original— taking one back, perhaps, to Plato more distinctly than to any one else-if for nothing else, yet for the particular tone of its ethic.

The formlessness of the most important part of the book, and that which will be new to students, shows itself, very suggestively, as something of a positive advantage.

Comment and Criticism: a Cambridge Quarterly Paper for the Discussion of Current Religious and Theological Questions. (Longmans, 6d.)

THIS number (Vol. II. No. 1, May), appears in a new form, the object of which is to render the preservation of copies practicable. It contains an article on the exact import of the historicity of the Gospel, entitled Under Pontius Pilate,' by Prof. Burkitt; a plea for the reconstruction of English Ecclesiastical Courts, from the pen of Mr. Leslie: an appreciation and criticism by Mr. H. L. Pass of Mr. Knox's recent book Some Loose Stones'; and a suggestive paper by Mr. W. Spens on current controversy, as delivered in the recent pamphlets by Dr. Bethune-Baker, Dr. Sanday, and Bishop.


MR. E. T. JAQUES, who is a solicitor of the Supreme Court, has made an interesting contribution to Dickens literature by giving, under the title of Charles Dickens in Chancery, an account of Dickens's proceedings in respect of the Christmas Carol,' to which he has added some gossip in relation to the old Law Courts at Westminster. Messrs. Longmans are the publishers, and the price is one shilling net. Mr. Jaques is better known to our readers as "Christian Tearle." the author of The Pilgrim from Chicago' and 'The Gardens of Gray's


MESSRS. A. & C. BLACK send The Social Guide for the present year, edited by Mrs. Hugh Adams The 'Guide' includes and Miss Edith A. Browne. the Indian seasons, Egypt, and Continental resorts. The price is half-a-crown net.

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The Cornhill Magazine begins with the first chapters of a novel entitled 'Two Sinners,' by Mrs. Ritchie. It starts out pretty well. The poem A True Dream,' from the unpublished remains of Mrs. Browning's early work, is several degrees better as poetry than the relics hitherto exhumed. Mr. A. C. Benson has some graceful commonplaces about old buildings in a paper called 'The Beauty of Age,' and Julia Cartwright contributes one of her pleasant studies of the Italian Renaissance in Cardinal Bembo and his Villa.' Mr. Stephen Paget in the first instalment of a series called The New Parents' Assistant' makes several sound and shrewd remarks which, however, are nearly lost in a mass of quasi-humorous illustration and paradox, which for some reason or other remains rather unconvincing. Of Mr. Bradby's three essays under the common title By the Wayside,' the third, 'White, Black, and Grey,' is decidedly the best. For good tales-and several are really good-the reader will turn to the Marchesa Peruzzi de' Medici's description of her life in the house of her father, the sculptor Julian Story, at Rome, where Haus Andersen and Robert Browning both figure; and also to Sir Henry Lucy's wonted 'Sixty Years in the Wilderness.' "The Illustrious Garrison,' by Lieut.-Col. MacMunn, gives in a sufficiently telling way the story of Sale's Brigade at Jellalabad; and there is a short story, Pride of Service,' by Mr. Boyd Cable, of which the stuff, and also the descriptive treatment, are excellent; indeed, it wants only firmer, less amateurish handling of the characters at the climax to give it a claim to quite outstanding praise. Just a year ago we commented sympathetically on an excellent article by Mr. Hesketh Frichard about the Grey Seals of Haskeir. We congratulate both him and the editor of The Cornhill upon the effect of that article, which, through the intermediation of Mr. Charles Lyell. M.P. stung the Legislature into legislating." and has brought to pass the Grey Seals (Protection) Bill. This has now gone through its third reading in the House of Lords, and provides a close season for grey seals from 1 October to 15 December.

THE July number of The Nineteenth Century is one of the best of recent years. The Abbé Ernest Dimnet has an article, important for its literary as well as for its social information, on the question | "Does the Church play any Active Part in France?' The situation, as he depicts it, is of unique interest. The history of religion may often be shown by the historian to repeat itself. The position of the Church in France to-day would seem to be in all literalness unprecedented. Miss Edith Sichel gives us an attractive account of the late Emily Lawless; and Mr. Darrell Figgis draws from the volumes recently given to the world by Mrs. Parnell a portrait of Charles Stewart Parnell, which certainly explains his peculiar effectiveness, as the descriptions of him prior to the publication of this new life do not. One of the most charming papers in the number-and of a type to please, we think, many of our readers-is Mrs. Stirling's 'A Georgian Scrap-book,' this being a book of extracts compiled by Diana Bosville, daughter of one Yorkshire squire and wife of another, and a friend of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's. Diana had a discerning eye in the matter of excerpts, and a brisk sense of humour, and the matter here selected out from her selections is most of it eminently worth while. Miss Arabella Kenealy contributes a lengthy and

in the affirmative to the fascinating answer query 'Is Man an Electrical Organism?' stating, with considerable ingenuity and force, speculations which seem everywhere in the air about us just Miss Gertrude Kingston is a trenchant critic now. of the last three generations: her opinions seem to have been formed almost too exclusively from what she has observed in one stratum of society, and in, perhaps, only some of the circles even of this. Her warning note about the schoolboys of the present generation certainly deserves attention.

IN the July Fortnightly Count Ilya Tolstoy continues his reminiscences of his father, the naïve and homely record still of early childhood, with nothing in it unparalleled, but fairly interesting as to the details given. There is an account of the family sayings which became, within the family, proverbial, and this suggests that it would be interesting to have a collection of these started, no matter from what family, so they were properly authenticated and genuine. Mr. Gilbert Coleridge contributes a charming paper on Sir Thomas Browne, a personage whom it never seems wearisome repeatedly to contemplate. Prof. Gaston to us M. Jean Richepin's Sévrette interprets interpretation of Shakespeare-correcting parts of it where he deems it needs correction, as, for example, in the matter of Desdemona's character, whom M. Richepin, perversely we also think, curious, super-subtle," "an will have to be" intellectuelle." Mr. J. F. Macdonald admires Mr. Zangwill's play Plaster Saints,' and gives his reasons for doing so in a skilful analysis. Mr. William Archer's Manners in India, and Mr. Wilfrid Ward's 'Oxford Liberalism and Dogma,' are perhaps not so far beyond the scope of 'N. & Q.' that we must forbear to mention them, being as The they are very well worth consideration. remaining papers are on national and international political questions,

Notices to Correspondents.

ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub. lication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

To secure insertion of communications corre spondents must observe the following rules. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. When answering queries, or making notes with regard to previous entries in the paper, contributors are requested to put in parentheses, immediately after the exact heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to which they refer. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second com munication “ Duplicate.”

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