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MILITARY MACHINES (11 S. ix. 430, 471). -I am extremely obliged to your correspondent for his kind help, but my query still remains unanswered as to particulars of penthouses and galleries in John Gray's time (1731). As they were classed with mantlets and blinds, and like these were said to be similar to musculus, pluteus, testudo, and vinea, they were evidently of a movable kind. old sapper and miner, I am fully acquainted with everything connected with modern immovable galleries and huts put up for an army.
Since sending in my query I have found descriptions and drawings of mantlets and blinds in The Military Engineer,' composed by M. Le Blond, 2 vols., an English translation of which appeared in 1759, hence very near to John Gray's time. More modern Military Dictionaries, such as Major James's (4th ed., 1876), give an explanation of penthouses and galleries, but these are fixtures.
L. L. K.
blest with a very extravagant wife, and was the defendant, under an assumed name, in the case of Seaton v. Benedict, which established the non-liability of a husband for debts contracted by a wife who is properly supplied with necessaries by her husband. LEONARD J. HODSON.
(11 S. ix. 450, 493).—-MR. F. A. CAVENAGH'S' first quotation comes from the well-known English folk-song The Beggar.' This may be found in Mr. Cecil Sharp's 'Folk-Songs from Somerset,' pt. iv., where the first verse and the chorus go thus:I'd just as soon be a beggar as a king,
And the reason I'll tell you for why;
Let the back and the sides go bare, my boys,
Mr. Sharp has a long note on the song.
DEVICE ON ENCAUSTIC TILES (11 S. ix. chorus is almost the same as that of "I 509).
'Encaustic Tiles and Recent Discoveries at Launceston Priory.'-Arch. Cambrensis, Fifth Series, v. 13.
'Flooring and Mural Tiles.'-Hulme's 'Birth of Ornament,' 1893.
'Manufacture of Tiles.'-Art Journal, 1895. Pavements of Figured Tiles." Gentleman's Magazine Library (Ecclesiology), 1894. Greenfield (B. W.), Encaustic Tiles of Middle Ages, especially South Hampshire,' 1892. Henniker (J. H. M.), Two Letters on the Origin......of Norman Tiles,' 1794.
Shaw (H.), Specimens of Tile Pavements,'
The last three books are in the London Library.
Wм. H. PEET. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION WANTED (11 S. ix. 488).—(4) ? Ralph Carr, s. of Ralph of Whickham, co. Durham, arm. Christ Church, matric. 12 May, 1785, aged 17, B.A. 1789; Merton Coll., M.A. 1792; of Stannington, Northumberland, and Barrowpoint Hill, Middlesex; barrister-at-law, Middle Temple, 1796; died 5 March, 1837, aged 67.
A. R. BAYLEY.
JOHN CURWOOD (11 S. ix. 430, 498).Some interesting personal impressions of this learned counsel are to be found in the late Serjeant Robinson's Bench and Bar.' Curwood at one time shared with Mr. Adolphus the bulk of the most lucrative business at the Old Bailey, but some time before he relinquished practice he had been to a great extent ousted by younger men. According to Serjeant Robinson, he was
cannot eat but little meat."
IOLO A. WILLIAMS.
VOLTAIRE ON THE JEWISH PEOPLE (11 S. ix. 49, 298).-I find that the words quoted by me at the first reference occur in a letter written by Voltaire at Ferney on 12 Sept., 1761, to M. de Burigny, who had sent him a book on Bossuet ('Lettres Choisies de Voltaire,' tome troisième, p. 36, Paris, 1792). HERTHA HAMILTON's apposite extract from Le Pyrrhonisme de l'Histoire' shows that the author still retained, when composing a serious work, the opinion he had hastily expressed in a letter.
JOHN T. CURRY.
CENTENARY OF THE CIGAR (11 S. ix. 89, 235, 454).-Godsmark, tobacconist, Mickle. 66 Segate, York, still holds out the bait of gars upon his sign. The spelling of the word cigar was not fixed until the Victorian Age. Segar and seegar seemed to John Bull's ear in the eighteenth century to be the best phonetic rendering of cigarro. Spelling reformers may, perhaps, revert to that opinion. ST. SWITHIN.
REGISTER OF MARRIAGES OF ROMAN CATHOLICS BEFORE 1837 (11 S. ix. 469).The record of the marriage of two French émigrés in 1795 might very possibly be found at the old Sardinian Chapel, the Registers of which are now, I believe, at St. Anselm and St. Cecilia's Church, Kings
way, or at St. Patrick's, Soho, where, I think, the Registers date back beyond 1795. The Registers of the Bavarian Chapel, now the Church of the Assumption, Warwick Street, go back to 1797, so it would be worth examining them.
FREDERICK T. HIBGAME.
Unthank Road, Norwich.
WILLIAM BAKER (11 S. ix. 369), THOMAS CRANE (10 S. vi. 189), and Robert Watton were each of them admitted twice to a Fellowship at Winchester College. Baker was admitted first on 16 Feb., 1537/8, and must have resigned before 1 Oct., 1543, when he was admitted again in succession to William Sparkman. He resigned again before 6 July, 1549, when Crane came in as his successor. That was Crane's second admission, for he had been admitted previously on 19 Nov., 1548, on the death of Elisha Warham, but had resigned before 8 March, 1548/9, when Mathew Cole succeeded him. Robert Watton was first admitted on 26 July, 1561, when a vacancy had arisen
"per deprivationem domini Thome Crane recusantis subscribere quibusdam articulis in visitatione Episcopi Winton. exhibitis."
In the December of the same year Watton resigned on the 19th, but he was readmitted two days later as successor to William Adkins, who had died on the 18th. On the 24th John Taylor was admitted to the Fellowship which Watton had vacated on the 19th.
Colmere, M.A., of Marshwood Vale, Dorset. He was admitted together with John Scott on 2 Sept., 1554 (when there were vacancies due to resignations by Nicholas Smith and James Bayley), and he resigned before 31 Aug., 1558, when John Dolber succeeded him. He is presumably identical with the Walter Colmer who graduated M.A. at Oxford in March, 1541/2 (see Foster, and also Boase); but the record apparently does not name the Oxford College to which he belonged. Is anything known of him after 1558 ?
The troubles which arose at Winchester in 1559, upon the passing of the Act of Uniformity, have already been noticed in these columns (10 S. ii. 45, 115). So far as I can ascertain from the College records, Crane was the only Fellow who actually suffered deprivation for recusancy.
A later Thomas Crane, who became a Winchester Scholar under the election of 1603, is sadly lost in Kirby's book, because he is there miscalled Thomas Evans " (p. 161).
LETHE PLAIN OR RIVER? (11 S. ix. 326.) -Your correspondent MR. F. W. ORDE WARD may, perhaps. be surprised to learn that Lethe Plain, Anons Tedíov, is, and was, perfectly well so understood by scholars even in the Middle Ages. The fact that well-read Grecians among Roman poets, such as Vergil, Tibullus, or Horace, misunderstanding mythology, made errors is The above facts come mainly from surely not astounding any more than the College Register called "O," which Shakespeare which Shakespeare speaking of clocks in his contains the notarial acts relating to the plays of Julius Cæsar' and Coriolanus.' swearing-in of the Fellows. This little- Vergil's known Register is marred by some unfortunate gaps and omissions; but, even so, it gives much information not to be found in the Register of Fellows, which is more often consulted, and which occurs in the book called 'Liber Albus.'
William Sparkman, who is mentioned above, is not in the list of Fellows which Kirby printed in his 'Winchester Scholars,' and, so far as the two Registers referred to above are concerned, I can find nothing about him beyond the fact that he ceased to be Fellow (cause not disclosed) in 1543 (Reg. O). It appears, however, from the Bursars' Account Roll of 1539-40, under "Stipendia sociorum," that he was admitted Fellow on John Chubbe's death in 1540. I should be glad to learn what became of Sparkman after 1543.
Another Fellow who is not in Kirby's list, though in both the Registers, is Walter
Omnia uel medium fiant mare
πάντα δ' ἔναλλα γένοιντο is known to boys of much less attainment than Macaulay's schoolboy.
Your correspondent might consult the Ravenna Scholia to Aristophanes's 'Frogs' (B.C. 405), l. 166 (188) Dindorf's edition:-“ Τίς εἰς τὸ Λήθης πεδίον ; ” χωρίον ἐν Αἴδου | Alovμós now, a place or district in (the realm of) Hades.
We cannot afford to neglect works such as Stephanus or Tzetzes or Du Cange; but Liddell and Scott have not made error as to Lethe, even in 1869, as the Editor has pointed out.
The date of Plato's 'Politeia' compared with the Frogs' would hardly solve the question. Your correspondent may remember that the Greeks were heirs to a
mythology which had its roots in many d'Este supported it, and there is at the lands. As to Plato's River " Ameles," I Archives a most interesting correspondence should like to hear of the most recent recen-between her and the Mother Superior. sion of the Plato Republic' MSS. But I do not know the site of the Couvent. The only Chaillot with which I am acquainted is a district lying between the Étoile and the Seine, and the only convent of which I could find traces was in Rue Christophe Colomb. That convent was formerly called Notre Dame de Sagesse, and the building is now used for an 66 école paroissiale." Can some reader of ' N. & Q.'
It must be remembered that Plato went to Egypt, and I should not be surprised to find evidence that the River Ameles hid some such term as Amenti or Amentes, the Egyptian name for the Western Land, the bourne of the dead.
Further, I should incline to see a joke in Tò Anons πedíov, the plain of the River Lethe, whereon only dead men can walki.e., water. I should not reject a theory that Lethe river is sound mythology after all.
My old friend and master the late C. J. Cornish when at St. Paul's was always in the habit of writing on the papers of boys whose Latin verse he was correcting Ovid's line from the Metamorphoses ':
Rivus aquæ Lethes crepitantibus unda lapillis. He and that line live in my memory together. CECIL OWEN. Perth, W.A.
[Readers of Ovid will remember that the text actually has
Rivus aquæ Lethes, per quem cum murmure labens
WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. [Mr. Archibald SPARKE also thanked for reply.]
HEART-BURIAL (11 S. viii. 289, 336, 352, 391, 432, 493; ix. 38, 92, 234, 275, 375, 398, 473). In the Archives Nationales, Paris, are certificates for the heart-burials of Henrietta Maria (1669), James II. (1701), Marie d'Este (1718), and Marie Louise, daughter of James II. (1712). These burials took place at the Couvent de la Visitation at Chaillot. Henrietta Maria's body is buried in the church of the Hôpital du Valde-Grâce. This was founded as a Benedictine monastery by Anne of Austria, and was converted by Napoleon I. into a military hospital. James II.'s body was buried in the Church of St. Germain-en-Laye, where he died.
The Couvent de la Visitation was founded at Chaillot by Henrietta Maria. Marie
tell me more about this convent?
Extracts from certificates:
(a) Henrietta Maria......"nous a été remise le cœur et les entrailles de la reine d'Angleterre, par l'ordre du roi et de Monsieur."
(b) James II.-"Je, sous-signé Maître des cérémonies de France, certifie que le cœur de trés-haut, trés-puissant, et trés excellent Prince Jacques second Roy de la grande Bretagne decedé à St. Germain-en-Laye le 16 du présent mois de Septembre, ayant esti miz dans une boëte de plomb renfermée danz une autre boëte de vermeil doré, j'ay eu ordre du Roy de le faire transporter au couvent des Religieuseux de Ste Marie à Chaillot, suivant le désir du Roy d'Angleterre défunt et de la Reyne d'Angleterre son Epouse, que la nuit du 17 au 18 du d. mois il a esti remiz par un des Aumoniers de sa Majesté Britannique entre les mains de la Superieure du d. Couvent, en presence de M. le Duc de Barwik, des principaux officiers du Roi et de moy," &c. E. M. F.
DE GLAMORGAN (11 S. viii. 468; ix. 153, 476).-Respecting the pedigree of this family, I should like to draw the attention
of those interested to two books which, I
to lend them.
There were certain occupations position. which gave the title to those who followed them. The Army, the Navy, and the Law were three such occupations. It used to It meant that the be said that a lawyer was a gentleman by Act of Parliament. Legislature looked upon a lawyer as having the status of a gentleman, and designated him as such in its proceedings, quite irrespective of his birth.
The great difference seems to be that a can be born a gentleman, but he As there is man by cannot be born a Master. no caste system in England, a his ability or intellectual aptitude has always been able to climb into the higher grades; and this process was going on in the seventeenth century just as it is going on now. F. P.
'THE ETHICS OF THE DUST (11 S. ix. 289, 336).-4. When Ruskin referred to Richter's "lovely illustrations of the Lord's Prayer,' he probably had in mind the German artist (Adrian) Ludwig Richter, 1803-84, and not the painter of English birth, but German parentage, Henry James Richter, 1772-1857, suggested by your correspondent MR. Ludwig Richter HOWARD S. PEARSON. was probably the most popular German illustrator of his day. Among other works Lied von der he illustrated Schiller's Glocke,' Goethe's 'Hermann und Dorothea,' Hebel's Alemannische Gedichte,' the collections of fairy-tales by Musäus and Bechstein, and The Vicar of Wakefield,' which, by the way, has always been a favourite English His illustrations novel with the Germans. which are indeed of the Lord's Prayer lovely-appeared for the first time in DUKE OF SUSSEX: 1856; the series consists of nine woodcuts. RIAGES (11 S. ix. 470, 518).-The tradition Ludwig's work is typically German, and as homely as some of the fairy-tales which he in the Dunmore family is that the Duke of has so charmingly illustrated. The sim- Sussex was bribed by the payment of his plicity of his style reminds one of Dürer. I debts to repudiate Lady Augusta Murray. Duchess of may add that his 'Lebenserinnerungen The very dissimilar treatment of Lady attributed to Whig eines deutschen Malers,' which appeared Cecilia Buggin (nicknamed posthumously, is the most amiable auto- Nevertheless) was biography that it has been my pleasure to influence at Court. read. In the city of Dresden a monument has been erected in honour of its beloved son. C. H. IBERSHOFF.
AND GENTLEMAN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY IN ENGLAND (11 S. ix. 510).-On further investigation, I think, your correspondent will find that "Master" was a title of office, and The "Gentleman" a title of social rank. case he cites of the overseer of fortifications A evidently refers to a Quarter Master. similar title of office was that of Master at Arms. In the Navy there were such titles of office as Quarter Master, Sailing Master, &c. In civil life an employer of At the labour of any sort was a "Master." old English Universities the title belonged those especially to who graduated as Masters of Arts, &c. The head of the college was "The Master" par excellence. There was So it was with the schools. one "Master"; the other teachers were known by another name. In all these cases the title was one of office, and it held the office belonged to those who have whatever their social origin might been. The title of "Gentleman " was different. It referred primarily to, birth and social
Some authorities hold that Col. D'Este had a rightful claim to the throne of Hanover, the Royal Marriage Act affecting only the succession to the English crown. G. W. E. R.
The Royal Marriage Act expediency to safeguard the Royal family, and so many of the sons of George III. tried to evade it that the King found himself forced into a very strict observance of the Act, for he saw the danger of complications with subjects when his son or sons came to It was also expediency, temthe throne. pered by affection, which led Queen Victoria to disregard the Act in the case of her uncle, the Duke of Sussex. She knew that he would never come to the throne, that no children would result from the union, and that he had from her babyhood shown more thought for her than had all the other uncles together. Though Sussex joined his royal brothers in their jealousy of Prince Albert, he was always the first to give way to Her When the trouble about Majesty's desires. the Prince's precedence occurred in the House, he was quick to seize the opportunity by sending a message to the Queen that he desired an important favour, and Her Majesty at once guessed that this was in connexion with Lady Cecilia Underwood.
Whatever the Queen's first feelings about it
THE TIMES' BANANAS (11 S. ix. 503).The statement of The Times as to the early importation of bananas to the United States does not strike me as quite correct. I was born in the summer of 1850 near New York, and lived in that city (save when at school in New Hampshire) till the summer of 1864, when I came to Europe. Now I distinctly recollect that at some time during those fourteen years-probably in the late fifties or the early sixties-bananas were very common in New York, and I used to go to market in the early morning with my father to buy them for breakfast. We often did this, so that more than a few bunches must have been imported to New York long before 1864. W. A. B. COOLIDGE.
LOCH CHESNEY (11 S. ix. 389, 433, 495).The surname Chesney still occurs in Galloway, but it is not common. The only person of that name mentioned in The County Directory' of Scotland is "James Chesney, Kirkmagill, Stoneykirk, Wigtownshire." The mention of Stoneykirk reminds one that the name has nothing to do with stones.
style of the agency, which is carried on in
Junior Athenæum Club.
Of societies of this kind, one of the largest and best known is the London Association for the Protection of Trade, whose headoffices are at 66, Berners Street, W. Established in 1842, and affiliated with 112 Mutual Societies in the United Kingdom, it has a membership of nearly 50,000, and is managed by an unpaid Commercial Committee, who are elected annually by the members. HARRY HEMS.
Fair Park, Exeter.
NAPOLEON III. AT CHISLEHURST (11 S. ix. 509).-Camden Place, Chislehurst, became the property of Mr. N. W. J. Strode in 1860. The new owner, who had been a friend of Louis Napoleon during the latter's early sojourn in England, partially rebuilt and greatly improved the house, taking as his pattern the best French work of the eighteenth century.
After Sedan, Mr. Strode, on hearing that England was to be the place of refuge of the Imperial family, at once placed the house at arrived in December, 1870, Napoleon joining the disposal of the Empress, and there she her in March, 1871.
Chancellor Camden, and the place had early
The house dates from the time of Lord
associations with the historian William
8, Queen Square, Leeds.
a dedication to St. Stephen (who, indeed, was stoned to death). Steenie," being the familiar form of Stephen in Lowland Scots, became corrupted into "Staney," which being misunderstood, it was thought genteel to write, as in English," Stoney."
STUBBS'S TRADE PROTECTION AGENCY (11 S. ix. 510). Through the courtesy of Stubbs' Mercantile Offices (Stubbs, Ltd.), which is the correct title, I am enabled to inform BRADSTOW that Perry's Trade Protection Offices are the oldest of the kind in the world. Business was commenced some time towards the end of the eighteenth century, and it is believed that copies of the Gazette issued by this concern, containing notices of insolvencies published prior to 1800, are still in existence. W. R. Perry, Ltd., is the present
I remember having read in La Lecture pour Tous (Hachette & Cie., Paris, Londres), within the past eight months, an article on Camden House, Chislehurst, in 1871, by M. Auguste Fillon, preceptor to the Prince Imperial, in which he makes mention of Mr. Strode ; but I am writing this severely from memory. EDWARD WEST.
BALNES, LALEHAM, LITTLYNGTON, AND STANES (11 S. ix. 508).-According to Lewis, Topographical Dict. of England,' 1831, Balne is a township of Snaith, which latter place is seemingly called the manor. modern county atlas there is a railway station at Balne.