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11 S. X. JULY 18, 1914.]


The A THUNDERSTORM. SAFETY IN coroner, at the recent inquest on the persons struck by lightning at Wandsworth, is stated to have said that a man who escaped owed his life to the fact that he was wearing rubber. soled shoes. Is it the case that one is safe from lightning in the following circum

stances ?

(1) When wearing rubber-soled shoes. (2) In a greenhouse.

(3) In a motor-car.

(4) In a train.

(5) In an ordinary rowing-boat on a lake. (6) On a piece of plate-glass.

If one had, say, a fishing-rod with gunmetal reel and joints, would one still be safe And how, if lightning strikes in a boat? IGNORAMUS. downwards, does the plate-glass protect one? [Sir Ray Lankester in The Daily Telegraph of 29 June had a long article on How to get struck by Lightning, and how not to.']


MOSES FRANKS.-In Catalogue No. 33, recently issued by Mr. F. Marcham, of 129, High Road, New Southgate, item 31 'Moses Franks, Attorney and refers to Advocate-General for the Bahama Islands. ..1794." I should be grateful for any information concerning his parentage and



JOHN BACON OF THE FIRST FRUITS OFFICE. (See 11 S. ix. 470.)-Since my query soliciting information, I have been informed by a descendant that the above acted as secretary to Lord North during the American War, and that valuable notes of his were burnt by his daughter-in-law. This secretaryship is not mentioned in any account I have seen of the should like to ask if it can be Receiver, and W. L. KING. confirmed.

Paddock Wood, Kent.






are the dates of birth of the following, if
known? Plautilla, wife of Caracalla, d. 211;
Sunigilde, wife of Odoacer, d. 493; Justina
(? daughter of Germanus), wife of Theodosius,
lona, wife of Roderick, "last of the Goths,"
son of the Emperor Maurice, d. 607 (?); Egi-
d. 714 (?); Bertha, wife of Philip I. of France,
d. 1094; Marie, wife of Manuel, Emperor
of the East, d. 1183; Anne, wife of Ladis-
laus VI. of Hungary, d. 1506 (?).

18, Horton Road, Platt Fields, Manchester.
"ASCHENALD."-Could any of your cor-
respondents let me know what
means in the following quotation on p. 11
of Whitaker's History of Craven ' ?—


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"The Castle, Town, and lands about Brokenbridge (Pontefract, co. York) longgid (belonged) afore the Conquest to one Richard Aschenald," &c. The question is, Does it mean Richard of ST. G. M. KIRKE, Col. Ascania, Richard, son of Aschenald, or Richard the ashen? or is there any other interpretation?

GREEK NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED IN LONDON.-I have a prospectus, dated 1860, a weekly illustrated journal of politics, concerning O BPETTANIKOZ AΣTHP, commerce, literature, science, and art, to be published in London every Thursday, commencing in July. I should be glad to LEO C. know how long this newspaper lasted, and any particulars about its career.

WELLINGTON: CHANDOs.-When Arthur Wellesley was made a duke as a reward for his great services, why was his title taken from Wellington in Somersetshire ?

Where is Chandos, the place-name which accompanies the title of duke in the title H. A. H. "Duke of Buckingham and Chandos " ?

"THE MANCHESTER MARINE.'--A local THE HOLY LIFE OF | Monsieur DE RENTY, A LATE NOBLEMAN | OF FRANCE, and sometime COUNCELLOR TO KING LEWIS the Thir-writer states that Thomas Dibdin (merchant) teenth. written in French by John Baptist S. Jure And Faithfully translated into English, By E. S. Gent. |

London, Printed for Benj. Tooke, at the Sign of the Ship in St. Paul's Churchyard. 1684.

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On p. v the Publisher To the Reader' says of Renty that "he may seem to contend with the ancient Saints, yet lived but the other day, and dyed not nine years ago, April 24, 1649."

Can any reader tell me who E. S. was, and how he came to make this translation?


interlude styled The Manchester Marine.' Will some produced in March, 1793, an RICHARD LAWSON. found? correspondent kindly say where this can be


What THE ORDER OF AREOPAGUS.-What is I have seen a lady wearing are its aims? this order? Is it Greek or English? H. A. C. T. the Sovereign of the order. the jewel of the order, presented to her by

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ROBERT BURTON'S SYMBOL.-In his extremely interesting little volume, Some Oxford Libraries,' Mr. Strickland Gibson says (p. 104) :


"In the Lower Library, preserved as a separate collection, are the books bequeathed to Christ Church by Robert Burton, the author of The Anatomy of Melancholy...... A portion of his library is in the Bodleian......Fortunately, for the most part, they ['baggage books'] have Burton's name or initials on their title-pages, and may thus readily be identified. A curious symbol, composed of three r's, rr, is also found in most of the books......in all they number about a thousand."

What is the key to this symbol ? I fancy the letters represent the three r's in his Christian name and surname. If this conjecture be correct, they would represent his monogram.


St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. [See the explanation by Mr. P. Henderson Aitken in The Athenaeum of Aug. 24, 1912, p. 193.]

SIGNS OF CADENCY.-I should like to know when heralds first began to use the signs of cadency; and whether, in the fourteenth century, if you find a mullet imposed upon a coat of arms, you can be as sure as you would be, for instance, in the seventeenth, that the bearer was a third JOHN R. MAGRATH.


Queen's College, Oxford. ["Cadency" has been discussed at 4 S. viii. 12, 75, 175, 254; x. 44; 6 S. iii.. 80; 7 S. iii. 517; iv. 177, 353.]

ISAAC SAVAGE OF KINTBURY (1730–40).Can any of your readers give me any information on the following point?

In a manuscript notebook of the Rev. Thomas Leman of Bath (1751-1826) the course of the Roman road from Speen to

Bath is thus described :

"Also from Spene to Wickham Chaple, from thence to Clapham high-raised with pollards on it, to a great ash tree, then to a new brick house built by Mr. Savage, thence thro' a wood called Winding Wood where it is visible with ditches on each side, thence thro' Rugeley Farm [now Radley Farm].

The above description was probably taken by Leman from the manuscript notes of Smart Lethieullier (1701-60), for in other manuscript book, written by Sir


Richard Colt Hoare, there is added the following note relative to Mr. Savage :

who, in clearing a little coppice to make a garden about 1732, was obliged to remove an entire piece of the bank [of the Roman road], where he found the strata of sand and gravel near the surface, and under them several layers of flints and great stones

laid in a bed of mortar.'

To this Sir Richard adds a reference to Smart Lethieullier MSS., p. 359.”



Through the kindness of the Vicar of Kintbury, I have ascertained that Isaac Savage was supervisor" there in 1731 and 1740, and churchwarden in 1736. What I want to discover is, Where did he live? It must have been either in Elgar's Farm or Orpenham Farm, or in one of the adjoining homesteads, all in the parish of Kintbury. The point is an important one, because it will determine the exact course of the Roman road, which cannot now be traced at this spot. I shall be glad to hear from any one who can throw any light on the matter. O. G. S. CRAWFORD.

The Grove, East Woodhay, Newbury.

Kerr & Richardson of Glasgow (in a Catalogue of second-hand books issued about 1890) state, when advertising a copy of 'The Metrical Miscellany,' that


"this volume was edited......by Maria Riddell, to whom Burns sent his own MS. copy of Tam o' Shanter,' with a quotation beginning 'How gracefully Maria leads the dance.""

I can find no confirmation of Burns having sent a copy of his 'Tam o' Shanter' to Maria Riddell, nor have I been able to trace the quotation attributed to him. Possibly some of your readers may be able to assist me. HUGH S. GLADSTONE.

REV. JAMES THOMAS, C. 1819.-I have a mezzotint engraving (103 in. by 9 in.) of the Rev. James Thomas, painted by I. Lonsdale, engraved by T. Lupton, London, published 1 July, 1819, by I. Lonsdale, Berners Street. The portrait is of a clergyman, aged about 60 to 70, wearing the usual clerical wig.

Who was he? He does not appear in Phillips's Dictionary of Biographical Reference,' 1871, or in the Dictionary of National Biography.'


52, NEWGATE STREET, E.C.: A SCULPinform me what became of a well-known TURED STONE.-Can any reader of N. & Q.'

stone embedded in the front of this

house, which was pulled down in 1868? It seems hardly possible that a sculptured stone of some considerable merit should I have made a somewhat exhaustive search, wantonly have been destroyed; but although I can find no trace of it. The stone is mentioned in the Survey of London and Middlesex,' vol. iii. pt. i. (Nightingale, 1815); by John W. Archer, 1851, in Vestiges of Old London'; and in 'The History of Signboards,' by Larwood and Hotten, 1866. The two

last-named authors give an illustration. The carving represents Adam and Eve, with date 1669, and initials, at the top of the stone, "I. S." Eve is shown handing an apple to A lam, and a tree occupies the centre, round the stem of which the Serpent is winding. The year 1868 is not a very remote date, and some of your readers may recollect seeing the stone, and possibly know what became of it when the house was pulled down. I have made inquiries at the Guildhall and British Museums.

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(1 S. ii. 216, 251; 6 S. xii. 187; 7 S. viii. 324, 394; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416; 11 S. x. 12.)

IN the State Papers (Chas. I., 1638) we find Sir Gregory refusing to pay over certain moneys to a Valentine Saunders.

It appears, from a petition addressed by Valentine Saunders to the Council, that the late Corporation of Soapmakers of Westminster granted one share of 40 parts, containing 125 tons of soap, to Sir Henry Poore, Viscount Valentia. Lord Valentia by indenture sold to petitioner (Valentine Saunders) one-fourth or quarter part of the said share, for which petitioner paid 300l. Petitioner, at the request of the Corporation, sent the indenture to be submitted to the Lords of the Council, but for some reason or other he was unable to recover it. Subsequently to the dispatch of the indenture the King had given for the use of the Corporation 40,000l., to be paid by the soapboilers of London at the rate of 41. a ton for all soap made by them. Lord Valentia, who was living in Ireland, appointed Sir Gregory Norton to receive the whole of his (Lord Valentia's) share. Valentine Saunders applied to Sir Gregory for his part of the share, but was refused because the indenture could not be found. Saunders therefore appealed to the Lords in Council, asking that

Sir Gregory Norton be ordered to attend and pay the fourth part of what he had received to the petitioner, pointing out that he could not take any course of recovery owing to the indenture being kept back. After considerable delay, it was ordered that Sir Gregory pay Valentine Saunders his part of the share, and be acquitted as against Lord Valentia for the same, and that Saunders give bond to repay the same in case the Lords within one year order the same.

About this time Sir Gregory was wavering in his fidelity to the Royal cause. Early in the year 1639 Charles I. set forth on his way to Scotland on the expedition which came to be known as the First Bishops' War, and we find the Council writing to Sir Gregory from Whitehall on 26 April, 1639, as follows:

"The Council to Sir Gregory Norton.

"The King has gone in person to resist the dangerous rebellion in Scotland which threatens the peace and safety of this kingdom. All the nobility and many other persons of quality do readily assist him, some in their persons, others with considerable sums of money, whereof we do hereby give you notice, that you may also lay hold on this occasion to express your fidelity and good affection, and you will do very well to signify forthwith your resolution to this board, from whence his Majesty shall understand the same.'


By 1642 Sir Gregory had unmistakably gone over to the Parliamentary side; for on 3 Sept. of that year he received a message from the Commons appointing him receiver for Midhurst and Chichester. It will be remembered that it was on 22 Aug., 1642, ham as a sign of war. that Charles set up his standard at Notting

In July of 1644 we find Sir Gregory petitioning the House of Lords for recomtaken from him for adhering to the Parliapense for the loss of his place at Court, ment. He asks that he may be "settled in some constant way for receiving his and for his present subsistence, a year's pension, pay for the future out of His Majesty's Revenue, to repay his losses hitherto sustained."

The petition was sent to the House of Commons with certain recommendations to be referred to the Committee for the Revenue.

It appears that the petition was successful, for, from the beginning of the year 1645 onwards, Sir Gregory's appointments under Parliament were numerous and important. Most of them were to special Commissions or Committees for the carrying out of various Acts and Ordinances, such as

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'He was so anxious to show his zeal in the murder of the King that he sat all the days, except on the 8th and 12th of January, in the Painted Chamber, and the 22nd in Westminster Hall, and closed his wickedness by signing the warrant to deprive his royal master of life.'

In 1649 we find him acting in an official capacity as Justice of the Peace, for in the proceedings at the Committee of both Houses of Parliament on the 13th April of that year, it was ordered

"that the Marshall at Whitehall in whose custody Captains Stanley, Philips, and Taylor now are do carry them before Sir Gregory Norton and Mr. Edwards, J.P.s, together with the information given to the Judge Advocate concerning them, that they may examine them and secure their persons till further order be taken in it."

Richmond, Surrey.


(To be continued.)

"THE BROAD ARROW : THE KING'S MARK (11 S. ix. 481; x. 17).-I have read with much interest the note on 'The Broad Arrow the King's Mark,' at the earlier reference. I append the explanation of the origin of the mark of the broad arrow which appeared in The Broad Arrow: the Naval and Military Gazette, 30 April, 1904, and hope it may be acceptable to your readers :"In our issue of the 28th December, 1901, we published an interesting note by Viscount Dillon, President of the Society of Antiquaries, in which he pointed out that the mark of the broad arrow had been in use as a Royal mark for military and other stores from so early a date as the year 1553.

"On the 6th February, 1553/4, Sir Thomas Gresham notified the Council that he had shipped at Antwerp certain barrels of gunpowder 'und' this marke in the margent.'

"This marke in the margent,' referred to in the text, is as follows:

"Again, on the 30th November, 1554, Sir Thomas Gresham, writing from Seville to the Council,

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"The ancient Cymric symbol above reportedcalled the three rods or rays of light'-signified the eye of light, or the radiating light of intelligence shed upon the Druidic circle. This symbol was appropriated by King Edward III., and adopted as one of his badges. It was also borne by his son, the Black Prince, and by other subsequent Princes of Wales. The broad arrow occurs as a mark of the Royal household as early as 1386.

"The origin of the mark of the broad arrow was given in a pamphlet by Ceinwen,' published some years ago by Mr. Quaritch, of Piccadilly, W., and now out of print. In this pamphlet it is pointed out that the sign is derived from the Welsh Nod, or the three rays of Divine Light of the Druids and Bards, and (as a Government mark) is used to express no less than Divine right."


BURNAP, ALIAS BURNETT (11 S. ix. 448, 498). DR. CLIPPINGDALE denies that the Burnetts are a Scottish family because they can trace their origin to a county in England. If all families of foreign origin were to be denied their acquired nationality, the list of Scottish families would be of infinitesimal proportions. Away would go Bruce, Douglas, Stewart, Chisholm, Fraser, Maxwell, Murray, Fleming, and a host of others.

According to DR. CLIPPINGDALE's ruling, from the Scottish list; for the Celts, whether even purely Celtic families must be expunged Goidhelic or Brythonic, were no more aboriginal in North Britain than the Saxons, the Norsemen, or the Normans. The Burnetts migrated to Scotland and became nationalized in the twelfth century; they must therefore be reckoned as truly Scottish as any other family in the land.

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curate of Lamerton, Devon. William became master of Launceston School, and is the first I can trace at that town. In 1834 Charles Gurney and John Lethbridge Cowlard were partners in the firm of solicitors at Launceston, a business which had as far back as 1784, and perhaps earlier, been conducted by Christopher Lethbridge, attorney and


in 1784. In 1860 the firm was town clerk constituted of Charles Gurney, John Lethbridge Cowlard, and Lethbridge Cowlard; in 1861 it was Gurney, Cowlard & Cowlard; in 1863 Gurney, Cowlard & Kempson; in 1871 Gurney & Cowlard; in 1875 Cowlard & Cowlard; in 1884 Cowlard, Cowlard & Grylls; in 1908 Cowlard, Grylls & Cowlard. Various members of the family have held important positions locally. Christopher Lethbridge Cowlard, Henry L. Cowlard, and the Misses Cowlard were, until quite recently, living at Launceston. John Lethbridge Cowlard published in 1879 (W. Clowes & Sons) The Present Agricultural Depression in Devon and Cornwall and How to Meet It,' pp. 15. In The Times, 7 Oct., 1873, there is a letter signed John Lethbridge Cowlard," upon the subject of Launceston, a Pocket Borough.'

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187, Piccadilly, W.


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Reverting now to the Arabic names, we may explain them thus:

1 as the Chief Justice of the date of the letter.

2 as the Premier, Robert Walpole.

3 as Poetry, or her sister Music, or the two in one.


4 applies to any marriage connexion in religion or politics. 5 fits well such a rat as Marlborough. 6, the evil Tagut, is Mathematics (and the "monstrous "Scots hills).

7, Admoim, squares with Stoke Poges and Gray's happy days by that village's country H. H. JOHNSON. churchyard.

Miradolin-intended for Miramólin, the title of the Emperor of Morocco. A. L. HUMPHREYS. The Vizier-azem Azim, the convert in Moore's' Lalla Rookh.'


The angel Israphiel, or Israfil the melodious voice of all God's creatures, and Angel of Music, who possessed the most who is to sound the Resurrection Trump. Israfil was one of the three angels that warned Abraham of Sodom's destruction (Koran).

ORIENTAL NAMES MENTIONED BY GRAY (11 S. x. 10).—These are really Oriental, viz. 1. Miradolin = Amîr 'adl, Lord of Justice. 2. Vizier azem Sadr el 'âzam (prime minister) and Wazîr el 'âzam, by contaminatio-the "breast" being the same as the agent (or Abubekir vice-regent") when the person meant is one and the same-the Premier of the Sultan. Still, a Turk would never say what Gray says, if the Ottoman was speaking of his Padishah's prime minister, Sadr el 'âzam."

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3. Israfil, not Israphiel," is E. A. Poe's loan-not from the 'Hadith' and not from the Q'rân, where it does not occur as a name of the Angel of the Day of Judgment, that Angel who has the sweetest voice of all God's creatures.

4. Abubekir, or (rather) Abu Bakr, was the first Khalifa, or Caliph, and the fatherin-law of Mohammad the Prophet.

5. Negidher is the Demon of Apostasy, from Arabic nakada ("he denied "). 6. Tagut (not "Tagot") figures in the Q'rân, of whose Elysium


7. Admoim is an adumbration.

8. Sarag (for sarg) means a wooden saddle, wooden pack-saddle, and stands for



the Caliph who first successor of Mahomet; died at Medina, CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 634. Swallowfield Park, Reading.

HESSIAN TROOPS IN AMERICA (11 S. vii. 364, 436, 475).-At these references several statements are made that are not in strict accordance with facts, as shown in contemporary literature. A letter relating to the desire of the Hessian princes that their soldiers should not be sent back is said to be a forgery; and COL. SOUTHAM'S statement that the sending of Hessians to America did much towards increasing the sentiment for independence is seemingly disputed by MR.. ALBERT MATTHEWS, who states that the

Hessians did not arrive until six weeks after

independence had been formally declared.

The facts are, however, that the knowledge that contracts had been made with German princes for forwarding mercenary troops was widely spread among the colonists some months before 4 July, 1776, and is frequently

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