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CHILEAN VIEWS (11 S. x. 12).-QUIEN formation in -fy from "transmigrate" or transSABE should look at Maria Graham's Amigure." We hope the great Dictionary has by its article on Journal of a Residence in Chile,' 1824, and misuse of that word-which it imputes in the 'transpire "scotched the Alexander Caldcleugh's Travels in South first instance to the United States-for America,' 1825. The latter has eight plates. occur.] As examples of the minute care of the If QUIEN SABE likes to communicate with compilers we may notice " transriverine," fron me, I may be able to give him two addresses The Athenæum of 1900, apparently a nonce-word as yet, and Coleridge's quaint transnihilation.' where he may be able to obtain some illusOn the other hand, it is curious, in an historical trations. W. H. QUARRELL. dictionary, that the date and occasion of the giving of the name Transvaal" to the territory won by the Great Trek should have been entirely omitted; as it is also curious that one hardly sufficient and merely allusive quotation should be all that is given on the subject of the characteristic discipline of the Trappists, which, after all, has become proverbial. An excellent article which falls into the midst of these 'transProf. Skeat, as by Sir James Murray, to come "transom." compounds is It is believed by from transtrum, but no intermediate forms standing in more than have been found, and since it is a word of long suggested that our form of it, which goes back one great craft, it is to the fifteenth century, may be a workman's corruption of the Latin.

Notes on Books.

A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Vol. X.) Traik-Trinity. By J. A. H. Murray. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 58.)

THIS double section, as a moment's consideration will of itself show, contains a large number of words derived from Latin and Greek, and but a

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small proportion of words of Teutonic origin. It embraces two great groups of compounds, each of which occupies many columns-those with 'trans-," and those with "tri-." To both an excellent General Introduction is supplied. Of the words in trans--and it may be said, of the words of Latin derivation in this section throughout the most interesting have come to us, not direct from the Latin, but through French; There is a curious series of compounds of "transwith true English words, which at any rate shows how completely the syllable has established itself in our vernacular. The best of these which goes back to the late eighteenth century, and has the authority of Wellington's dispatches -is undoubtedly "tranship." In the little collection of instances of "transact" used dyslogistically" and between inverted commas in the sense of " to compromise," it should have been noted that the writers are simply englishing the French 'transiger.' The most interesting words from the point of view of the history of thought are transcendental" and transubstantiation," and the words connected with them all the articles concerned are satisfactory. An interesting word from its long, continuous, and varied career in technical use-legal and commercial-is "transfer," which begins with Wyclif in Ezek. xlviii. 14, as transferrid," having in an explanatory gloss or born ouer," and changed in 1388 to "translatid." We do not see much nowadays of "transformism or of transmutation," but quotations here show that, as late as the eighties, these terms were still rivals to the term " evolution," which has happily triumphed. An amusing and instructive collection of meanings and instances is to be found under transient." The word appears to have got a footing" transatlantically as a substantive in the sense of a passing guest at an hotel-a curiosa infelicitas, as we think. The origin of transept remains as ever unelucidated-the gaps of a century and a half between Leland and Wood, and of a century or nearly so between Wood and Warton, being still unfilled. Some little light seems to be thrown on transmogrify by its appearance in the New Canting Dictionary' (1725) as transmogrify, or rather transmigrafy," which, as the editor of the N.E.D.' suggests, may well be a vulgar or uneducated

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The internal arrangement of some of the longer articles in this section has struck us as unusually good. We may mention among them "trial" and is the brief summary of facts given in such his"" tree and " trim," v. Good, too, trailbaston,' treatorical articles as explain or trimoda necessitas "-so long known surer, to historical students by a travestied name. The article on tramp" is one of the most we did not know entertaining. We confess before of the existence of the peculiarly unhappy word "trampism," which, indeed, seems to have as yet no more than feeble journalistic authority. A synonymous word, trampage,' has also cropped up-equally, to our thinking, an atrocity, and equally illustrating the need there is for the revival of English suffixes. These queer, unpleasant words come to us chiefly from the other side of the globe. Would it not be a good plan to send Mr. Lascelles Abercrombie on a mission to the Far West to listen to as much unsophisticated conversation as possible, and see if he cannot find some new substantives, with English suffix to an English root, and having sound life in them? Dialect dictionaries might furnish forms, but they would too probably prove devitalized.

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How an unusual event revives old words might be illustrated from more than one term connected with the coronation of our last two kings, and here we have an example in "traverse," used for a small curtained-off compartment in a church. A little traverse," says Dell in 1633, speaking of James I.'s coronation, is to be made on the South side of the Altar....for the King to.... disrobe himself," and in 1902 The Westminster Gazette tells how King Edward went into his traverse." Treacle,' "trick,' trifle," trekschuit," and triforium may be mentioned out of a host of words full of suggestion and instruction as we have them here presented to us, but we have not space to single out further examples.

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Pageant of the Birth, Life, and Death of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, K.G., 1389–1439 Edited by Viscount Dillon and W. H. St. John Hope. (Longmans & Co., 17. 18.)

THE original manuscript is in the British Museum, and has here been reproduced in photogravure by Mr. Emery Walker. This is not the first reproduction. In 1775 Strutt included it, in rather an imperfect version, in vol. ii. of his Horda Angel-cynnan'; and the late Lord Carysfort presented to the Roxburghe Club a magnificent facsimile, of which a very small edition was made. The present volume is issued at a price not absolutely beyond the reach of the student of mediæval history, and it may be said that, for the sake of those who have not a guinea to spare, as well as for the benefit of the curious general reader, every public library should acquire this authentic document.

Who was its author? Sir E. Maunde Thompson in the Roxburghe edition opines that he was a foreigner. The present editors give reasons-which we cannot but think to be sound-for believing him to have been an Englishman. He shows a minute knowledge of English quarterings such as a foreigner would hardly possess, while he leaves blank the banners both of the Emperor and of the Duke of Burgundy, which a Continental artist would almost certainly have known how to emblazon.

The main importance of the work is no doubt archæological, and from this point of view it instructs us chiefly as to the equipment of knights and men-at-arms, and the dress of ecclesiastics, illustrating delightfully the use of badges, of coats of armour, crests, and other heraldic appurtenances. The treatment of buildings, and in some degree also of vessels, is largely conventional.

The artistic interest of these fifty-three or fifty-four drawings is, if unequal, extraordinarily great. We notice first the pleasant qualities belonging to work which has the touch about it of script or hieroglyphic. In the faces and figures beauty or grace counts only secondarily. Clothes, because they express intention, count for more. Still the treatment of feature and form has both force and charm, and in three or four of the battle-scenes the grouping of the figures is strong and eloquent, while some of the scenes with ships are managed splendidly. Secondly, the wealth of detail and the intelligence with which it is used are both remarkable. And thirdly, gone through as a history in pictures, the series will be found to have an unexpected cumulative impressiveness. Earl Richard, distinguished at first from the other characters merely by his crest or coat, imperceptibly gets differentiated out, and comes to be truly felt as the centre of the work. When, after so many appearances in magnificent array, he is seen, on turning the page, lying naked on his death-bed, one feels what the artist, one may conjecture, did not feel! -something of the shock that comes with tragedy.

There are several drawings of peculiar interest Earl Richard being invested with the Garter; Earl Richard's three encounters with three French knights at the time when he was Captain of Calais; Earl Richard at the Council of Constance, bearing the Emperor's sword in procession before him, and courteously refusing the gift of St. George's heart, that Sigismund might himself


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he won two carracks; how he was made "Maspresent it at Windsor; the sea-fight, in which three or four more not less excellent. to King Henry VI.-we might mention But perhaps the best of all are the three pictures which tell how-in the long journey through Europe and the East which he made when a young man-Sir Baltirdam, the Soldan's lieutenant, received Earl Richard'; 'How Sir Baltirdam entertained Earl Richard at Dinner,' and How Earl Richard feasted Sir Baltirdam's Men.' The artist had evidently great delight himself in the portraying of these Oriental figures. They are expressive beyond almost any others in this series-in their stateliness and their air of courtesy, and almost anxious kindness. The details of their dress are given with great exactness and care, and might have been taken, as the editors justly observe, from some Afghan magnate of the present day.

It is hardly necessary to give an account here of Richard Beauchamp's life. He was an heroic figure among the men of his day. That he actually moved among them equipped as these pages depict him is, however, improbable. So far as can be ascertained, it seems likely that this manuscript was made for his daughter Anne, the King-maker's wife, and that it represents the knighthood belonging to her generation rather than to that of Earl Richard, as does also the famous tomb at Warwick. The earliest covenant for this dates from February, 1449/50, or ten years after his death, and may be taken to represent the armour worn some forty years after the exploits of Earl Richard at the tilt before the King of France.

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MR. WILLIAM CUBBON.-Many thanks for reprint of letter on the Standish family from The Isle of Man Examiner.

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