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putes, and fixed the contending religions, which were the cause of them, upon an unalterable basis: and from that time Germany, gradually recovering from her wounds and misfortunes, at length became a great, a powerful, and a polished nation.
FRANCE UNDER LEWIS XIV.-Anne of Austria Regent-Cardinal Mazarin-Condé-Turenne-War of the FrondeCardinal de Retz-Treaty of the Pyrenees and of Oliva— Christina, Queen of Sweden-Peace of Breda-Wars in Flanders Triple Alliance-Sabatei Sevi-Lewis attacks Holland-Death of Turenne-Peace of Minequar-Revocation of the Edict of Nantes-Lewis continues the War in Germany-Peace of Ryswick-Spanish Succession-Prince Eugene War with England-Marlborough-Battle of Blenheim-Gibraltar taken by the English-Battle of RamilliesLewis' Schemes in favour of the Stuarts-Successors of the Allies Battle of Malplaquet-Humiliation of LewisBattle of Villa Viciosa restores Philip to the Throne of Spain -Peace of Utrecht, 1713-Peace of Rastadt-Constitution of France under the Monarchy.
LEWIS XIII. had, by his will, appointed a council of regency for the queen, Anne of Austria; but the parliament of Paris, at her desire, annulled the will, and gave her the full administration of the kingdom during her son's minority. Cardinal Mazarin, an Italian of great address, who had gained upon the favour of the queen, soon rose to the office of prime minister, with all the power of his predecessor Richelieu. The Spaniards, judging the minority of the king and the change of the ministry to be a favourable crisis for an attack upon France, marched an army into Cham
pagne, and besieged Rocroi; but they met with a severe check from the young duke D'Enghien, afterwards the great Condé; and this victory gained by the French at Rocroi, paved the way for a series of triumphs. Condé pursued his success; he took from the Spaniards the strong city of Thionville, in Luxembourg, and thence marching into Germany, attacked the imperial forces, and signally defeated them at Fribourg, after a battle which lasted three days. The Maréchal Turenne, his competitor for glory, was not at this time so successful. He was defeated by the imperialists at Mariendhal, in Franconia; but Condé, soon after joining his forces to those of the marshal, revenged this disaster by a signal victory at Nordlingen. The details of wars are foreign to our purpose. The peace of Westphalia composed, as we have already observed, the differences between France and the empire. But at this very time a civil war was kindled in Paris, of which the object was the removal of the cardinal Mazarin. The fortune and the power of this minister naturally excited envy, and gave rise to cabals to pull him down; and the mal-administration of the finances, the distresses of the state, and the oppression of the people, by a variety of new taxes, were sufficient to render these discontents universal. The parliament, which saw edicts pronounced for taxes, without being, as usual, confirmed by them, expressed an open and violent disapprobation of Mazarin's measures. The coadjutor to the archbishop of Paris, (afterwards the cardinal de Retz,) a man of an impetuous temper, and at the same time of an artful and intriguing
character, kindled these discontents into a civil war, to which they gave the name of the Fronde. This, it is believed, is the sole instance of a national rebellion, which had no higher aim than the removal of an unpopular minister. The prince of Conti, brother of the great Condê, the dukes of Longueville, Beaufort, Vendôme, and Bouillon, headed the rebels; and the queenregent, together with the royal family, removed the court to St. Germain, with a design to besiege the city of Paris and reduce the parliament to submission.
The gay humour of the French, that spirit of levity which turns every thing into ridicule, were never more conspicuous than in this war; a strong contrast to the temper that characterised those civil commotions, which almost at this very time, had drowned England in blood. The grievances of the English prompted to a serious, a gloomy, and a desperate resistance, which embroiled the whole nation, and ended in the destruction of the constitution. The grievances of the French kindled the civil war of the Fronde, but afforded to this volatile people nothing more than the occasion of an agreeable confusion, and a fit subject for lampoons and ballads. The Parisians marched out to attack the royal army, adorned with plumes of feathers and fine nosegays; and when the regiment of the coadjutor De Retz, who was nominal archbishop of Corinth, was defeated by the royalists, they called this engagement the first epistle to the Corinthians. The women had as active a share in these proceedings as the men; and the duchess of Longueville actu
ally prevailed on the great Turenne to leave the king's party, and revolt with his army to that of the rebels. A seeming reconciliation took place for some time, and the court returned to Paris; but the violence of Mazarin, who put the prince of Condé and his brother Conti, with the duke of Longueville, under arrest, threw every thing again into disorder. The parliament, provoked at these indignities, passed sentence of perpetual banishment on Mazarin, who left the kingdom; though, by his authority with the queen-regent, he ruled at a distance as absolutely as if he had been at court.
Lewis, however, became of age in the year 1652, and the face of affairs was entirely changed. The cardinal de Retz, the chief author of the disturbances, was imprisoned. Gaston, duke of Orleans, the king's uncle, who had been incessantly concerned in all state cabals, was banished; and a perfect calm succeeded the tumults of the Fronde. Mazarin again returned to court, and enjoyed a degree of authority as high as ever.
Condé had carried his rebellion to a greater height than any of the other partisans. He had joined the Spaniards; and he now, in conjunction with the archduke Leopold, laid siege to the town of Arras; but Turenne marched against him, forced him to raise the siege, and left him nothing but the honour of making a good retreat. On the other hand, Turenne, who had besieged Valenciennes, was compelled to raise the siege by Condé and the Spaniards. With the aid of the English, Turenne now laid siege to Dunkirk. The Spaniards, in fine, lost that important place, which France, according to agreement with Crom