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Babylon, Nimrod, i. 30; distinct | Belus, his dynasty, i. 30

kingdom from Assyria, 32;
Chaldees or priests, 60; siege,

Babylonian Empire, vi. 31
Bacchus, sacrifices to, iii. 56
Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam,
opinions and logical treatises of,
i. 116, ii. 181, v. 159, vi. 278
Bacon, Roger, v. 159, 160, vi. 277
Bagdad, the caliphs' government
in, iv. 99, 100, 283
Bajazet, his victories in the East, v.
83; a captive of Tamerlane, 85
Bailly, M., theory of, vi. 27, 29, 32
Baldwin, count of Flanders, Frank
emperor of Constantinople, iv.
298; his horrible death, 299
Baldwin II., emperor, v. 17

Benedict, St., order of, iv. 154
Berengarius, duke of Friuli, iv.
183, 186

Berné, city of, v. 31
Bernard, St., preaches a new
crusade, iv. 294
Bessus, the satrap, ii. 21
Bigod, Hugh, Norman baron, iv.


Blake, admiral, success of, vi.
141, 144
Blenheim, Marlborough's splen-
did victory at, vi. 239
Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, iv.

Boats, the first, i, 58
Boccaccio, v. 164
Bocchoris, reign of, i. 84

Baliol, John, king of Scotland, v. Boethius, death, and writings of,

50; made prisoner, 52

iv. 40, 87, 206

Baliol, Edward, v. 61; king of Boleyne, Anna, queen, v. 263,265

Scotland, 62, 128

Balk, city of Bactriana, i. 225,
vi. 9

Balti, or Visigoths, iv. 77
Barbarossa, Hayradin, defeated
by Charles V., v. 228
Bartholomew, massacre of St.,
vi. 69

Bayard, the chevalier's death, v.

Bede, the venerable, writings of,
iv. 142

Bedford, duke of, governs France
after the death of his brother,
Henry V., v. 80; his cruelty
to Joan of Arc, 82
Belesis of Babylon, i. 210
Belisarius, general of Justinian,
victorious in Persia and Africa,
iv. 42, 43; he attacks Theoda-
tus in Rome, 44; war against
Totila, 45

Boniface, archbishop of Mentz,
and pope, iv. 109

Boniface VIII., pope, v. 27; im-
prisoned by Philip the Fair, 28
Borgia, Cæsar, son of pope Alex-

ander VI., his wickedness and
death, v. 107-109
Bossuet, Histoire Universelle, i.
5, 9

Bothwell, earl of, his marriage
with queen Mary, vi. 92
Bourbon, constable of, v. 223
Boustrophedon, writing so named,
i. 107

Brama, Indian divinity, the Vedam
or book of, v. 333, 334
Bramins of India, vi. 32
Brennus, Gallic king, puts to death

the senators of Rome, ii. 316
Britain, early account of, i. 18;
trade of the Carthaginians, iii.
15; the Roman invasions of, 99;

the British appeal to Rome for
succour, iv. 33. Vide England
Bruce, Robert, competitor of John
Baliol, v. 50

Robert, king of Scotland,

v. 57, 128

tator, 112; defeats Scipio and
Cato, 112; his literary and sci-
entific attainments, 114; assas-
sinated, 117, 120; Commen-
taries of, 151. Vide Rome.
Cairns, their purpose, i. 50

David, defeated by Phi- Caledonians, the ancient, iv. 196
lippa, v. 66, 128

Edward, v. 128

Margery, from her mar-
riage with Walter, high steward
of Scotland, descended the Stu-
arts, v. 128
Brutus, Lucius Junius, ii. 231,246
Marcus, conspiracy of,

iii. 119; death of, 126
--, Decimus, iii. 123

George Villiers,
duke of, vi. 112, his excursion
to Spain, 113

Calendar, the Roman, iii. 114
Caligula, tyranny of, iii. 248
Callisthenes, ii. 114
Calvin, founder of the Reforma-
tion at Geneva, v. 259, 260
Cambyses, history, i. 71, 214;
his justice, 224

Camillus, Marcus Furius, dicta-
tor, ii. 311, 317, 320
Camoens, Portuguese poet, vi. 288
Canaanites, account of the, i. 92
Canada colonised by the French,
v. 293

Bulgarians settle near the Danube, Canadian red Indians, i. 118

iv. 169

Bull, the Golden, v. 35, 241
Buonarotti, Michel Angelo, ar-
chitect, sculptor, painter, ii. 96,
v. 110, 302; genius and style,
303; excellence of his chisel,
310; edifices of his construc-
tion, 312
Burgundians, the, iv. 72, 83

Cabot, Sebastian, v. 294
Cadigha, wife of Mahomet, iv.
91, 92

Cadiz, anciently Gades, i. 92
Cadmus introduces literature into
Greece, i. 106

Cæcilius, dramatic poet, iii. 146
Cæsar, C. Julius, speeches of, iii.
90; the triumvirate, 92; defeats
the Helvetii, 99; the Germans,
Gauls and Britons, 99; marches
into Italy, 104; victor at Phar-
salus in Macedonia, 107; dic-

Candia taken by the Turks, vi.

Candidates in Rome, ii. 303
Cannæ, Hannibal's victory at, iii.

Cantacuzenus, John, emperor of
Greece, v. 83, 168
Canute, king of Denmark, Nor-
way, and England, iv. 208
Captivity of Israel, i. 212
Capua, city of Campania, iii. 1,4
State of, iii. 1, 4

Caracalla, emperor of Rome, iii.

Caractacus, the British prince,
iv. 193

Carbo, the consul, iii. 80
Carcassonne, treatment of the city
of, v. 21

Carloman, Frank princes named,
iv. 107, 111
Carolinas, the, settled by order of
Charles II., v. 295

Carthage, history of, i. 93, iii. 11;
literature, 15; wars, 16; colo-
nies in Sicily, 17-25; the third
Punic war, 58; destruction of
the city, 61

Cary, Lucius, Viscount Falkland,
vi. 128

Cassander, wars of, ii. 39, 49
Cassibelaunus, king of the Tri-
nobantes, iv. 192

Cassini, astronomer, vi. 284
Cassiodorus, secretary of Theo-
doric, iv. 69

Cassius, consul, proposes an agra-

rian law, ii, 271
Cassius, Caius, conspires against
Cæsar, iii. 119

Castes known in ancient Egypt,
i. 85

Catiline, a profligate and cruel

senator, iii. 81; his conspiracy
with Cethegus and Lentulus
defeated by Cicero, 87
Cato, the censor, iii. 52, 150, 168

the younger, opinions and
speeches of, iii. 92
Catulus and Pompey defeat Le-
pidus, iii. 83

Cecrops lands in Attica,i.99-102
Celestinus, pope, iv. 240
Celtæ, the, ii. 315

Celtic nations, iv. 48; religion of,
53, 60, 64
Censors, Roman, ii. 304
Ceres worshipped at Eleusis, i.

Charonea, battle of, i. 323
Chalcocondilas, v. 169
Chaldæa or Babylonia, i. 60
Chaldæans or Chaldees, priests
and astronomers, i. 60
Charlemagne, age of, i. 17 ; reign,
conquests, and character of, iv.

Charles Martel, victor over the
Saracens, iv. 106, 107
Charles the Wise, king of France,
v. 68

Charles VI. of France, v. 71;
madness, v. 76

Charles VII. of France, his suc-

cess against the English,v. 80;
his wise government, 82
Charles VIII. of France projects
the conquest of Naples, v. 97;
besieges Rome, 98; he defeats
the Spaniards, Italians, and
Germans, 99; returns to France,
99; his death and successor,

Charles IX. of France, vi. 66
of Anjou, king of Naples,

v. 18

Charles I., state of England on

his accession, vi. 115; his dis-
sensions with the Parliament,
116; peace with France and
Spain, 118; he interferes with
the Scottish church, 119; civil
war, fields of Worcester and
Edgehill, 128; he is defeated at
Naseby, 130; a prisoner of the
Scots, he is delivered up to the
Parliament, 130; Cromwell,
131; the king's escape, 131;
after fruitless negociation and
an imprisonment in Carisbrook
Castle, he is tried and beheaded
at Whitehall, 133; question of
passive obedience, 133-136
Charles II. acknowledged king in
Scotland and Ireland, vi. 138;
defeated at Worcester, he es-
capes to France, 140/his Re-
storation, 152; the sale of Dun-
kirk, 153; war with France
and Holland, 154; alliance with
Holland and Sweden, 155;

domestic administration, accu-Chess, the game invented, i. 146

sation against the Jesuits, 155,
159; deaths of Lord William
Russell and Algernon Sidney,
160; the king's death, 161
Charles V. of Germany and Spain,
birth and pretensions, v. 208,
219; visits Henry VIII. in
England, 222; his victory over
Soliman, 228; at Paris, 230;
peace with Henry, 231; defeats
the protestants in the battle of
Mulberg, 235; abdication and
death, 237; great events of his
reign, 271

Charles II. of Spain, vi. 235;
death, 236

Charles Canutson of Sweden, v.

Charles X., king of Sweden, reign
of, vi. 222

Charles XII., king of Sweden, i.
25; accession, vi. 260; lands in
Zealand and attacks Copenha-
gen, 261; defeats Peter the
Great at Narva, 262; he de-
thrones Augustus, king of Po-
land, 262 places Stanislaus
Leckzinski on the throne, 263;
he marches into Russia, 264;
crosses the Ukraine, 265; is
defeated at Pultowa, 265; his
conduct at Bender, 266-268;
prisoner of the Turks, 269;
defends Stralsund, 269; in-
vades Norway, 270; is killed
at Frederickschal, 270
Charles the Bold, duke of Bur-
gundy, ambition and death of,
v. 94

Chatillon, death of Raymond de,
iv. 295

Chaucer's diplomatic and poetic
talents, v. 165

China, its early civilisation and
its institutions, i. 23; the Tar-
tar emperors, iv. 1; Chinese
emperors, 2; the Mantchou
Tartars reconquer China, 3;
annals, 3, 4; calculation of
eclipses, 4; manners, customs,
and institutions, 6; Jesuit mis-
sionaries, 7; astronomy, 8;
written language, 10; medicine,
11; gunpowder, 11; printing,
12; painting, 13; the wall, 14;
gardening, 15; China-ware, 16;
laws, 17; religion, 18-21;
morals, 22; traditions and su-
perstition, 27-33

Chiron, astronomical data, i. 134,

Chivalry, institutions of, iv. 5, v.


Chosroes I. and II., Parthian or
Persian monarchs, iii. 273, iv.

Christ, birth of, iv. 1 et seq.
Christian II. of Sweden, Den-
mark, and Norway, v. 253;
deposed, 255

Christian IV. of Denmark, vi.
Christianity established in the

Roman empire, iv. 1, 16
Christina, queen of Sweden, ab-

dication, vi. 221; death of, 223
Chronicle of Paros, antiquity of
this Arundelian marble, i. 100
Chronology of Archbishop Usher,
i. 26; of Greece, 100; Sir I.
Newton's, i. 134

Church, the Christian, iv. 5; the
Greek, 175

Cicero saves Rome from the am-
bition of Catiline, iii. 87; ex-
ile, 97

Cicero, writings of, iii. 54, 163;
his various opinions, i. 127,
190, 195, 286, ii. 289, iii. 54,
98, 117

Cid, Don Rodriguez, or the, iv. 232
Cimabue, the painter, v. 300
Cimbri, irruption of the, iii. 73;
of Denmark, iv. 49

Cimon, Athenian, his victories, i.
258; banishment, 260; death,
Cincinnatus, L. Quintius, ii. 281;
dictator, 282, 286, iii. 168
Cinna, the Consul, iii. 79
Clarendon, Lord, history and cha-
racter of, vi. 154; history by,

Claudius Nero, Roman consul,
iii. 49

Claudius, reign and conquest of
Britain, iii. 251

Clearchus, Lacedæmonian captain,
i. 290

Cleisthenes, Athenian, i. 207
Clement IV., Pope, v. 18
V., Pope, v. 29

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VII., Pope, v. 227; his
quarrel with Henry VIII. fatal
to papal supremacy in England,

Cleomenes, i. 206; restores the

laws of Lycurgus, ii. 59
Cleopatra reigns in Egypt, iii. 110;
captivates Mark Antony, 127;
death, 130

Clermont, council of, iv. 285
Clodius causes the exile of Cicero,
iii. 95

Clovis, king of the Franks, iv. 66,

Clusium, siege of, ii. 316

Codrus, oracle respecting, i. 150;
his self-devotion to save Athens,

Coins, invention and use of, i.


Colbert, minister of Louis XIV.,
vi. 225; death, 233
Colchis, i. 132

Cole, Dr., anecdote, v. 268
Coligni, expedition of, defeated
by the Portuguese in Brazil, v.
292; chief of the Hugonots, vi.
66; his death, 71
Columbus discovers America, v.

271; his voyages, 272, 273
Comedy, the Grecian, ii. 124-
128; the Roman, iii. 147;
English, vi. 297; French, 300
Commerce of the Tyrians, i. 95;

of Greece, ii. 86; of the Cartha-
ginians, iii. 15, 26; the Levant
trade, Venice and Genoa, v. 4;
with India, by the ancients, v.
330; of the English with India,
v. 336; progress of European
and of English commerce, v.

Commodus, the emperor, iii. 283
Condé, the prince of, vi. 66

campaigns of the great
prince of, vi. 218 et seq.
Conon, the Athenian, i. 295
Conrad, king, poisoned, v. 18
Conradin, king, v. 18
Constans, emperor of the Western

Empire of Rome, iii. 309
Constantine the Great, reign, iii.
294; he maintains Christianity,
295, 297, iv. 12; his wars, iii.
296, 297, death of Crispus and
Fausta, 297; embellishment of
Byzantium, which he selects as
the seat of the Roman Empire
(see Constantinople), 297, 298;
his magnificence, 298
Constantine Copronymus, the em-
peror, iv. 151

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