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so." To whom the stranger: "Oh excellent Pharamond, name not a friend to the unfortunate Spinamont: I had one, but he is dead by my own hand; but, oh Pharamond, though it was by the hand of Spinamont, it was by the guilt of Pharamond. I come not, O excellent prince, to implore your pardon; I come to relate my sorrow, a sorTow too great for human life to support: from henceforth shall all occurrences appear dreams, or short intervals of amusement, from this one afflic. tion which has seized my very being. Pardon me, oh Pharamond, if my griefs give me leave, that I lay before you, in the anguish of a wounded mind, that you, good as you are, are guilty of the gene- IT is the custom of the Mahometans, if they see rous blood spilt this day by this unhappy hand. Oh any printed or written paper upon the ground, to that it had perished before that instant!" Here take it up and lay it aside carefully, as not knowthe stranger paused, and recollecting his mind, ing but it may contain some piece of their Alcoran. after some little meditation, he went on in a I must confess I have so much of the Mussulman calmer tone and gesture, as follows: "There is an authority due to distress, and as printed paper which comes in my way, under whatin me, that I cannot forbear looking into every none of human race is above the reach of sorrow, soever despicable circumstances it may appear; nene should be above the hearing the voice of it; for as no mortal author, in the ordinary fate and I am sure Pharamond is not. Know then, that I vicissitude of things, knows to what use his works have this morning unfortunately killed in a duel, may some time or other be applied, a man may the man whom of all men living I most loved. I often meet with very celebrated names in a paper command myself too much in your royal presence, of tobacco. I have lighted my pipe more than to say, Pharamond give me my friend! Pharamond once with the writings of a prelate; and know a has taken him from me! I will not say, shall the friend of mine, who, for these several years, has merciful Pharamond destroy his own subjects? converted the essays of a man of quality into a Will the father of his country murder his people? kind of fringe for his candlesticks. I remember But the merciful Pharamond does destroy his sub-in particular, after having read over a poem of an ects, the father of his country does murder his eminent author on a victory, I met with several people. Fortune is so much the pursuit of man- fragments of it upon the next rejoicing day, which kind, that all glory and honour is in the power of had been employed in squibs and crackers, and by prince, because he has the distribution of their that means celebrated its subject in a double cartunes. It is therefore the inadvertency, negli- pacity. I once met with a page of Mr. Baxter sence, or guilt of princes, to let any thing grow under a Christmas-pie. Whether or no the pastryto custom which is against their laws. A court cook had made use of it through chance or wagcan make fashion and duty walk together; it can gery, for the defence of that superstitious viande, rever, without the guilt of a court, happen, that it know not; but upon the perusal of it, I conStall not be unfashionable to do what is unlawful. ceived so good an idea of the author's piety, that Betalas! in the dominions of Pharamond, by the bought the whole book. I have often profited ce of a tyrant custom, which is misnamed a point by these accidental readings, and have sometimes honour, the duellist kills his friend whom he found very curious pieces that are either out of VES; and the judge condemns the duellist, while print, or not to be met with in the shops of our Approves his behaviour. Shame is the greatest London booksellers. For this reason, when my evils; what avail laws, when death only at- friends take a survey of my library, they are very ads the breach of them, and shame obedience to much surprised to find upon the shelf of folios two
As for me, oh Pharamond, were it possible long bandboxes standing upright among my books; describe the nameless kinds of compunctions till I let them see that they are both of them lined tendernesses I feel, when I reflect upon the with deep erudition and abstruse literature. le accidents in our former familiarity, my mind might likewise mention a paper-kite, from which s into sorrow which cannot be resisted enough I have received great improvement; and a hatLe silent in the presence of Pharamond, (With case which I would not exchange for all the beahe fell into a flood of tears, and wept aloud.) vers in Great Britain. This my inquisitive temper, should not Pharamond hear the anguish he or rather impertinent humour of prying into all can relieve others from in time to come? Let sorts of writing, with my natural aversion to loquahear from me, what they feel who have given city, give me a good deal of employment when I hby the false mercy of his administration, and enter any house in the country; for I cannot for to himself the vengeance called for by those my heart leave a room, before I have thoroughly have perished by his negligence." studied the walls of it, and examined the several printed papers which are usually pasted upon them. The last piece that I met with upon this
person here alluded to was a Mr. Thornhill, who killed occasion gave me most exquisite pleasure. My
ach other. Mr. Thornhill was tried at the Old Bailey quaint him that the piece I am going to speak of,
le, in his admirable comedy of " The Conscious Lovers,"
scene to exhibit the absurdity of duelling.
No 85. THURSDAY, JUNE 7, 1711.
Interdum speciosa locis, morataque recte
Sometimes in rough and undigested plays
Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. iii. This simple
Heu quam difficile est crimen non prodere vultu!
THERE are several arts which all men are in some
This song is a plain simple copy of nature, destitute of the helps and ornaments of art. The tale of it is a pretty tragical story, and pleases for not other reason but because it is a copy of nature. There is even a despicable simplicity in the verse; and yet, because the sentiments appear genuine and unaffected, they are able to move the mind of the most polite reader with inward meltings of humanity and compassion. The incidents grow out of the subject, and are such as are the most measure masters of, without having been at the proper to excite pity; for which reason the whole pains of learning them. Every one that speaks or narration has something in it very moving, notwith-reasons is a grammarian and a logician, though he standing the author of it (whoever he was) has de- may be wholly unacquainted with the rules of livered it in such an abject phrase and poorness of grammar or logic, as they are delivered in books expression, that the quoting any part of it would and systems. In the same manner, every one is in look like a design of turning it into ridicule. But some degree a master of that art which is generally though the language is mean, the thoughts, as I distinguished by the name of physiognomy; and have before said, from one end to the other, are naturally forms to himself the character or fortune natural, and therofore cannot fail to please those of a stranger, from the features and lineaments of who are not judges of language, or those who, nothis face. We are no sooner presented to any one withstanding they are judges of language, have a we never saw before, but we are immediately true and unprejudiced taste of nature. The construck with the idea of a proud, a reserved, an dition, speech, and behaviour of the dying parents, affable or a good-natured man; and upon our first with the age, innocence, and distress of the chil-going into a company of strangers, our benevo dren, are set forth in such tender circumstances, lence or aversion, awe or contempt, rises naturally that it is impossible for a reader of common huma towards several particular persons, before we have nity not to be affected with them. As for the cir- heard them speak a single word, or so much as cumstance of the robin-red-breast, it is indeed a know who they are. little poetical ornament; and to show the genius of the author amidst all his simplicity, it is just the same kind of fiction which one of the greatest ture or other. I have seen an eye curse for half a of the Latin poets has made use of upon a parallel an hour together, and an eye-brow call a man a occasion; I mean that passage in Horace, where scoundrel. Nothing is more common than for he describes himself when he was a child, fallen lovers to complain, resent, languish, despair, and asleep in a desert word, and covered with leaves die in dumb show. For my own part, I am so by the turtles that took pity on him. apt to frame a notion of every man's humour or circumstances by his looks, that I have sometimes employed myself from Charing Cross to the Royal-de Exchange in drawing the characters of those who have passed by me. When I see a man with a C sour rivelled face, I cannot forbear pitying his wife; and when I meet with an open ingenuous countenance, think on the happiness of his friends, his family, and relations.
Every passion gives a particular cast to the coun tenance, and is apt to discover itself in some fea
I cannot recollect the author of a famous says he ing to a stranger who stood silent in his company, Speak that I may see thee.'* But, with submisse to!
I have heard that the late Lord Dorset, who had sion, I think we may be better known by our trac looks than by our words, and that a man's speech edt is much more easily disguised than his countenance. ens
the greatest wit tempered with the greatest can.. dour, and was one of the finest critics as well as
the best poets of his age, had a numerous collection In this case, however, I think the air of the wholeden tem of old English ballads, and took a particular plea-The truth of it is, the air is generally nothing is face is much more expressive than the lines of it an sure in the reading of them. I can affirm the same else but the inward disposition of the mind made of Mr. Dryden, and know several of the most refined writers of our present age who are of the same humour.
Those who have established physiognomy into an art, and laid down rules of judging men's tem pers by their faces, have regarded the features. much more than the air. Martial has a pretty epi gram on this subject.
I might likewise refer my reader to Moliere's
Short of one foot, distorted in an eye:
Me fabulesa vulture in Apulo,
Ludo fatigatumque somno
4 Od. iii. v. 9.
In lofty vulture's rising grounds,
N° 86. FRIDAY, JUNE 8, 1711.
"Crine ruber, niger ore, brevis pede, lumine læsus :
Epig. lib. 1. 12.
I have seen a very ingenious author on this sub who founds his speculations on the suppo sition, that as a man bath in the mould of his face
Socrates. Loquere ut te videam.'
John Baptista Porta, a Neopolitan, who died in the year 1515 leaving, among other works, one "De Physiognomia," which was printed at Leyden, 1645. See also Lavater on the same a
a remote likeness to that of an ox, a sheep, a lion, precious stones, which are frequently enough to be ahog, or any other creature; he hath the same met with in the cabinets of the curious. But howresemblance in the frame of his mind, and is sub-ever observations of this nature may sometimes ject to those passions which are predominant in the hold, a wise man should be particularly cautious creature that appears in his countenance. Accord- how he gives credit to a man's outward appearingly he gives the prints of several faces that are ance. It is an irreparable injustice we are guilty of a different mould, and by a little overcharging of towards one another, when we are prejudiced the likeness, discovers the figures of these several by the looks and features of those whom we do not kinds of brutal faces in human features. I remem- know. How often do we conceive hatred against ber, in the life of the famous Prince of Condé, a person of worth, or fancy a man to be proud or the writer observes, the face of that prince was ill-natured by his aspect, whom we think we cannot like the face of an eagle, and that the prince was esteem too much when we are acquainted with his very well pleased to be told so. In this case there-real character? Dr. Moore, in his admirable System fore we may be sure that he had in his mind some of Ethics, reckons this particular inclination to general implicit notion of this art of physiognomy take a prejudice against a man for his looks, among i which I have just now mentioned; and that when the smaller vices in morality, and, if I remember, his courtiers told him his face was made like an gives it the name of a prosopolepsia.*
eagle's, he understood them in the same manner as if they had told him, there was something in his looks which showed him to be strong, active, piercing, and of a royal descent. Whether or no the different motions of the animal spirits, in different passions, may have any effect on the mould of the face when the lineaments are pliable and tender, or whether the same kind of souls require the same kind of habitations, I shall leave to the consideration of the curious. In the mean time I Ir has been the purpose of several of my speculathink nothing can be more glorious than for a man tions to bring people to an unconcerned behaviour, to give the lie to his face, and to be an honest, with relation to their persons, whether beautiful or past, good-natured man, in spite of all those marks defective. As the secrets of the Ugly Clubf were and signatures which nature seems to have set exposed to the public, that men might see there upon him for the contrary. This very often hap-were some noble spirits in the age, who are not at pens among those, who, instead of being exaspe- all displeased with themselves upon considerations rated by their own looks, or envying the looks of which they had no choice in; so the discourse conothers, apply themselves entirely to the cultivating cerning Idols‡ tended to lessen the value people of their minds, and getting those beauties which put upon themselves from personal advantages and are more lasting, and more ornamental. I have gifts of nature. As to the latter species of manseen many an amiable piece of deformity; and kind, the beauties, whether male or female, they have observed a certain cheerfulness in as bad a are generally the most untractable people of all system of features as ever was clapped together, others. You are so excessively perplexed with the which have appeared more lovely than all the particularities in their behaviour, that to be at ease, Blooming charms of an insolent beauty. There is one would be apt to wish there were no such creaa double praise due to virtue when it is lodged in tures. They expect so great allowances, and give body that seems to have been prepared for the so little to others, that they who have to do with eception of vice; in many such cases the soul and them find, in the main, a man with a better person he body do not seem to be fellows. than ordinary, and a beautiful woman, might be Socrates was an extraordinary instance of this very happily changed for such to whom nature has ture. There chanced to be a great physiogno- been less liberal. The handsome fellow is usually st in his time at Athens, who had made strange so much a gentleman, and the fine woman has coveries of men's tempers and inclinations by something so becoming, that there is no enduring eir outward appearances. Socrates' disciples, either of them. It has therefore been generally they might put this artist to the trial, carried my choice to mix with cheerful ugly creatures, rato their master, whom he had never seen ther than gentlemen who are graceful enough to fore, and did not know he was then in com- omit or do what they please; or beauties who have ay with him. After a short examination of his charms enough to do and say what would be dise, the physiognomist pronounced him the most obliging in any but themselves.
d, libidinous, drunken old fellow that he had Diffidence and presumption, upon account of our Er met with in his whole life. Upon which the persons, are equally faults; and both arise from ples all burst out a laughing, as thinking they the want of knowing, or rather endeavouring to detected the falsehood and vanity of his art. know ourselves, and for what we ought to be valued Socrates told them, that the principles of his or neglected But indeed I did not imagine these might be very true, notwithstanding his pre-little considerations and coquetries could have the mistake; for that he himself was naturally in-ill consequence as I find they have by the followto those particular vices which the physioging letters of my correspondents, where it seems ist had discovered in his countenance; but that beauty is thrown into the account, in matters of ad conquered the strong dispositions he was sale, to those who receive no favour from the with, by the dictates of philosophy.*
e are indeed told by an ancient author,t that ates very much resembled Silenus in his face; we find to have been very rightly observed the statues and busts of both, that are still t; as well as on several antique seals and
tro's Tasculan Questions.
N° 87. SATURDAY, JUNE 9, 1711.
Nimium ne crede colori.
VIRG. Eel. ii. 17.
AFTER I have assured you, I am in every respect one of the handsomest young girls about town, I
A Greek word, translated in our New Testament (Rom. iis
+ See No. 73,
need be particular in nothing but the make of my drams for those who are more enamoured than or
to the club.
'You see how honest I have been to confess all
'There can be no objection made on the side of
and obedient servant,
N° 88. MONDAY, JUNE 11, 1711.
VIRG. Ecl. iii. 16.
Quid domini facient, audent cum talia fures?
May 30, 1711,
London, June 7, 1711.
det so well,
before the world what may escape their observa-
UPON reading your late dissertation concerning
d and rustic
Para came all t
cause his Idol would wash the dish in which she had England. They have no where else such plentiful
but I am a real sufferer by it. These lovers take negligent, or where they so frequently change their lord for
surfeit to make his court, and all his rivals, at the the frequent robberies and losses which we sufferers, and t
a regiment. I wish you would give us your
Mr. Eusden, afterwards poct-laureat.
'P. S. I have sacrificed my necklace to put into the public lottery against the common enemy. And last Saturday, about three o'clock in the afternoon, I began to patch indifferently on both sides of my face.'
*See No. 48.
This Idol was a young widow who kept the Widow's cofice
tics who last Sunday settled the characters of my Lord stat
bring their lacqueys out of state, and here it is that all they say at their tables, and act in their houses, is communicated to the whole town. There are men of wit in all conditions of life; and mixing with these people at their diversions, I have heard coquettes and prudes as well rallied, and insolence cation) with as much humour and good sense, as in and pride exposed (allowing for their want of eduthe politest companies. It is a general observation, that all dependants run in some measure into the manners and behaviour of those whom they
This honest gentleman, who is so desirous that I should write a satire upon grooms, has a great deal of reason for his resentment; and I know no serve. You shall frequently meet with lovers and evil which touches all mankind so much as this of men of intrigue among the lacqueys as well as at the misbehaviour of servants. White's or in the side-boxes. I remember some The complaint of this letter runs wholly upon years ago an instance of this kind. A footman to men-servants; and I can attribute the licentious-a colonel of the guards used frequently, when his ness which has at present prevailed among them, master was out of the way, to carry on amours and to nothing but what an hundred before me have make assignations in his master's clothes. The felascribed it to, the custom of giving board-wages. low had a very good person, and there are very, This one instance of false economy is sufficient to many women that think no further than the outside debauch the whole nation of servants, and makes of a gentleman: besides which, he was almost as them as it were but for some part of their time in learned a man as the colonel himself: I say, thus that quality. They are either attending in places qualified, the fellow could scrawl billet-doux so where they meet and run into clubs, or else if they well, and furnished a conversation on the common wait at taverns, they eat after their masters, and re- topics, that he had, as they call it, a great deal of serve their wages for other occasions, From hence good business on his hands. It happened one day, it arises, that they are but in a lower degree what that coming down a tavern stairs in his master's fine their masters themselves are; and usually affect an guard-coat, with a well-dressed woman masked, he imitation of their manners: and you have in live- met the colonel coming up with other company; ries, beaux, fops, and coxcombs, in as high per- but with a ready assurance he quitted his lady, fection as among people that keep equipages. It came up to him and said, Sir, I know you have is a common humour among the retinue of people too much respect for yourself to cane me in this of quality, when they are in their revels, that is honourable habit. But you see there is a lady in when they are out of their master's sight, to assume the case, and I hope on that score also, you will in a humorous way the names and titles of those put off your anger till I have told you all another whose liveries they wear. By which means cha- time.' After a little pause the colonel cleared up racters and distinctions become so familiar to them, his countenance, and with an air of familiarity that it is to this, among other causes, one may im. whispered his man apart, Sirrah, bring the lady pute a certain insolence among our servants, that with you to ask pardon for you:" then aloud, 'Look they take no notice of any gentleman, though they to it, Will, I'll never forgive you else.' The fellow know him ever so well, except he is an acquaint- went back to his mistress, and telling her, with a
loud voice and an oath, that was the honestest fellow
ance of their master's.
My obscurity and taciturnity leave me at liberty, in the world, conveyed her to an hackney-coach. without scandal, to dine if I think fit at a common But the many irregularities committed by serdinary, in the meanest as well as the most sump-vants in the places above-mentioned, as well as in ous house of entertainment. Falling in the other theatres, of which masters are generally the occaday at a victualling-house near the house of peers, sions, are too various not to need being resumed on beard the maid come down and tell the landlady another occasion.
at the bar, that my lord bishop swore he would throw her out at window, if she did not bring up more mild beer, and that my lord duke would have double mug of purl. My surprise was increased hearing loud and rustic voices speak and answer each other upon the public affairs, by the names the most illustrious of our nobility; till of a suden one came running in, and cried the house was ng Down came all the company together and Pay! The alehouse was immediately filled with amour, and scoring one mug to the marquis of cha place, oil and vinegar to such an earl, three arts to my new lord for wetting his title, and so th. It is a thing too notorious to mention the owds of servants, and their insolence, near the rts of justice, and the stairs towards the supreme embly, where there is an universal mockery of order, such riotous clamour and licentious conion, that one would think the whole nation lived jest, and that there was no such thing as rule distinction among us.
The next place of resort, wherein the servile at the entrance of Hyde-Park,
rld are let loose ile the gentry..
the Ring. Hither people
servations, that we may know how to treat these
'P. S. Pray do not omit the mention of grooms in particular.'
The rock, parliament xts at the present time at a public
N° 89. TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 1711.
- Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque,
PERS. Sat. v. 64.
Pers. From thee both old and young, with profit, learn → The bounds of good and evil to discern.
Corn. Unhappy he, who does this work adjourn,
Pers. But is one day of ease too much to borrow?
As my correspondents upon the subject of love are very numerous, it is my design, if possible, to range