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portion of taxes upon those lands. The loss then am ever contriving schemes to promote it; and of such a people must needs be sensible to the think I may without vanity pretend to have con prince, and visible to the whole kingdom. trived some as wise as any of the castle-builders On the other hand, if it should please God to I had no sooner given up my former project, bu drop from heaven a new people equal in number my head was presently full of draining fens and and riches to the city, I should be ready to think marshes, banking out the sea, and joining new their excises, customs, and house-rent, would raise lands to my country; for since it is thought im as great a revenue to the crown as would be lost practicable to increase the people to the land, in the former case. And as the consumption of fell immediately to consider how much would be this new body would be a new market for the gained to the prince by increasing the land to the fruits of the country, all the lands, especially those people. most adjacent, would rise in their yearly value, and pay greater yearly taxes to the public. The gain in this case would be as sensible as the for

mer loss.

If the same omnipotent Power which made the world, should at this time raise out of the ocean and join to Great Britain an equal extent of land, with equal buildings, corn, cattle, and other com veniencies and necessaries of life, but no men, women, nor children, I should hardly believe this would add either to the riches of the people or revenue of the prince; for since the present buildings are sufficient for all the inhabitants, if any of For my own part, I should believe that seven- them should forsake the old to inhabit the new eighths of the people are without property in them- part of the island, the increase of house-rent in selves or the heads of their families, and forced to this would be attended with at least an equal de work for their daily bread; and that of this sort crease of it in the other. Besides we have such a there are seven millions in the whole island of sufficiency of corn and cattle, that we give boun Great Britain and yet one would imagine that ties to our neighbours to take what exceeds of the seven-eighths of the whole people should consume former off our hands, and we will not suffer any at least three-fourths of the whole fruits of the of the latter to be imported upon us by our fellow. country. If this is the case, the subjects without subjects: and for the remaining product of the property pay three-fourths of the rents, and con- country, it is already equal to all our markets. But sequently enable the landed men to pay three-if all these things should be doubled to the same fourths of their taxes. Now if so great a part of buyers, the owners must be glad with half their the land-tax were to be divided by seven millions, present prices, the landlords with half their preit would amount to more than three shillings to sent rents; and thus by so great an enlargement of every head. And thus as the poor are the cause, the country, the rents in the whole would not in without which the rich could not pay this tax, crease, nor the taxes to the public. even the poorest subject is upon this account worth three shillings yearly to the prince.

Whatsoever is assessed upon the general, is levied upon individuals. It were worth the while then to consider what is paid by, or by means of, the meanest subjects, in order to compute the value of every subject to the prince.

On the contrary, I should believe they would be very much diminished; for as the land is only va Again; one would imagine the consumption of luable for its fruits, and these are all perishable, seven-eighths of the whole people should pay two and for the most part must either be used within thirds of all the customs and excises. And if this the year, or perish without use, the owners will sum too should be divided by seven millions, viz. get rid of them at any rate, rather than they should the number of poor people, it would amount to waste in their possession: so that it is probable the more than seven shillings to every head; and annual production of those perishable things, even therefore with this and the former sum every of the tenth part of them, beyond all possibility of poor subject, without property, except of his limbs use, will reduce one half of their value. It seems or labour, is worth at least ten shillings yearly to to be for this reason that our neighbour merchants, the sovereign. So much then the queen loses who ingross all the spices, and know how great a with every one of her old, and gains with every one of her new subjects.

quantity is equal to the demand, destroy all that exceeds it. It were natural then to think that the When I was got into this way of thinking, I annual production of twice as much as can be presently grew conceited of the argument, and was used, must reduce all to an eighth part of their just preparing to write a letter of advice to a present prices; and thus this extended island would member of parliament, for opening the freedom of not exceed one-fourth part of its present value, or our towns and trades, for taking away all manner pay more than one-fourth part of the present tas of distinctions between the natives and foreigners, It is generally observed, that in countries of the for repealing our laws of parish settlements, and greatest plenty, there is the poorest living; like removing every other obstacle to the increase of the schoolman's ass in one of my speculations, the the people. But as soon as I had recollected with people almost starve between two meals. The what inimitable eloquence my fellow labourers had truth is, the poor, which are the bulk of a nation, exaggerated the mischiefs of selling the birthright work only that they may live; and if with two of Britons for a shilling, of spoiling the pure British days' labour they can get a wretched subsistence, blood with foreign mixtures, of introducing a con- they will hardly be brought to work the other four. fusion of languages and religions, and of letting in But then with the wages of two days they can strangers to eat the bread out of the mouths of our neither pay such prices for their provisions, nor own people, I became so humble as to let my such excises to the government. project fall to the ground, and leave my country That paradox, therefore, in old Hesiod, to increase by the ordinary way of generation. AMITU AVTOS, or, half is more than the whole,' As I have always at heart the public good, so I is very applicable to the present case; since nething is more true in political arithmetic, than that the same people with half a country is more va

In ironical allusion to some of the arguments that had been urged in the year 1708, against a bill for the naturalization of fo reign Protestants, on their taking and subscribing the oath of allegiance, &c. The Whigs supported this bill, and the Tories opposed it.

• The Hollanders.
† No. 191.
Selected as the motto of No. 195.

tend to a

the caste


whichever of them shall be assigned as the principle of divine worship, it manifestly points to a Supreme Being as the first author of it.

luable than with the whole. I begin to think there promate it; a was nothing absurd in Sir W. Petty, when he fancied if all the highlands of Scotland, and the whole kingdom of Ireland, were sunk in the ocean, so I may take some other opportunity of consider that the people were all saved and brought into ing those particular forms and methods of devotion Grathe lowlands of Great Britain; nay, though they which are taught us by Christianity; but shall here were to be reimbursed the value of their estates by observe into what errors even this divine principle the body of the people, yet both the sovereign and may sometimes lead us, when it is not moderated the subjects in general would be enriched by the by that right reason which was given us as the very loss. guide of all our actions.


it is

iple to the w much w

ng the If the people only make the riches, the father The two great errors into which a mistaken deof ten children is a greater benefactor to his coun-votion may betray us, are, enthusiasm and supertry, than he who has added to it 10,000 acres of stition.

er which mu out of the

al extent.

e, and life, but ardly be of the

land, and no people. It is certain, Lewis has There is not a more melancholy object than a joined vast tracts of land to his dominions: but if man who has his head turned with a religious enPhilarithmus says true, that he is not now master of thusiasm. A person that is crazed, though with so many subjects as before; we may then account pride or malice, is a sight very mortifying to hufor his not being able to bring such mighty armies man nature; but when the distemper arises from into the field, and for their being neither so well any indiscreet fervours of devotion, or too intense the presefed, nor clothed, nor paid as formerly. The reason an application of the mind to its mistaken duties, abitants is plain. Lewis must needs have been impoverish-it deserves our compassion in a more particular inhaber ed, not only by his loss of subjects, but by his ac-manner. We may, however, learn this lesson from of bass quisition of lands. it, that since devotion itself (which one would be apt to think could not be too warm) may disorder the mind, unless its heats are tempered with caution and prudence, we should be particularly careful to keep our reason as cool as possible, and to guard ourselves in all parts of life against the influence of passion, imagination, and constitution.

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No 201. SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1711.

Religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas.

Incerti Auctoris apud AUL. GELL.
A man should be religious, not superstitious.

Devotion, when it does not lie under the check of reason, is very apt to degenerate into enthusiasm. When the mind finds herself very much inwith Iris of the last importance to season the passions flamed with her devotions, she is too much inclined of a child with devotion, which seldom dies in a to think they are not of her own kindling, but mind that has received an early tincture of it. blown up by something divine within her. If she Though it may seem extinguished for a while by indulges this thought too far, and humours the cares of the world, the heats of youth, or the growing passion, she at last flings herself into imathe allurements of vice, it generally breaks out and ginary raptures and ecstasies; and when once she discovers itself again as soon as discretion, consi-fancies herself under the influence of a divine imalderation, age, or misfortunes have brought the man pulse, it is no wonder if she slights human ordito himself. The fire may be covered and overlaid, nances, and refuses to comply with any established form of religion, as thinking herself directed by a much superior guide.

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e but cannot be entirely quenched or smothered. A state of temperance, sobriety, and justice, without devotion, is a cold, lifeless, insipid condi- As enthusiasm is a kind of excess in devotion, tion of virtue; and is rather to be styled philoso- superstition is the excess not only of devotion, but phy than religion. Devotion opens the mind to of religion in general, according to an old heathen great conceptions, and fills it with more sublime saying, quoted by Aulus Gellius, Religentem esse ideas than any that are to be met with in the most oportet, religiosum nefas; A man should be reli hexalted science; and at the same time warms and gious, not superstitious.' For, as the author tells agitates the soul more than sensual pleasure. us, Nigidius observed upon this passage, that the

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It has been observed by some writers, that man Latin words which terminate in osus generally is more distinguished from the animal world by imply vicious characters, and the having of any devotion than by reason, as several brute crea- quality to an excess.

tures discover in their actions something like a faint An enthusiast in religion is like an obstinate glimmering of reason, though they betray, in no clown, a superstitious man like an insipid courtier. single circumstance of their behaviour, any thing Enthusiasm has something in it of madness, superthat bears the least affinity to devotion. It is cer- stition of folly. Most of the sects that fall short of tain, the propensity of the mind to religious wor- the Church of England have in them strong tincship, the natural tendency of the soul to fly to tures of enthusiasm, as the Roman catholic religion some superior being for succour in dangers and is one huge overgrown body of childish and idle distresses, the gratitude to an invisible superin- superstitions.

tendent which arises in us upon receiving any The Roman catholic church seems indeed irrecoextraordinary and unexpected good fortune, the verably lost in this particular. If an absurd dress

acts of love and admiration with which the thoughts or behaviour be introduced in the world, it will


men are so wonderfully transported in medi- soon be found out and discarded. On the contating upon the divine perfections, and the uni- trary, a habit or ceremony, though never so ridiversal concurrence of all the nations under heaven culous, which has taken sanctuary in the church, in the great article of adoration, plainly show that sticks in it for ever. A Gothic bishop perhaps devotion or religious worship must be the effect of thought it proper to repeat such a form in such tradition from some first founder of mankind, or particular shoes or slippers; another fancied it that it is conformable to the natural light of would be very decent if such a part of public dereason, or that it proceeds from an instinct im-votions were performed with a mitre on his head, planted in the soul itself. For my part, I look and a crosier in his hand. To this a brother Vanpon all these to be the concurrent causes: but dal, as wise as the others, adds an antic dress,

which he conceived would allude very aptly to those distinctions will avail only to keep up com such and such mysteries, till by degrees the whole mon decencies and ceremonies, and not to pre office has degenerated into an empty show. serve a real place of favour or esteem in the opi Their successors see the vanity and inconvenience nion and common sense of their fellow creatures of the ceremonies; but, instead of reforming, per- The folly of people's procedure, in imagining haps add others, which they think more significant, that nothing more is necessary than property and and which take possession in the same manner, and superior circumstances to support them in distinc are never to be driven out after they have been tion, appears in no way so much as in the domestic once admitted. I have seen the Pope officiate at part of life. It is ordinary to feed their humours St. Peter's, where, for two hours together, he was into unnatural excrescences, if I may so speak, busied in putting on or off his different accoutre-and make their whole being a wayward and unments, according to the different parts he was to act in them.

easy condition, for want of the obvious reflection, that all parts of human life is a commerce. It is Nothing is so glorious in the eyes of mankind, not only paying wages, and giving commands, that and ornamental to human nature, setting aside the constitutes a master of a family; but prudence, infinite advantages which arise from it, as a strong equal behaviour, with readiness to protect and steady, masculine piety; but enthusiasm and su- cherish them, is what entitles a man to that chaperstition are the weaknesses of human reason, racter in their very hearts and sentiments. It is that expose us to the scorn and derision of infidels, pleasant enough to observe, that men expect from and sink us even below the beasts that perish. their dependents, from their sole motive of fear, Idolatry may be looked upon as another error all the good effects which a liberal education, and arising from mistaken devotion; but because re-affluent fortune, and every other advantage cannot flections on that subject would be of no use to an produce in themselves. A man will have his serEnglish reader, I shall not enlarge upon it.


N° 202. MONDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1711.

Sæpe decem vitiis instructior odit et horret.


vant just, diligent, sober and chaste, for no other reasons but the terror of losing his master's favour; when all the laws divine and human cannot keep him whom he serves within bounds, with relation to any one of those virtues. But both in great and ordinary affairs, all superiority, which is not founded on merit and virtue, is supported only by artifice and stratagem. Thus you see flatterers are the agents in families of humourists, and those who govern themselves by any thing but reason. Makebates, distant relations, poor kinsmen, and indigent followers, are the fry which support the THE other day, as I passed along the street, I saw economy of an humoursome rich man. He is etera sturdy 'prentice boy disputing with a backney-nally whispered with intelligence of who are true coachman; and in an instant, upon some word of or false to him in matters of no consequence, provocation, throw off his hat and periwig, clench he maintains twenty friends to defend him against his fist, and strike the fellow a slap on the face; the insinuations of one who would perhaps cheat at the same time calling him a rascal, and telling him of an old coat.

HOR. Ep. 18. 1. i. v. 25.
Many, though faultier much themselves, pretend
Their less offending neighbours' faults to mend.


him he was a gentleman's son. The young gentle. I shall not enter into further speculation upon man was, it seems, bound to a blacksmith; and this subject at present, but think the following let the debate arose about payment for some work ters and petition are made up of proper sentiments done about a coach, near which they fought. His on this occasion.

master, during the combat, was full of his boy's

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praises; and as he called to him to play with his MR. SPECTATOR,

bands and foot, and throw in his head, he made all I AM a servant to an old lady, who is governed us who stood round him of his party, by declaring by one she calls her friend; who is so familiar an the boy had very good friends, and he could trust one, that she takes upon her to advise her without him with untold gold. As I am generally in the being called to it, and makes her uneasy with all theory of mankind, I could not but make my re- about her. Pray, sir, be pleased to give us some flections upon the sudden popularity which was remarks upon voluntary counsellors; and let these raised about the lad; and perhaps, with my friend people know, that to give any body advice, is to Tacitus, fell into observations upon it, which were say to that person, "I am your betters." Pray, too great for the occasion; or ascribed this general sir, as near as you can, describe that eternal flirt favour to causes which had nothing to do towards it. and disturber of families, Mrs. Taperty, who is But the young blacksmith's being a gentleman was, always visiting, and putting people in a way, as methought, what created him good-will from his they call it. If you can make her stay at home present equality with the mob about him. Add to one evening, you will be a general benefactor to this, that he was not so much a gentleman, as not, all the ladies' women in town, and particularly to at the same time that he called himself such, to use as rough methods for his defence as his antagonist. The advantage of his having good friends, as his master expressed it, was not lazily urged; but heI AM a footman, and live with one of those men, showed himself superior to the coachman in the each of whom is said to be one of the best-humourpersonal qualities of courage and activity, to con-ed men in the world, but that he is passionate. firm that of his being well allied, before his birth Pray be pleased to inform them, that he who is was of any service to him. passionate, and takes no care to command his has If one might moralize from this silly story, a tiness, does more injury to his friends and servants man would say, that whatever advantages of for- in one half hour, than whole years can atone for. tune, birth, or any other good, people possess This master of mine, who is the best man alive in above the rest of the world, they should show col- common fame, disobliges somebody every day he lateral eminencies besides those distinctions; or lives; and strikes me for the next thing I do, be


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cause he is out of humour at it. If these gentle- preying at large, and living upon the common, he
men knew that they do all the mischief that is finds so much game in a populous city, that it is
ever done in conversation, they would reform: surprising to consider the numbers which he some-
and I who have been a Spectator of gentlemen at times propagates. We see many a young fellow
dinner for many years, have seen that indiscretion who is scarce of age, that could lay his claim to
does ten times more mischief than ill-nature. But the jus trium liberorum, or the privileges which
you will represent this much better than
were granted by the Roman laws to all such as
'Your abused humble servant, were fathers of three children. Nay, I have heard
THOMAS SMOKY.' a rake, who was not quite five and twenty, declare
himself the father of a seventh son, and very pru-
dently determine to breed him up a physician. In
The humble petition of John Steward, Robert short, the town is full of these young patriarchs,
Butler, Harry Cook, and Abigail Chambers, in heedless spendthrifts that squander away their
not to mention several battered beaux, who, like
behalf of themselves and their relations, belong-estates before they are masters of them, have raised
ing to and dispersed in the several services of
most of the great families within the cities of


London and Westminster:


up their whole stock of children before marriage. I must not here omit the particular whim of an impudent libertine, that had a little smattering of heraldry; and observing how the genealogies of trees, had taken a fancy to dispose of his own illegreat families were often drawn up in the shape of

THAT in many of the families in which your petitioners live and are employed, the several heads of them are wholly unacquainted with what is bu-gitimate issue in a figure of the same kind: taste.fr:siness, and are very little judges when they are well or ill used by us your said petitioners.

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'That for want of such skill in their own affairs, and by indulgence of their own laziness and pride, they continually keep about them certain mis chievous animals called spies.

'That whenever a spy is entertained, the peace of that house is from that moment banished.

'That spies never give an account of good services, but represent our mirth and freedom by the words wantonness and disorder.

'That in all families where there are spies, there is a general jealousy and misunderstanding.

That the masters and mistresses of such houses live in continual suspicion of their ingenuous and true servants, and are given up to the management of those who are false and perfidious.

- Nec longum tempus et ingens Exiit ad cælum rumis felicibus arbos, Miraturque novas frondes, et non sua poma.'

VIRG. Georg. ii. ver. 80.

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The trunk of the tree was marked with his own name, Will Maple. Out of the side of it grew a large barren branch, inscribed Mary Maple, the name of his unhappy wife. The head was adorned with five huge boughs. On the bottom of the first was written in capital characters Kate Cole, who branched out into three sprigs, viz. William, That such masters and mistresses who entertain Richard, and Rebecca. Sal Twiford gave birth to spies, are no longer more than ciphers in their own another bough that shot up into Sarah, Tom, Will, families; and that we your petitioners are with and Frank. The third arm of the tree had only a great disdain obliged to pay all our respect, and expect all our maintenance from such spies. Your petitioners therefore most humbly pray, that you would represent the premises to all persons of condition; and your petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, &c.'



N° 203. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1711.

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single infant on it, with a space left for a second, the parent from whom it sprung being near her time when the author took this ingenious device into his head. The two other great boughs were very plentifully loaden with fruit of the same kind; besides which, there were many ornamental branches that did not bear. In short, a more fiourishing tree never came out of the herald's office.

What makes this generation of vermin so very prolific, is the indefatigable diligence with which they apply themselves to their business. A man does not undergo more watching and fatigues in a campaign, than in the course of a vicious amour. As it is said of some men, that they make their business their pleasure, these sons of darkness may be said to make their pleasure their business. They might conquer their corrupt mclinations with half the pains they are at in gratifying them.

Nor is the invention of these men less to be admired than their industry and vigilance. There is THERE is a loose tribe of men whom I have not a fragment of Apollodorus the comic poet (who jet taken notice of, that ramble into all the corners was contemporary with Menander) which is full of this great city, in order to seduce such unfortu- of humour, as follows: Thou mayest shut up thy hate females as fall into their walks. These aban- doors,' says he, with bars and bolts. It will be doned profligates raise up issue in every quarter of impossible for the blacksmith to make them so fast, the town, and very often, for a valuable considera- but a cat and a whoremaster will find a way tion, father it upon the churchwarden. By this through them.' In a word, there is no head so full means there are several married men who have a of stratagems as that of a libidinous man. little family in most of the parishes of London and Where I to propose a punishment for this infa.. Westminster, and several bachelors who are un-mous race of propagators, it should be to send done by a charge of children. them, after the second or third offence, into our When a man once gives himself this liberty of American colonies, in order to people those parts

of her majesty's dominions where there is a want (fered the world, become an admirer thereof, whic of inhabitants, and, in the phrase of Diogenes, to has drawn me to make this confession; at the same 'plant men.' Some countries punish this crime time hoping, if any thing herein shall touch you with death; but I think such a banishment would with a sense of pity, you would then allow me the be sufficient, and might turn this generative faculty to the advantage of the public.

favour of your opinion thereupon; as also what part I, being unlawfully born, may claim of the In the mean time, till these gentlemen may be man's affections who begot me, and how far in your thus disposed of, I would earnestly exhort them to opinion I am to be thought his son, or he acknow take care of those unfortunate creatures whom ledged as my father. Your sentiments and advice they have brought inte the world by these indirect herein will be a great consolation and satisfac methods, and to give their spurious children such tion to, an education as may render them more virtuous than their parents. This is the best atonement they can make for their own crimes, and indeed the only method that is left them to repair their past miscarriages.

I would likewise desire them to consider, whether they are not bound in common humanity, as well as by all the obligations of religion and nature, to make some provision for those whom they have not only given life to, but entailed upon them, though very unreasonably, a degree of shame and disgrace. And here I cannot but take notice of those depraved notions which prevail among us, and which must have taken rise from our na tural inclination to favour a vice to which we are so very prone, namely, that bastardy and cuck. oldom should be looked upon as reproaches; and that the ignominy which is only due to lewdness and falsehood, should fal: in so unreasonable a manner upon the persons who are innocent.


'SIR, "Your admirer and 'humble servant,

W. B


No 204. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1711.

Urit grata protervitas,

Et vultus nimium lubricus aspici.

HOR. Od. xix. 1. 1. ver. 7.
With winning coyness she my soul disarms:
Her face darts forth a thousand rays;
My eye balls swim, and I grow giddy while I gaze.

I AM not at all displeased that I am become the courier of love, and that the distressed in that passion convey their complaints to each other by I have been insensibly drawn into this discourse my means. The following letters have lately come by the following letter, which is drawn up with to my hands, and shall have their place with great such a spirit of sincerity, that I question not but willingness. As to the reader's entertainment, be the writer of it has represented his case in a true as to him may perhaps seem frivolous, but are to will, I hope, forgive the inserting such particulars and genuine light.


the persons who wrote them of the highest conse. quence. I shall not trouble you with the prefaces, 'I AM one of those people who by the general opi- each epistle when it was desired to be inserted; compliments, and apologies made to me before nion of the world are counted both infamous and but in general they tell me, that the persons to unhappy.



My father is a very eminent man in this king-whom they are addressed have intimations, by dom, and one who bears considerable offices in it. phrases and allusions in them, from whence they I am his son; but my misfortune is, that I dare not call him father, nor he without shame own me as his issue, I being illegitimate, and therefore deprived of that endearing tenderness and unparal-THE word, by which I address you, gives you, leled satisfaction which a good man finds in the who understand Portuguese, a lively image of love and conversation of a parent. Neither have the tender regard I have for you. The Spectator's I the opportunities to render him the duties of a late letter from Statirat gave me the hint to use son, he having always carried himself at so vast a the same method of explaining myself to you. distance, and with such superiority towards me, am not affronted at the design your late behaviour that by long use I have contracted a timorousness discovered you had in your addresses to me; but when before him, which hinders me from declaring I impute it to the degeneracy of the age, rather my own necessities, and giving him to understand than your particular fault. As I aim at nothing the inconveniencies I undergo. more than being yours, I am willing to be a

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It is my misfortune to have been neither bred stranger to your name, your fortune, or any figure a scholar, a soldier, nor to any kind of business, which your wife might expect to make in the which renders me intirely incapable of making world, provided my commerce with you is not to provision for myself without his assistance; and be a guilty one. I resign gay dress, the pleasures this creates a continual uneasiness in my mind, of visits, equipage, plays, balls, and operas, for fearing I shall in time want bread; my father, if i that one satisfaction of having you for ever mine. may so call him, giving me but very faint assur- I am willing you shall industriously conceal the ances of doing any thing for me. only cause of triumph which I can know in this I have hitherto lived somewhat like a gentle- life. I wish only to have it my duty, as well as man, and it would be very hard for me to labour my inclination, to study your happiness. If this for my living. I am in continual anxiety for my future fortune, and under a great unhappiness in losing the sweet conversation and friendly advice of my parents; so that I cannot look upon myself otherwise than as a monster, strangely sprung up in nature, which every one is ashamed to own.

* There is no such word as Sethades in the Portuguese dic tionaries. Saudades (for which we may suppose it to have bee mistaken) signifies, "the most refined, most tender and ardent de sires for something absent, accompanied with a solicitude any anxi us regard, which cannot be expressed by one word in any other language. Saudade,' say the dictionaries, signific finissimo sentimento del bien ansente, com deseo de possccra. I am thought to be a man of some natural parts, Saudades, therefore, comprehends every good wish." and by the continual reading what you have of + The first letter in No. 199.

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