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much taken up with throwing her eyes around thef paper then, I should have taken your method to audience, and considering the effect of them, that have secured a villain. Go on and prosper. 'Your most obliged humble servant.'


she cannot be expected to observe the actors but as they are her rivals, and take off the observation of the men from herself. Besides these species of women, there are the Examples, or the first of the WITHOUT raillery, I desire you to insert this mode: these are to be supposed too well acquainted word for word, in your next, as you value a lover's with what the actor was going to say to be moved prayers. You see it is an hue and cry after a at it. After these one might mention a certain flip-stray heart (with the marks and blemishes underpant set of females who are Mimics, and are won-written ;) which whoever shall bring to you shali derfully diverted with the conduct of all the people receive satisfaction. Let me beg of you not to around them, and are spectators only of the audi- fail, as you remember the passion you had for her ence. But what is of all the most to be lamented, to whom you lately ended a paper:*

is the loss of a party whom it would be worth preserving in their right senses upon all occasions, and these are those whom we may indifferently call the innocent, or the unaffected. You may sometimes see one of these sensibly touched with a wellwrought incident; but then she is immediately so impertinently observed by the men, and frowned at by some insensible superior of her own sex, that she is ashamed, and loses the enjoyment of the most laudable concern, pity. Thus the whole audience is afraid of letting fall a tear, and shun as a weakness the best and worthiest part of our sense.'

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Noble, generous, great, and good,
But never to be understood;
Fickle as the wind, still changing,
After every female ranging,
Panting, trembling, sighing, dying,
But addicted much to lying:
When the siren songs repeats,
Equal measures still it beats;
Whoe'er shall wear it, it will smart her,
And whoe'er takes it, take a Tartar.'


No 209. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 30, 1711.

Tuvamos ade xenu' avng anıslar-
Εσθλης αμείνον, «δε βίλιον κακης.


Of earthly goods, the best is a good wife;
A bad, the bitterest curse of human life.

A reader cannot be

'As you are one that doth not only pretend to reform, but effect it amongst people of any sense; makes me (who am one of the greatest of your admirers) give you this trouble to desire you will settle the method of us females knowing when one another is in town: for they have now got a trick of never sending to their acquaintance when they THERE are no authors I am more pleased with, first come; and if one does not visit them within than those who show human nature in a variety of the week which they stay at home, it is a mortal views, and describe the several ages of the world quarrel. Now, dear Mr. Spec, either command in their different manners. them to put it in the advertisement of your paper, virtues and vices of his own times with those which more rationally entertained, than by comparing the which is generally read by our sex, or else order them to breathe their saucy footmen (who are good prevailed in the times of his forefathers; and for nothing else) by sending them to tell all their drawing à parallel in his mind between his own acquaintance. If you think to print this, pray put her of his own age, or of the ages that went be private character, and that of other persons, whe it into a better style as to the spelling part. The fore him. The contemplation of mankind under town is now filling every day, and it cannot be these changeable colours, is apt to shame us out of deferred, because people take advantage of one another by this means, and break off acquaintance, cular virtue; to make us pleased or displeased any particular vice, or animate us to any parti and are rude. Therefore pray put this in your with ourselves in the most proper points, to clear paper as soon as you can possibly, to prevent any our minds of prejudice and prepossession, and future miscarriages of this nature. I am, as I ever shall be, dear Spec,

'Your most obedient humble servant.


'Pray settle what is to be a proper notification of a person's being in town, and how that differs according to people's quality.'


Oct. the 20th.

rectify that narrowness of temper which inclines us to think amiss of those who differ from our selves.

If we look into the manners of the most remote ages of the world, we discover human nature in her simplicity; and the more we come downward towards our own times, may observe her hiding herself in artifices and refinements, polished insensibly out of her original plainness, and at length I HAVE been out of town, so did not meet with entirely lost under form and ceremony, and (what your paper dated September the 28th, wherein we call) good-breeding. Read the accounts of men you, to my heart's desire, expose that cursed vice and women as they are given us by the most anof ensnaring poor young girls, and drawing them cient writers, both sacred and profane, and you from their friends. I assure you without flattery would think you were reading the history of anoit has saved a 'prentice of mine from ruin; and in ther species." token of gratitude, as well as for the benefit of my Among the writers of antiquity, there are none family, I have put it in a frame and glass, and who instruct us more openly in the manners of their hung it behind my counter. I shall take care to respective times in which they lived, than those make my young ones read it every morning, to who have employed themselves in satire, under fortify them against such pernicious rascals. what dress soever it may appear; as there are n know not whether what you writ was matter of other authors whose province it is te enter so difact, of your own invention; but this I will take rectly into the ways of men, and set their miscar my oath on, the first part is so exactly like what riages in so strong a light. happened to my 'prentice, that bad

No. 182.

read your

Simonides, a poet famous in his generation, is,

Perhaps No. 188.

ed humble

you to se

as you rabe

hue and eye

and blemishez

il bring to ya

beg of yo ssion you a

aken your met I think, author of the oldest satire that is now These are naturally exceeding slothful, but upon and prosper extant; and, as some say, of the first that was ever the husband's exerting his authority, will live upon written. This poet flourished about four hundred hard fare and do every thing to please him. They years after the siege of Troy; and shows, by his are, however, far from being averse to venereal way of writing, the simplicity, or rather coarse-pleasure, and seldom refuse a male companion. ness, of the age in which he lived. I have taken 'The cat furnished materials for a seventh spenotice, in my hundred and sixty-first speculation, cies of women, who are of a melancholy, froward, that the rule of observing what the French call the unamiable nature, and so repugnant to the offers bienseance in an allusion, has been found out of of love, that they fly in the face of their husband latter years; and that the ancients, provided there when he approaches them with conjugal endearwas a likeness in their similitudes, did not much ments. This species of women are likewise subtrouble themselves about the decency of the com-ject to little thefts, cheats, and pilferings. parison. The satire or iambics of Simonides, with The mare with a flowing mane, which was which I shall entertain my readers in the present never broke to any servile toil and labour, compaper, are a remarkable instance of what I for-posed an eighth species of women. These are they merly advanced. The subject of this satire is wo-who have little regard for their husbands, who pass man. He describes the sex in their several cha-away their time in dressing, bathing, and perracters, which he derives to them from a fanciful fuming; who throw their hair into the nicest curls, supposition raised upon the doctrine of pre-exist- and trick it up with the fairest flowers and garence. He tells us, that the gods formed the souls lands. A woman of this species is a very pretty of women out of those seeds and principles which thing for a stranger to look upon, but very detricompose several kinds of animals and elements; mental to the owner, unless it be a king or prince and that their good or bad dispositions arise in who takes a fancy to such a toy.


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them according as such and such seeds and prin- 'The ninth species of females were taken out of OBER 3ciples predominate in their constitutions. I have the ape. These are such as are both ugly and illtranslated the author very faithfully, and if not natured, who have nothing beautiful in themselves, word for word (which our language would not and endeavour to detract from or ridicule every bear) at least so as to comprehend every one of his thing which appears so in others. sentiments, without adding any thing of my own. Ihave already apologized for this author's want of delicacy, and must further premise, that the following satire affects only some of the lower part of the sex, and not those who have been refined by a ore ples polite education, which was not so common in the reage of this poet:


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The tenth and last species of women were made out of the bee; and happy is the man who gets such an one for his wife. She is altogether faultless and unblameable. Her family flourishes and improves by her good management. She loves her husband, and is beloved by him. She brings him a race of beautiful and virtuous children. She distinguishes herself among her sex. She is surIn the beginning God made the souls of woman-rounded with graces. She never sits among the kind out of different materials, and in a separate state from their bodies.

'The souls of one kind of women were formed out of those ingredients which compose a swine. A woman of this make is a slut in her house and glutton at her table. She is uncleanly in her person, a slattern in her dress, and her family has no better than a dunghill.

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loose tribe of women, nor passes away her time with them in wanton discourses. She is full of virtue and prudence, and is the best wife that Jupiter can bestow on man.'

I shall conclude these iambics with the motto of this paper, which is a fragment of the same author: A man cannot possess any thing that is better than a good woman, nor any thing that is worse 'A second sort of female soul was formed out of than a bad one.' the same materials that enter into the composition As the poet has shown a great penetration in of a fox. Such a one is what we call a notable this diversity of female characters, he has avoided discerning woman, who has an insight into every the fault which Juvenal and Monsieur Boileau are thing whether it be good or bad. In this species of guilty of, the former in his sixth, and the other Her females there are some virtuous and some vicious. in his last satire, where they have endeavoured to A third kind of women were made up of ca- expose the sex in general, without doing justice to rine particles. These are what we commonly call the valuable part of it. Such levelling satires are colds, who imitate the animals out of which they of no use to the world; and for this reason I have were taken, that are always busy and barking, often wondered how the French author abovethat snarl at every one who comes in their way, mentioned, who was a man of excellent judgment, and live in perpetual clamour. and a lover of virtue, could think human nature a The fourth kind of women were made out of proper subject for satire in another of his celethe earth. These are your sluggards, who pass brated pieces, which is called The Satire upon away their time in indolence and ignorance, hover Man. What vice or frailty can a discourse corOver the fire a whole winter, and apply themselves rect, which censures the whole species alike, and with alacrity to no kind of business but eating. endeavours to show, by some superficial strokes of The fifth species of females were made out of wit, that brutes are the most excellent creatures of the sea. These are women of variable uneven the two? A satire should expose nothing but what lempers; sometimes all storm and tempest, some-is corrigible, and make a due discrimination betimes all calm and sunshine. The stranger who tween those who are, and those who are not the sees one of these in her smiles and smoothness, proper objects of it.*

would cry her up for a miracle of good-humour; but on a sudden her looks and her words are changed, she is nothing but fury and outrage, noise

and hurricane.

The sixth species were made up of the ingredients which compose an ass, or a beast of burden.

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the next hill must end his journey, because it ter minates his prospect; but he no sooner arrives a

No 210. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 31, 1711. it, than he sees new ground and other hills beyon

Nescio quomodo inhæret in mentibus quasi sæculorum quoddam
augurium futurorum; idque in maximis ingeniis altissimis
que animis et existit maxime, et apparet facillime.
CIC. Tusc. Quæst.

it, and continues to travel on as before.

'This is so plainly every man's condition in life that there is no one who has observed any thing but may observe, that as fast as his time wear away, his appetite to something future remains The use therefore I would make of it is this, that since Nature (as some love to express it) does no thing in vain, or, to speak properly, since the Au

There is, I know not how, in the minds of men, a certain presage, as it were of a future existence; and this takes the deepest root, and is most discoverable, in the greatest gethor of our being has planted no wandering pas

niuses and most exalted souls.

6 SIR,


sion in it, no desire which has not its object, futurity is the proper object of the passion so constantly exercised about it; and this restlessness in the present, this assigning ourselves over to further stages I AM fully persuaded that one of the best springs of duration, this successive grasping at somewhat of generous and worthy actions, is the having ge- still to come, appears to me (whatever it may to nerous and worthy thoughts of ourselves. Who- others) as a kind of instinct or natural symptom ever has a mean opinion of the dignity of his na- which the mind of man has of its own immortality. ture will act in no higher a rank than he has al- "I take it at the same time for granted, that the lotted himself in his own estimation. If he con-immortality of the soul is sufficiently establishe siders his being as circumscribed by the uncertain by other arguments: and if so, this appetite, which term of a few years, his designs will be contracted otherwise would be very unaccountable and abinto the same narrow span he imagines is to bound surd, seems very reasonable, and adds strength to his existence. How can he exalt his thoughts to any thing great and noble, who only believes that, after a short turn on the stage of this world, he is to sink into oblivion, and to lose his consciousness for ever?

the conclusion. But I am amazed when I consider there are creatures capable of thought, who, in spite of every argument, can form to themselves a sullen satisfaction in thinking otherwise. There is something so pitifully mean in the inverted amFor this reason, I am of opinion that so useful bition of that man who can hope for annihilation, and elevated a contemplation as that of the soul's and please himself to think that his whole fabric immortality cannot be resumed too often. There is shall one day crumble into dust, and mix with the not a more improving exercise to the human mind, mass of inanimate beings, that it equally deserves than to be frequently reviewing its own great pri- our admiration and pity. The mystery of such vileges and endowments; nor a more effectual men's unbelief is not hard to be penetrated; and means to awaken in us an ambition raised above indeed amounts to nothing more than a sordid hope low objects and little pursuits, than to value our-that they shall not be immortal, because they dare selves as heirs of eternity. not be so.

It is a very great satisfaction to consider the This brings me back to my first observation, and best and wisest of mankind in all nations and ages, gives me occasion to say further, that as worthy asserting, as with one voice, this their birthright, actions spring from worthy thoughts, so worthy and to find it ratified by an express revelation. At thoughts are likewise the consequence of worthy the same time, if we turn our thoughts inward upon actions. But the wretch who has degraded himourselves, we may meet with a kind of secret sense self below the character of immortality, is very concurring with the proofs of our own immor-willing to resign his pretensions to it, and to sub. tality. stitute in its room a dark negative happiness in the

You have, in my opinion, raised a good pre-extinction of his being.

sumptive argument from the increasing appetite 'The admirable Shakspeare has given us a strong the mind has to knowledge, and to the extend-image of the unsupported condition of such a pering its own faculties, which cannot be accomplished, son in his last minutes, in the second part of King as the more restrained perfection of lower crea Henry the Sixth, where Cardinal Beaufort, who tures may, in the limits of a short life. I think had been concerned in the murder of the good another probable conjecture may be raised from Duke Humphry, is represented on his death-bed. our appetite to duration itself, and from a reflec- After some short confused speeches, which show tion on our progress through the several stages of an imagination disturbed with guilt, just as he was "We are complaining," as you observe in a expiring, King Henry, standing by him full of former speculation,f" of the shortness of life, and compassion, says, yet are perpetually hurrying over the parts of it, to arrive at certain little settlements, or imaginary points of rest, which are dispersed up and down


in it."

"Lord Cardinal! if thou think'st on Heaven's bliss,
Hold up thy hand, make signal of that hope!-
He dies, and makes no sign!"-

Now let us consider what happens to us when The despair which is here shown, without 4 we arrive at these imaginary points of rest. Do word or action on the part of the dying person, is we stop our motion, and sit down satisfied in the beyond what could be painted by the most forcible settlement we have gained? or are we not remov-expressions whatever."

ing the boundary, and marking out new points of I shall not pursue this thought further, but only rest, to which we press forward with the like eager add, that as annihilation is not to be had with a ness, and which cease to be such as fast as we wish, so it is the most abject thing in the world to attain them? Our case is like that of a traveller wish it. What are honour, fame, wealth, or power, upon the Alps, who should fancy that the top of when compared with the generous expectation ef being without end, and a happiness adequate to that being?

No. 111.

No. 93.

mey, beca

no sooner me

1 other bil is before n's condition pbserved and

'I shall trouble you no further; but with a certain gravity which these thoughts have given me, reflect upon some things people say of you, as they will of men who distinguish themselves, which I hope are not true; and wish you as good a man as you are an author.

'I am, SIR,

'Your most obedient humble servant,

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'T. D.'

No 211. THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 1, 1711.

Fictis meminerit nos jocari fabulis.

PHÆDR. 1. 1. Prol.
Let it be remembered, that we sport in fabled stories.


Then let not piety be put to flight,
To please the taste of glutton appetite;
But suffer inmate souls secure to dwell,
Lest from their seats your parents you expel;
With rapid hunger feed upon your kind,
Or from a beast dislodge a brother's mind.'

Plato, in the vision of Erus the Armenian, which may possibly make the subject of a future speculation, records some beautiful transmigrations; as that the soul of Orpheus, who was musical, melancholy, and a woman-hater, entered into a swan; the soul of Ajax, which was all wrath and fierceness, into a lion; the soul of Agamemnon, that was rapacious and imperial, into an eagle; and the soul of Thersites, who was a mimic and a buffoon, into a monkey.

Mr. Congreve, in a prologue to one of his comedies, has touched upon this doctrine with great humour:

'Thus Aristotle's soul of old that was,
May now be damn❜d to animate an ass;
Or in this very house, for aught we know,
Is doing painful penance in some beau.'

3OW HAVING lately translated the fragment of an old granted poett, which describes womankind under several sienter characters, and supposes them to have drawn their is appe different manners and dispositions from those aniountabmals and elements out of which he tells us they I shall fill up this paper with some letters which adds were compounded; I had some thoughts of giving my last Tuesday's speculationt has produced. My when the sex their revenge, by laying together in following correspondents will show, what I there though another paper the many vicious characters which observed, that the speculation of that day affects prevail in the male world, and showing the different only the lower part of the sex. ther ingredients that go to the making up of such dif

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'From my house in the Strand, October 30, 1711. MR. SPECTATOR,

the referent humours and constitutions. Horace has a thought which is something akin to this, when, in order to excuse himself to his mistress for an UPON reading your Tuesday's paper, I find by invective which he had written against her, and several symptoms in my constitution that I am a to account for that unreasonable fury with which bee. My shop, or if you please to call it so, my the heart of man is often transported, he tells us, cell, is in that great hive of females which goes by that when Prometheus made his man of clay, in the name of the New-Exchange; where I am daily the kneading up of the heart, he seasoned it with employed in gathering together a little stock of some furious particles of the lion. But upon gain from the finest flowers about the town, I mean turning this plan to and fro in my thoughts, I ob- the ladies and the beaux. I have a numerous swarm be served so many unaccountable humours in man, of children, to whom I give the best education I that I did not know out of what animals to fetch am able. But, sir, it is my misfortune to be marthem. Male souls are diversified with so many ried to a drone, who lives upon what I get, withcharacters, that the world has not variety of ma-out bringing any thing into the common stock. terials sufficient to furnish out their different tem- Now, sir, as on the one hand I take care not to pers and inclinations. The creation, with all its behave myself towards him like a wasp, so likeanimals and elements, would not be large enough wise I would not have him look upon me as an to supply their several extravagancies. humble-bee; for which reason I do all I can to put Instead, therefore, of pursuing the thought of him upon laying up provisions for a bad day, and Simonides, I shall observe, that as he has exposed frequently represent to him the fatal effects his the vicious part of woman from the doctrine of pre- sloth and negligence may bring upon us in our old existence, some of the ancient philosophers have, age. I must beg that you will join with me in your in a manner, satirized the vicious part of the hu- good advice upon this occasion, and you will for man species in general, from a notion of the soul's ever oblige your humble servant, post-existence, if I may so call it; and that as Simonides describes brutes entering into the composition of woman, others have represented human souls as entering into brutes. This is commonly I AM joined in wedlock for my sins to one of termed the doctrine of transmigration, which sup- those fillies who are described in the old poet with poses that human souls, upon their leaving the that hard name you gave us the other day. She body, become the souls of such kinds of brutes as has a flowing mane, and a skin as soft as silk. But, they most resemble in their manners; or to give sir, she passes half her life at her glass, and almost an account of it, as Mr. Dryden has described it ruins me in ribands. For my own part, I am a in his translation of Pythagoras's speech in the fif teenth book of Ovid, where that philosopher dissuades his hearers from eating flesh :

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encies rather than dispute about them. From this observation it soon came to that pass, that if offered to go abroad, she would get between mo and the door, kiss me, and say she could not par with me; and then down again I sat. In a day or two after this first pleasant step towards confining me, she declared to me, that I was all the work

'P. S. You must know I am married to a Gri-to her, and she thought she ought to be all the malkin.'


'Wapping, October 31, 1711.


world to me. "If," said she, "my dear loves me as much as I love him, he will never be tired of my company." This declaration was followed by my be EVER since your Spectator of Tuesday last came ing denied to all my acquaintance; and it very soon into our family, my husband is pleased to call me came to that pass, that to give an answer at the his Oceana, because the foolish old poet that you door, before my face, the servants would ask her have translated says, that the souls of some women whether I was within or not; and she would answer are made of sea-water. This, it seems, has encou- No, with great fondness, and tell me I was a good raged my saucebox to be witty upon me. When I dear. I will not enumerate more little circum am angry, he cries, "Pr'ythee, my dear, be calm;" stances to give you a livelier sense of my cond when I chide one of my servants, "Pr'ythee, tion; but tell you in general, that from such steps child, do not bluster." ile had the impudence as these at first, I now live the life of a prisoner o about an hour ago to tell me, that he was a sea-state; my letters are opened, and I have not the faring man, and must expect to divide his life be- use of pen, ink, and paper, but in her presence. 1 tween storm and sunshine. When I bestir myself never go abroad, except she sometimes takes me with any spirit in my family, it is "high sea" in with her in her coach to take the air, if it may his house; and when I sit still without doing any called so, when we drive, as we generally do, with thing, his affairs forsooth are "windbound." When the glasses up. I have overheard my servants la I ask him whether it rains, he makes answer, "It ment my condition, but they dare not bring me is no matter, so that it be fair weather within messages without her knowledge, because they doors." In short, sir, I cannot speak my mind doubt my resolution to stand by them. In the midst freely to him, but I either swell or rage, or do of this insipid way of life, an old acquaintance of something that is not fit for a civil woman to hear. mine, Tom Meggot, who is a favourite with her. Pray, Mr. Spectator, since you are so sharp upon and allowed to visit me in her company because he other women, let us know what materials your sings prettily, has roused me to rebel, and conveyed wife is made of, if you have one. I suppose you his intelligence to me in the following manner. would make us a parcel of poor-spirited tame in- My wife is a great pretender to music, and very sipid creatures; but, sir, I would have you to ignorant of it; but far gone in the Italian taste. know, we have as good passions in us as yourself, Tom goes to Armstrong, the famous fine writer of and that a woman was never designed to be a music, and desires him to put this sentence ci milk-sop.

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Tully in the scale of an Italian air, and write it out
for my spouse from him. An ille mihi liber cui mule
imperat? cui leges imponit, præscribit, jubet, vetat,
quod videtur? qui nihil imperanti negare, nihil re-
cusare audet? Poscit? dandum est. Vocat? ven
Ejicit? abeundum. Minitatur? extimi
scendum. "Does he live like a gentleman, who is
commanded by a woman? he to whom she gives
law, grants and denies what she pleases? who can
neither deny her any thing she asks, or refuse to
do any thing she commands?"

To be short, my wife was extremely pleased with it; said the Italian was the only language for music; and admired how wonderfully tender the sentiment was, and how pretty the accent is of that

'I NEVER look upon my dear wife, but I think of language; with the rest that is said by rote on that the happiness Sir Roger de Coverley enjoys, in occasion. Mr. Meggot is sent to sing this air, which having such a friend as you to expose in proper he performs with mighty applause; and my wife is colours the cruelty and perverseness of his mistress. in ecstasy on the occasion, and glad to find, by my I have very often wished you visited in our family, being so much pleased, that I was at last come in and were acquainted with my spouse; she would to the notion of the Italian; "for," said she, "it afford you, for some months at least, matter enough grows upon one when one once comes to know a for one Spectator a week. Since we are not so little of the language; and pray, Mr. Meggot, sing happy as to be of your acquaintance, give me leave again those notes, "Nihil imperanti negare, n to represent to you our present circumstances as recusare." You may believe I was not a little de-, well as I can in writing. You are to know then, lighted with my friend Tom's expedient to alarm me, that I am not of a very different constitution from and in obedience to his summons I give all this story Nathaniel Henroost, whom you have lately re- thus at large; and I am resolved, when this ap corded in your speculations, and have a wife pears in the Spectator, to declare for myself. who makes a more tyrannical use of the knowledge The manner of the insurrection 1 contrive by your of my easy temper than that lady ever pretended means, which shall be no other than that Tom to. We had not been a month married, when she Meggot, who is at our tea-table every morning, found in me a certain pain to give offence, and shall read it to us; and if my dear can take the an indolence that made me bear little inconveni- hint, and say not one word, but let this be the

* No. 176.

beginning of a new life without further explana tion, it is very well; for as soon as the Spectator

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