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the lump. He is studying the passions themselves way of life in which no man can rise suitably to
On the outside of Temple Bar.
been conjectured, and not without an appearance of probability, that this character was sketched from Mr. H. Martin, a gentleman acknowledged by Steele (No. 555) to hase assisted in the Spectator; and known to have been principally concerned in The British Merchant, 3 vols. 8vo.
Supposed to have been Captain Kempenfelt, a native of Sweden, and father of the rear-admiral of that name, who lost his life in the Royal-George of 100 guns, which sunk at Spitad, Aug. 29, 1782.
* A Colonel Cleland is thought to have been alluded to under this character,
me more like a dog than any woman I ever made were hung with many acts of parliament written advances to.' This way of talking of his very in golden letters. At the upper end of the hall much enlivens the conversation among us of a more was the magna charta, with the act of uniformity sedate turn: and I find there is not one of the on the right hand, and the act of toleration on the company, but myself, who rarely speak at all, but left. At the lower end of the hall was the act of speaks of him as of that sort of man, who is usu-settlement, which was placed full in the eye of the ally called a well-bred fine gentleman. To con- virgin that sat upon the throne. Both the sides of clude his character, where women are not con- the hall were covered with such acts of parliament cerned, he is an honest worthy man. as had been made for the establishment of public I cannot tell whether I am to account him, whom funds. The lady seemed to set an unspeakable I am next to speak of, as one of our company value upon these several pieces of furniture, insofor he visits us but seldom, but when he does, it much that she often refreshed her eye with them, adds to every man else a new enjoyment of himself. and often smiled with a secret pleasure, as she He is a clergyman, a very philosophic man, of looked upon them; but, at the same time, showed general learning, great sanctity of life, and the a very particular uneasiness, if she saw any thing most exact good breeding. He has the misfortune approaching that might hurt them. She appeared, to be of a very weak constitution, and consequently indeed, infinitely timorous in all her behaviour; cannot accept of such cares and business as pre-and whether it was from the delicacy of her conferments in his function would oblige him to: he stitution, or that she was troubled with the vapours, is therefore among divines, what a chamber-coun- as I was afterwards told by one, who I found was sellor is among lawyers. The probity of his mind, none of her well-wishers, she changed colour, and and the integrity of his life, create him followers, startled at every thing she heard. She was likeas being eloquent or loud advances others. He wise (as I afterwards found) a greater valetudiseldom introduces the subject he speaks upon; but narian than any I had ever met with, even in her we are so far gone in years, that he observes when own sex, and subject to such momentary consump he is among us, an earnestness to have him fall on tions, that, in the twinkling of an eye, she would some divine topic, which he always treats with fall away from the most forid complexion, and much authority, as one who has no interests in this most healthful state of body, and wither into a world, as one who is hastening to the object of all skeleton. Her recoveries were often as sudden as his wishes, and conceives hope from his decays and her decays, insomuch that she would revive in a infirmities. These are my ordinary companions. moment out of a wasting distemper, into a habit of the highest health and vigour.
I had very soon an opportunity of observing these quick turns and changes in her constitution. There sat at her feet a couple of secretaries, who received every hour letters from all parts of the world, which the one or the other of them was perpetually reading to her; and according to the news she heard, to which she was exceedingly attentive, she changed colour, and discovered many symptoms of health or sickness.
Behind the throne was a prodigious heap of bags of money, which were piled upon one another so high that they touched the ceiling. The floor on her right hand, and on her left, was covered with
In one of my late rambles, or rather speculations, I looked into the great hall where the Bank is kept, and was not a little pleased to see the di-vast sums of gold that rose up in pyramids on rectors, secretaries, and clerks, with all the other either side of her. But this I did not so much members of that wealthy corporation, ranged in wonder at, when I heard, upon inquiry, that she their several stations, according to the parts they had the same virtue in her touch, which the poets act in that just and regular economy. This revived tell us a Lydian king was formerly possessed of; in my memory the many discourses which I had and that she could convert whatever she pleasboth read and heard, concerning the decay of ed into that precious metal. public credit, with the methods of restoring it, and After a little dizziness, and confused hurry of which, in my opinion, have always been defective, thought, which a man often meets with in a dream, because they have always been made with an eye methought the hall was alarmed, the doors flew to separate interests, and party principles. open, and there entered half a dozen of the most hideous phantoms that I had ever seen (even in a dream) before that time. They came in two by
The thoughts of the day gave my mind employ. ment for the whole night, so that I fell insensibly into a kind of methodical dream, which disposed two, though matched in the most dissociable manall my contemplations into a vision or allegory, or ner, and mingled together in a kind of dance. It what else the reader shall please to call it. would be tedious to describe their habits and persons; for which reason I shall only inform my reader, that the first couple were Tyranny and
Methought I returned to the great hall, where I had been the morning before, but to my surprise, instead of the company that I left there, I saw, Anarchy, the second were Bigotry and Atheism, towards the upper end of the hall, a beautiful the third the Genius of a commonwealth, and a virgin, seated on a throne of gold. Her name (as young man of about twenty-two years of age,* they told me) was Public Credit. The walls, in- whose name I could not learn. He had a sword stead of being adorned with pictures and maps, brandished at the act of settlement; and a citizen, in his right hand, which in the dance he often
who stood by me, whispered in my ear, that he saw
His papers in the Spectator are signed either with an R, an L, or a T; which distinctions have been thus interpreted a spunge in his left hand. The dance of so many R (the initial of his christian name) is thought to mark the paper as of his own writing; L, perhaps, composed from hints dropped into the letter box; and T, his editorial mark, signify. ing Transcribed from anonymous communications,
jarring natures put me in mind of the sun, moon,
*James Stuart, the pretended Prince of Wales.
N° 3. SATURDAY, MARCH 3, 1710-11.
Et quoi quisque fere studio devinctus adnæret,
LUCR. 1. iv. 959.
-What studies please, what most delight,
and earth, in the Rehearsal, that danced together incapacity of others. These are mortals who have for no other end but to eclipse one another. a certain curiosity without power of reflection, The reader will easily suppose by what has been and perused my papers like spectators rather than before said, that the lady on the throne would have readers. But there is so little pleasure in inquibeen almost frighted to distraction, had she seen ries that so nearly concern ourselves (it being the but any one of these spectres; what then must worst way in the world to fame, to be too anxious have been her condition when she saw them all in about it), that upon the whole I resolved for the a body? She fainted and died away at the sight. future, to go on in my ordinary way; and without too much fear or hope about the business of reputation, to be very careful of the design of my actions, but very negligent of the consequences of them.
Et neque jam color est misto candore rubori;
OVID. Met. iii. 491.
-Her spirits faint,
It is an endless and frivolous pursuit to act by any other rule, than the care of satisfying our own minds in what we do. One would think a silent
filled with money.
There was as great a change in the hill of money-man, who concerned himself with no one breathbags, and the heaps of money, the former shrinking ing, should be very little liable to misinterpretaand falling into so many empty bags, that I now tions; and yet I remember I was once taken up found not above a tenth part of them had been for a jesuit, for no other reason but my profound taciturnity. It is from this misfortune that, to be The rest that took up the same space, and made out of harm's way, I have ever since affected the same figure, as the bags that were ready filled crowds. He who comes into assemblies only to with money, had been blown up with air, and called into my memory the bags full of wind, which gratify his curiosity, and not to make a figure, enjoys the pleasures of retirement in a more exquisite Homer tells us his hero received as a present from degree, than he possibly could in his closet; the Eolus. The great heaps of gold on either side the lover, the ambitious, and the miser, are followed throne, appeared to be only heaps of paper, or thither by a worse crowd than any they can withlittle piles of notched sticks, bound up together in draw from. To be exempt from the passions with bundles, like Bath faggots. which others are tormented, is the only pleasing Whilst I was lamenting this sudden desolation solitude. I can very justly say with the ancient that had been made before me, the whole scene sage, I am never less alone than when alone.' vanished. In the room of the frightful spectres As I am insignificant to the company in public there now entered a second dance of apparitions places, and as it is visible I do not come thither, as very agreeably matched together, and made up of most do, to show myself, I gratify the vanity of all very amiable phantoms. The first pair was Li-who pretend to make an appearance, and have berty with Monarchy at her right hand. The se-often as kind looks from well-dressed gentlemen cond was Moderation leading in Religion; and the and ladies, as a poet would bestow upon one of his third, a person whom I had never seen, with the audience. There are so many gratifications attend Genius of Great Britain. At the first entrance this public sort of obscurity, that some little disthe lady revived, the bags swelled to their former tastes I daily receive have lost their anguish; and bulk, the pile of faggots and heaps of paper I did the other day, without the least displeasure, changed into pyramids of guineas and for my overhear one say of me, that strange fellow; and own part, I was so transported with joy, that another answer, I have known the fellow's face these awaked, though, I must confess, I would fain have twelve years, and so must you; but I believe you are fallen asleep again to have closed my vision, if the first ever asked who he was. There are, I must confess, many to whom my person is as well known as that of their nearest relations, who give them. selves no further trouble about calling me by my name or quality, but speak of me very currently by the appellation of Mr. What d'ye call him.
could have done it.
–Egregii mortalem altique silentii?
HOR. 2 Sat, vi. 58. One of uncommon silence and reserve.
To make up for these trivial disadvantages, I have the high satisfaction of beholding all nature with an unprejudiced eye; and having nothing to do with men's passions or interests, I can, with the greater sagacity, consider their talents, manners, failings, and merits.
As, author when he first appears in the world, is very apt to believe it has nothing to think of but It is remarkable, that those who want any one his performances. With a good share of this va- sense, possess the others with greater force and nity in my heart, I made it my business these three vivacity. Thus my want of, or rather resignation days to listen after my own fame; and as I have of speech, gives me all the advantages of a dumb sometimes met with circumstances which did not man. I have, methinks, a more than ordinary pedisplease me, I have been encountered by others, netration in seeing; and flatter myself that I have which gave me much mortification. It is incredible looked into the highest and lowest of mankind; to think how empty I have in this time observed and make shrewd guesses, without being admitted some part of the species to be, what mere blanks to their conversation, at the inmost thoughts and they are when they first come abroad in the morn- reflections of all whom I behold. It is from hence ing, how utterly they are at a stand, until they are that good or ill fortune has no manner of force set a-going by some paragraph in a newspaper. towards affecting my judgment. I see men flou. Such persons are very acceptable to a young rishing in courts, and languishing in jails, without author, for they desire no more in any thing but being prejudiced, from their circumstances, to their to be new, to be agreeable. If I found consola favour or disadvantage; but, from their inward tion among such, I was as much disquieted by the manner of bearing their condition, often pity the prosperous, and admire the unhappy.
• The Elector of Hanover, afterwards King George I.
Those who converse with the dumb, know from
No 4. MONDAY, MARCHI 5, 1710-11.
the turn of their eyes, and the changes of their treat on matters which relate to females, as they countenance, their sentiments of the objects before are concerned to approach or fly from the other them. I have indulged my silence to such an ex-sex, or as they are tied to them by blood, interest, travagance, that the few who are intimate with me, or affection. Upon this occasion I think it but answer my smiles with concurrent sentences, and reasonable to declare, that whatever skill I may argue to the very point I shaked my head at, with-have in speculation, I shall never betray what the out my speaking Will Honeycomb was very en-eyes of lovers say to each other in my presence. tertaining the other night at a play, to a gentleman At the same time I shall not think myself obliged who sat on his right hand, while I was at his left. by this promise to conceal any false protestations The gentleman believing Will was talking to him- which l'observe made by glances in public assemself, when upon my looking with great approba- blies; but endeavour to make both sexes appear tion at a young thing in a box before us, he said, in their conduct what they are in their hearts. By "I am quite of another opinion. She has, I will this means, love, during the time of my speculaallow, a very pleasing aspect, but, methinks, that tions, shall be carried on with the same sincerity simplicity in her countenance is rather childish as any other affair of less consideration. As this is than innocent.' When I observed her a second the greatest concern, men shall be from henceforth time, he said, 'I grant her dress is very becoming, liable to the greatest reproach for misbehaviour in but perhaps the merit of that choice is owing to it. Falsehood in love shall hereafter bear a blacker her mother; for though,' continued he, I allow a aspect than infidelity in friendship, or villany in beauty to be as much to be commended for the business. For this great and good end, all breaches elegance of her dress, as a wit for that of his lan-against that noble passion, the cement of society, guage; yet if she has stolen the colour of her ri-shall be severely examined. But this and all other bands from another, or had advice about her trim-matters loosely hinted at now, and in my former mings, I shall not allow her the praise of dress, papers, shall have their proper place in my followany more than I would call a plagiary an authoring discourses. The present writing is only to When I threw my eye towards the next woman admonish the world, that they shall not find me an to her, Will spoke what I looked, according to his idle, but a busy Spectator.
romantic imagination, in the following manner:
'Behold, you who dare, that charming virgin: behold the beauty of her person chastised by the innocence of her thoughts. Chastity, good-nature, and affability, are the graces that play in her countenance: she knows she is handsome, but she knows she is good. Conscious beauty adorned with conscious virtue! What a spirit is there in those eyes! What a bloom in that person! How is the whole woman expressed in her appearance! Her air has the beauty of motion, and her look the force of Ax opera may be allowed to be extravagantly language.' lavish in its decorations, as its only design is to
Admitted to the sight, would you not laugh?
It was prudence to turn away my eyes from this gratify the senses, and keep up an indolent atten. object, and therefore I turned them to the thought-tion in the audience. Common sense however reless creatures who make up the lump of that sex, quires, that there should be nothing in the scenes and move a knowing eye no more than the por-and machines which may appear childish and abtraiture of insignificant people by ordinary pain-surd. How would the wits of King Charles's time ters, which are but pictures of pictures. have laughed, to have seen Nicolini exposed to a
Thus the working of my own mind is the gene-tempest in robes of ermine, and sailing in an open ral entertainment of my life; I never enter into boat upon a sea of pasteboard? What a field of the commerce of discourse with any but my parti- raillery would they have been led into, had they cular friends, and not in public even with them. bee entertained with painted dragons spitting Such an habit has perhaps raised in me uncommon wild-fire, enchanted chariots drawn by Flanders reflections; but this effect I cannot communicate mares, and real cascades in artificial landscapes? but by my writings. As my pleasures are almost A little skill in criticism would inform us, that shawholly confined to those of the sight, I take it for dows and realities ought not to be mixed together a peculiar happiness, that I have always had an in the same piece; and that the scenes which are easy and familiar admittance to the fair sex. I never praised or flattered, I never belied or con- filled with resemblances, and not with the things If designed as the representations of nature should be tradicted them. As these compose half the world, themselves. If one would represent a wide chamand are, by the just complaisance and gallantry of paign country filled with herds and flocks, it would our nation, the more powerful part of our people, be ridiculous to draw the country only upon the I shall dedicate a considerable share of these my scenes, and to crowd several parts of the stage speculations to their service, and shall lead the with sheep and oxen. This is joining together inyoung through all the becoming duties of virginity, consistencies, and making the decoration partly marriage, and widowhood. When it is a woman's real, and partly imaginary. I would recommend day, in my works, I shall endeavour at a style and what I have here said to the directors, as well as to air suitable to their understanding. When I say the admirers, of our modern opera.
this, I must be understood to mean, that I shall not lower but exalt the subjects I treat upon. Dis- ago, I saw an ordinary fellow carrying a cage As I was walking in the streets about a fortnight course for their entertainment, is not to be debased, full of little birds upon his shoulder; and, as I was but refined. A man may appear learned without wondering with myself what use he would put them talking sentences, as in his ordinary gesture he dis- to, he was met very luckily by an acquaintance, covers he can dance, though he does not cut capers, who had the same curiosity. Upon his asking him In a word, I shall take it for the greatest glory of what he had upon his shoulder, he told him that he my work, if among reasonable women this paper had been buying sparrows for the opera. Sparmay furnish tea-table talk. In order to it, I shall rows for the opera, says his friend, licking his lips,
N° 5. TUESDAY, MARCH 6, 1710-11.
Spectatum admissi risum tencatis?
what, are they to be roasted! No, no, says the other, they are to enter towards the end of the first act, and to fly about the stage.
used by none but pedants in our own country; and at the same time fill their writings with such poor imaginations and conceits, as our youths are ashamed of, before they have been two years at the university. Some may be apt to think that it
This strange dialogue awakened my curiosity so far, that I immediately bought the opera, by which means I perceived the sparrows were to act the is the difference of genius which produces this difpart of singing birds in a delightful grove: though, ference in the works of the two nations; but to apon a nearer inquiry, I found the sparrows put show that there is nothing in this, if we look into the same trick upon the audience, that Sir Martin the writings of the old Italians, such as Cicero and Mar-all practised upon his mistress; for though Virgil, we shall find that the English writers, in they flew in sight, the music proceeded from a con- their way of thinking and expressing themselves, cert of flagelets and bird-calls, which were planted resemble those authors much more than the modern bend the scenes. At the same time I made this Italians pretend to do. And as for the poet himdiscovery, I found, by the discourse of the actors, self, from whom the dreams of this opera* are that there were great designs on foot for the im- taken, I must entirely agree with Monsieur Boiprovement of the opera; that it had been proposed leau, that one verse in Virgil is worth all the clin. to break down a part of the wall, and to surprise quant or tinsel of Tasso. the audience with a party of an hundred horse, But to return to the sparrows; there have been and that there was actually a project of bringing so many flights of them let loose in this opera, that the New River into the house, to be employed in it is feared the house will never get rid of them; etieaus and water-works. This project, as I have and that in other plays they may make their ensince heard, is postponed till the summer season; trance in very wrong and improper scenes, so as when it is thought the coolness that proceeds from to be seen flying in a lady's bed-chamber, or perch. fountains and cascades will be more acceptable ing upon a king's throne; besides the inconveand refreshing to people of quality. In the mean niencies which the heads of the audience may some tre, to find out a more agreeable entertainment times suffer from them. I am credibly informed, for the winter season, the opera of Rinaldo is that there was once a design of casting into an ted with thunder and lightning, illuminations and opera, the story of Whittington and his Cat,† and fre-works; which the audience may look upon that in order to it, there had been got together a thout catching cold, and indeed without much great quantity of mice; but Mr. Rich, the proanger of being burnt; for there are several en-prietor of the playhouse,very prudently considered es filled with water, and ready to play at a that it would be impossible for the cat to kill them Linute's warning, in case any such accident should all, and that consequently the princes of the stage sypen. However, as I have a very great friend- might be as much infested with mice, as the prince for the owner of this theatre, I hope that he of the island was before the cat's arrival upon it; as been wise enough to insure his house before for which reason he would not permit it to be acted would let this opera be acted in it. in his house. And indeed I cannot blame him;
It is no wonder, that those scenes should be very for, as he said very well upon that occasion, I do prising, which were contrived by two poets of not hear that any of the performers in our opera erent nations, and raised by two magicians of pretend to equal the famous pied piper, who ficent sexes. Armida (as we are told in the ar-made all the mice of a great town in Germany Ent) was an Amazonian enchantress, and poor follow his music, and by that means cleared the or Cassani (as we learn from the persons re-place of those little noxious animals. sented) a Christian conjurer (Mago Christiano). Before I dismiss this paper, I must inform my Just confess I am very much puzzled to find reader, that I hear there is a treaty on foot bean Amazon should be versed in the black art, tween London and Wise§ (who will be appointed ow a good Christian, for such is the part of the gardeners of the playhouse) to furnish the opera of cian, should deal with the devil. Rinaldo and Armida with an orange-grove; and consider the poet after the conjurers, I shall that the next time it is acted, the singing birds you a taste of the Italian from the first lines will be personated by tom-tits: the undertakers s preface; Eccoti, benigno lettore, un parto di being resolved to spare neither pains nor money, sere, che se ben natodi not te, non è però aborto for the gratification of the audience.
The records of Hamelen, an ancient city on the banks of the
Weser, give an account of a strange accident which befel them,
Being at that time much pestered with rats, which they cold by no means destroy, a stranger at last undertook it,
ebre, mà si farà conoscere figlio d'Apollo con he raggio di Parnasso.' Behold, gentle er, the birth of a few evenings, which, though the offspring of the night, is not the abortive kness, but will make itself known to be the of Apollo, with a certain ray of Parnassus.' fterwards proceeds to call Mynheer Handel on the 26th of June, 1284. Orpheus of our age, and to acquaint us, in the sublimity of style, that he composed this on the promise of reward and immediately taking a tabret in a fortnight. Such are the wits to whose were all drowned; but, being denied his reward, he left the and pipe, the rats followed his music to the river, where they we so ambitiously conform ourselves. The town in a rage, and threatened revenge: accordingly he of it is, the finest writers among the modern returned next year, and by the same music enticed most of sexpress themselves in such a florid form of cave on the top of a neighbouring hill called Koppelberg, the children of the town after him to the mouth of a great , and such tedious circumlocutions, as are where he and they entered, but were never more heard of. In remembrance of this sad accident, the citizens, for many years after, dated all their public writings from the day they lost their children, as appears by many old deeds and records. They still call the street through which the children passed, Tabret Street; and at the mouth of the cave there is a monument
of stone, with an inscription, in barbarous Latin verse, giving an account of this tragical story, by which the citizens lost 130 boys.'
The queen's gardeners.
Dryden's comedy of that name.
Colman had evidently this paper in mind when he Miss Derby) on the opening of New Drury-lane theatre, 74. The reader may refer to it in the European Maga1. p. 385.
• Rinaldo, an opera, by Aaron Hill.