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honest gentleman designs to recommend his zeal, utter stranger to the principles, either of natural without any concern for his veracity. A man is religion or Christianity, who suffers himself to be looked upon as bereft of common sense, that gives guided by it. If a man might promote the sup credit to the relations of party-writers; nay, his posed good of his country by the blackest calum own friends shake their heads at him, and consider nies and falsehoods, our nation abounds more in him in no other light than an officious tool, or a patriots than any other of the Christian work well-meaning idiot. When it was formerly the When Pompey was desired not to set sail in a fashion to husband a lie, and trump it up in some tempest that would hazard his life," It is necessary extraordinary emergency, it generally did execu- for me,' says he, 'to sail, but it is not necessary tion, and was not a little serviceable to the faction for me to live.' Every man should say to himself, that made use of it; but at present every man is with the same spirit, It is my duty to speak truth, upon his guard: the artifice has been too often though it is not my duty to be in an office' One repeated to take effect. of the fathers hath carried this point so high as te I have frequently wondered to see men of pro- declare he would not tell a lie, though he wer bity, who would scorn to utter a falsehood for sure to gain heaven by it. However extravagan their own particular advantage, give so readily such a protestation may appear, every one wil into a lie, when it becomes the voice of their fac-own that a man may say, very reasonably, be tion, notwithstanding they are thoroughly sensible would not tell a lie, if he were sure to gain hell of it as such. How is it possible for those who by it; or, if you have a mind to soften the expres are men of honour in their persons, thus to become sion, that he would not tell a lie to gain any tem notorious liars in their party? If we look into the poral reward by it, when we should run the hazar bottom of this matter, we may find, I think, three of losing much more than it was possible for hir reasons for it, and at the same time discover the to gain. insufficiency of these reasons to justify so criminal sa practice.


N° 508. MONDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1712


Omnes autem et habentur et dicuntur tyranni, qui potestate vor perpetua, in ea civitate quæ libertate usa est.

CORN. NEPOS in Milt c.& For all those are accounted and denominated tyrants, exercise a perpetual power in that state, which was bein free.

In the first place, men are apt to think that the guilt of a lie, and consequently the punishment, may be very much diminished, if not wholly worn out, by the multitudes of those who partake in it. Though the weight of a falsehood would be too heavy for one to bear, it grows light in their imaginations when it is shared among many. But in this case a man very much deceives himself; guilt, when it spreads through numbers, is not so properly divided as multiplied. Every one is criminal in proportion to the offence which he commits, not to the number of those who are his companions THE following letters complain of what I have in it. Both the crime and the penalty lie as heavy frequently observed with very much indignation upon every individual of an offending multitude, therefore I shall give them to the public in the as they would upon any single person, had none words with which my correspondents, who suffer shared with him in the offence. In a word, the under the hardships mentioned in them, describ division of guilt is like to that of matter; though them. it may be separated into infinite portions, every portion shall have the whole essence of matter in it, and consist of as many parts as the whole did



In former ages all pretensions to dominion har before it was divided. been supported and submitted to, either upon But in the second place, though multitudes, who count of inheritance, conquest, or election; and join in a lie, cannot exempt themselves from the all such persons, who have taken upon them guilt, they may from the shame of it. The scan-sovereignty over their fellow-creatures upon dal of a lie is in a manner lost and annihilated, other account, have been always called tyra when diffused among several thousands; as a drop not so much because they were guilty of any pat of the blackest tincture wears away and vanishes, ticular barbarities, as because every attempt when mixed and confused in a considerable body such a superiority was in its nature tyranic of water; the blot is still in it, but is not able to But there is another sort of potentates, who discover itself. This is certainly a very great mo- with greater propriety be called tyrants tive to several party-offenders, who avoid crimes, those last mentioned, both as they assume a desp not as they are prejudicial to their virtue, but to tic dominion over those as free as themselves, their reputation. It is enough to show the weak as they support it by acts of notable oppress ness of this reason, which palliates guilt without and injustice; and these are the rulers in all ci removing it, that every man who is influenced by and meetings. In other governments, the punis it declares himself in effect an infamous hypo-ments of some have been alleviated by the reward crite, prefers the appearance of virtue to its of others; but what makes the reign of these p reality, and is determined in his conduct neither tentates so particularly grievous, is, that they by the dictates of his own conscience, the sugges- exquisite in punishing their subjects at the tions of true honour, nor the principles of reli- time they have it not in their power to res gion. them. That the reader may the better comprebes The third and last great motive for men's joining the nature of these monarchs, as well as the in a popular falsehood, or, as I have hitherto serable state of those that are their vassals, I called it, a party lie, notwithstanding they are give an account of the king of the company convinced of it as such, is the doing good to a fallen into, whom for his particular tyranny cause which every party may be supposed to look call Dionysius; as also of the seeds that sprung upon as the most meritorious. The unsoundness of to this odd sort of empire. this principle has been so often exposed, and is so universally acknowledged, that a man must be an

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These thoughts
Full counsel must mature. Peace is despair'd,
And who can think submission? War, then war,
Open, or understood, must be resolv'd."

'I am, síB,

'Your most obedient humble servant.'


to get all things in such order and readiness, as that he shall be convinced in his stomach he was may contribute as much as possible to the felicity unfit for his post, and a more mild and skilful of the convention: such as hastening the fire, get-prince receive the acclamations of the people, and Co2 ting a sufficient number of candles, tasting the be set up in his rooin: but, as Milton says, wine with a judicious smack, fixing the supper, and being brisk for the dispatch of it. Know then, that Dionysius went through these offices with an air that seemed to express a satisfaction rather in serving the public, than in gratifying any particular inclination of his own. We thought him a person of an exquisite palate, and therefore by consent beseeched him to be always our proveditor; which post, after he had handsomely de. nied, he could do no otherwise than accept. AtI AM a young woman at a gentleman's seat in the by it. He first he made no other use of his power than in re- country, who is a particular friend of my father's, may apere commending such and such things to the company, and came hither to pass away a month or two with y ever allowing these points to be disputable; inso- his daughters. I have been entertained with the he much that I have often carried the debate for utmost civility by the whole family, and nothing amada partridge, when his majesty has given intimation has been omitted which can make my stay easy ot tells of the high relish of duck, but at the same time and agreeable on the part of the family; but there has cheerfully submitted, and devoured his par- is a gentleman here, a visitant as I am, whose behantstridge with most gracious resignation. The sub-haviour has given me great uneasinesses. When I mission on his side naturally produced the like on first arrived here, he used me with the utmost ours; of which he in a little time made such bar- complaisance; but, forsooth, that was not with rebarous advantage, as in all those matters, which gard to my sex; and, since he has no designs upon before seemed indifferent to him, to issue out cer- me, he does not know why he should distinguish tain edicts as uncontrollable and unalterable as me from a man in things indifferent. He is, you the laws of the Medes and Persians. He is by must know, one of those familiar coxcombs, who OCTO turns outrageous, peevish, froward, and jovial. He have observed some well-bred men with a good thinks it our duty for the little offices, as prove- grace converse with women, and say no fine things, ditor, that in return all conversation is to be in but yet treat them with that sort of respect which terrupted or promoted by his inclination for or flows from the heart and the understanding, but is Ragainst the present humour of the company. We exerted in no professions or compliments. This feel, at present, in the utmost extremity, the in- puppy, to imitate this excellence, or avoid the consolence of office; however, I, being naturally trary fault of being troublesome in complaisance, warm, ventured to oppose him in a dispute about takes upon him to try his talent upon me, insoa haunch of venison. I was altogether for roast- much that he contradicts me upon all occasions, ing, but Dionysius declared himself for boiling and one day told me I lied. If i had struck him with so much prowess and resolution, that the with my bodkin, and behaved myself like a man, cook thought it necessary to consult his own safety, since he will not treat me as a woman, I had, Í rather than the luxury of my proposition. With think, served him right. I wish, sir, you would the same authority that he orders what we shall please to give him some maxims of behaviour in eat and drink, he also commands us where to do these points, and resolve me if all maids are not it; and we change our taverns according as he in point of conversation to be treated by all basuspects any treasonable practices in the settling chelors as their mistresses. If not so, are they not the bill by the master, or sees any bold rebellion to be used as gently as their sisters? Is it sufferable in point of attendance by the waiters. Another that the fop of whom I complain should say, that reason for changing the seat of empire, I conceive he would rather have such-a-one without a groat, to be the pride he takes in the promulgation of than me with the Indies? What right has any man our slavery, though we pay our club for our enter to make suppositions of things not in his power, tainments, even in these palaces of our grand mo- and then declare his will to the dislike of one that narch. When he has a mind to take the air, a has never offended him? I assure you these are party of us are commanded out by way of life-things worthy your consideration, and I hope we guard, and we march under as great restrictions shall have your thoughts upon them. I am, though as they do. If we meet a neighbouring king, we a woman justly offended, ready to forgive all this, give or keep the way, according as we are out-because I have no remedy but leaving very agree numbered or not; and if the train of each is able company sooner than I desire. This also is an equal in number, rather than give battle, the su- heinous aggravation of his offence, that he is inperiority is soon adjusted by a desertion from one flicting banishment upon me. Your printing this letter may perhaps be an admonition to reform Now, the expulsion of these unjust rulers out him: as soon as it appears I will write my name of all societies would gain a man as everlasting a at the end of it, and lay it in his way; the making reputation, as either of the Brutus's got from their which just reprimand, I hope you will put in the endeavours to extirpate tyranny from among the power of, Romans. I confess myself to be in a conspiracy against the usurper of our club; and to show my reading, as well as my merciful disposition, shall allow him till the ides of March to dethrone himself If he seems to affect empire till that time, and does not gradually recede from the incursions he has made upon our liberties, he shall find a dinner dressed which he has no band in, and shall be treated with an order, magnificence, and luxury, s shall break his proud heart; at the same time

of them.



"Your constant reader,
' and humble servant.'


N° 509. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 14, 1712.

Hominis frugi et temperantis functus officium.

TER. Heaut. aet. iii. sc. 3.

Discharging the part of a good economist.

credit to frequent, it will not be a disgrace for those of less abilities to absent. I remember the time when rascally company were kept out, and the unlucky boys with toys and balls were whip ped away by a beadle. I have seen this done it. deed of late, but then it has been only to chase the lads from chuck, that the beadle might seize the copper.

I must repeat the abomination, that the walm trade is carried on by old women within the walks, THE useful knowledge in the following letter shall which makes the place impassable by reason o have a place in my paper, though there is nothing shells and trash. The benches around are so filthy in it which immediately regards the polite or the that no one can sit down, yet the beadles and of learned world; I say immediately, for upon re-cers have the impudence at Christmas to ask it: flection every man will find there is a remote in- their box, though they deserve the strapado. I d fluence upon his own affairs, in the prosperity or not think it impertinent to have mentioned this decay of the trading part of mankind. My pre- because it speaks a neglect in the domestic care of sent correspondent, I believe, was never in print the city, and the domestic is the truest picture before; but what he says well deserves a general a man every where else. attention, though delivered in his own homely

maxims, and a kind of proverbial simplicity; which ney and advancement of gain. The man prope 'But I designed to speak on the business of me sort of learning has raised more estates than ever for this, speaking in the general, is of a sedate, were, or will be, from attention to Virgil, Horace, plain, good understanding, not apt to go out Tully, Seneca, Plutarch, or any of the rest, whom, his way, but so behaving himself at home, th I dare say, this worthy citizen would hold to be indeed ingenious, but unprofitable writers. But to the letter.



'Broad-street, Oct. 10, 1712.

'No, no, Mr. Spectator, you wits must not pretend to be rich; and it is possible the reason may be, in some measure, because you despise,

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business may come to him. Sir William Turner that valuable citizen, has left behind him a mo excellent rule, and couched it in a very few words suited to the meanest capacity. He would s "Keep your shop, and your shop will keep you." It must be confessed, that if a man of a great ge nius could add steadiness to his vivacities, or sub'I ACCUSE you of many discourses on the subject of stitute slower men of fidelity to transact the me money, which you have heretofore promised the thodical part of his affairs, such an one wou public, but have not discharged yourself thereof outstrip the rest of the world; but business But, forasmuch as you seemed to depend upon ad- trade is not to be managed by the same heads which vice from others what to do in that point, have sat write poetry, and make plans for the conduct of down to write you the needful upon that subject. life in general. But, before I enter thereupon, I shall take this op- holden to the late witty and inventive Duke d So, though we are at this day be portunity to observe to you, that the thriving frugal Buckingham for the whole trade and manufacture man shows it in every part of his expense, dress, of glass,† yet I suppose there is no one will aver servants, and house; and I must, in the first place, that, were his grace yet living, they would not complain to you, as Spectator, that in these par- rather deal with my diligent friend and neighbour ticulars there is at this time, throughout the city of Mr. Gumley, for any goods to be prepared and London, a lamentable change from that simplicity delivered on such a day, than he would with th of manners, which is the true source of wealth and illustrious mechanic above mentioned. prosperity. I just now said, the man of thrift shows regularity in every thing; but you may, perhaps, laugh that I take notice of such a particular as I am going to do, for an instance that this city is declining, if their ancient economy is not restored. The thing which gives me this prospect. and so much offence, is the neglect of the Royal + Steele, in his Lover, No. 34, speaking. in terms of admit Exchange, I mean the edifice so called, and the tion of Gumley's Glass Gallery, over the New Exchange walks appertaining thereunto. The Royal Ex-incredible improvement our artificers of England have made a When a man walks in that illustrious room, and reflee's vis change is a fabric that well deserves to be so called, the manufacture of glass in thirty years time, and can sp as well to express that our monarch's highest glory such an alteration of our affairs in other parts of commerce. and advantage consists in being the patron of ate but drudges to a people whose arts and industry, with demonstrable that the nations who are possessed of mines of go trade, as that it is commodious for business, and an advantages natural to us, may make itself the shop of the wat instance of the grandeur both of prince and peo speaking, that it is not in the power of any potentate in We are arrived at such perfection in this ware of which ple. But, alas! at present it hardly seems to be to have so beautifula mirror as he may purchase here for a set apart for any such use or purpose. Instead of by all the cost and charge that he can lay out in his cons the assembly of honourable merchants, substan. It is a modest computation, that England gains fifty th tial tradesmen, and knowing masters of ships; foreign nations; the whole owing to the inquisitive and nec pounds a year by exporting this commodity for the s the mumpers, the halt, the blind, and the lame; as well as 1 berat genus of the late Duke of Buckingham your venders of trash, apples, plums; your ragman cose. I prodigious effect by the art of man, from parts of nature th gamuffins, rakeshames, and wenches; have justled common earth to a tulip, opens a field of contemplation." & the greater number of the former out of that place. the year 1670, some Venetian artists, the principal of wed Thus it is, especially on the evening change: so that Buckingham, who established the manufactory at Fox hall Rosetti, arrived in England, under the patronage of the Duked what with the din of squallings, oaths, and cries of ball,) in the parish of Lambeth, and carried it on with araz beggars, men of the greatest consequence in our glass best t success, in the firm of Dawson, Bowles, and Co, so as to exce city absent themselves from the place. This par-ments acquired by the proprietors were prodigious, till soon, ar ticular, by the way, is of evil consequence; for, years ago, when a total stop was put to this great acquisition. if the 'Change be no place for men of the highest Hist. of Lambeth, 1786, p. 120. a descendant of Rosetti's ungratefully left in extreme pore

Alderman Thomas, a mercer in Paternoster-row, made the one of the mottoes of his shop.

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least you do not value it enough to let it take up your chief attention; which the trader must do, or lose his credit, which is to him what honour, repuwith station, fame, or glory, is to other sort of men. adle. Theres


N° 510. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1712.

Si sapis,

Neque præterquam quas ipse amor molestias
Habet addas; et illas, quas habet, recte feras.

TER. Eun. act. i. sc. 1.

If you are wise, neither add to the troubles which attend the passion of love, and bear patiently those which are inseparable from it.

'I shall not speak to the point of cash itself, hen it her, till I see how you approve of these my maxims in at the be general: but I think a speculation upon many a little makes a mickle, a penny saved is a penny Te abogot, penny wise and pound foolish, it is need that makes the old wife trot," would be very useful to by old man the world; and, if you treated them with knowplace ledge, would be useful to yourself, for it would I was the other day driving in a hack through Germake demands for your paper among those who rard-street, when my eye was immediately catched have no notion of it at present. But of these mat- with the prettiest object imaginable, the face of a ters more hereafter. If you did this, as you excel very fair girl, between thirteen and fourteen, fixed many writers of the present age for politeness, so at the chin to a painted sash, and made part of the gent you would outgo the author of the true razor-landscape. It seemed admirably done, and, upon strops for use. throwing myself eagerly out of the coach to look

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I shall conclude this discourse with an explana- at it, it laughed, and flung from the window. This tion of a proverb, which by vulgar error is taken amiable figure dwelt upon me; and I was consiand used when a man is reduced to an extremity, dering the vanity of the girl, and her pleasant cowhereas the propriety of the maxim is to use it quetry in acting a picture until she was taken nowhen you would say there is plenty, but you must tice of, and raised the admiration of the beholders. make such a choice as not to hurt another who is This little circumstance made me run into reflecto come after you. tions upon the force of beauty, and the wonderful Mr. Tobias Hobson, from whom we have the influence the female sex has upon the other part of expression, was a very honourable man, for I shall the species. Our hearts are seized with their enever call the man so who gets an estate honestly chantments, and there are few of us, but brutal Mr. Tobias Hobson was a carrier; and, being a men, who by that hardness lose the chief pleasure man of great abilities and invention, and one that in them, can resist their insinuations, though never saw where there might good profit arise, though so much against our own interests and opinion. It the duller men overlooked it, this ingenious man is common with women to destroy the good effects was the first in this island who let out hackney-a man's following his own way and inclination horses. He lived in Cambridge; and, observing might have upon his honour and fortune, by interthat the scholars rid hard, his manner was to keep posing their power over him in matters wherein a large stable of horses, with boots, bridles, and they cannot influence him, but to his loss and disnsfwhips, to furnish the gentlemen at once, without paragement. I do not know therefore a task so going from college to college to sorrow, as they difficult in human life, as to be proof against the have done since the death of this worthy man. I importunities of a woman a man loves. There is say, Mr. Hobson kept a stable of forty good cattle, certainly no armour against tears, sullen looks, or always ready, and fit for travelling; but, when a at best constrained familiarities, in her whom you man came for a horse, he was led into the stable, usually meet with transport and alacrity. Sir where there was great choice, but he obliged him Walter Raleigh was quoted in a letter (of a very to take the horse which stood next to the stable- ingenious correspondent of mine) on this subject. door; so that every customer was alike well served That author, who had lived in courts, camps, traaccording to his chance, and every horse ridden velled through many countries, and seen many with the same justice; from whence it became a men under several climates, and of as various comproverb, when what ought to be your election was plexions, speaks of our impotence to resist the forced upon you, to say, "Hobson's choice." This wiles of women in very severe terms. His words memorable man stands drawn in fresco at an inn are as follow:

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(which be used) in Bishopsgate-street, with an 'What means did the devil find out, or what hundred pound bag under his arm, with this in-instruments did his own subtilty present him, as scription upon the said bag:

"The fruitful mother of a hundred more."

fittest and aptest to work his mischief by? Even the unquiet vanity of the woman; so as by Adam's hearkening to the voice of his wife, contrary to Whatever tradesman will try the experiment, kind by that her incantation became the subject of the express commandment of the living God, manand begin the day after you publish this my dis-labour, sorrow, and death: the woman being given course to treat his customers all alike, and all reasonably and honestly, I will ensure him the same a counsellor. It is also to be noted by whom the to man for a comforter and companion, but not for

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woman was tempted; even by the most ugly and unworthy of all beasts, into whom the devil entered and persuaded. Secondly, What was the motive of her disobedience? Even a desire to know what was most unfitting her knowledge; an af fection which has ever since remained in all the posterity of her sex. Thirdly, What was it that moved the man to yield to her persuasions; even the same cause which hath moved all men since to the like consent, namely, an unwillingness to grieve her, or make her sad, lest she should pine, and be overcome with sorrow. But if Adam in the state of perfection, and Solomon the son of David, God's chosen servant, and himself a man endued with the

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greatest wisdom, did both of them disobey their Creator by the persuasion, and for the love they bare to a woman, it is not so wonderful as lamentable, that other men in succeeding ages have been allured to so many inconvenient and wicked practices by the persuasion of their wives, or other beloved darlings, who cover over and shadow many malicious purposes with a counterfeit passion of dissimulating sorrow and unquietness.'

No 511. THURSDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1712

Quis non invenit turba quod amaret in illa?
OVID, Ars Am. i. ver. 175.

Who could fail to find,

In such a crowd, a mistress to his mind?


The motions of the minds of lovers are no where so well described as in the works of skilful writers for the stage. The scene between Fulvia and Cu- FINDING that my last letter took, I do intend to rius in the second act of Jonson's Catiline, is an continue my epistolary correspondence with thee, excellent picture of the power of a lady over her on those dear confounded creatures, women. Tho gallant. The wench plays with his affections; and knowest all the little learning I am master of is as a man of all places in the world wishes to make upon that subject; I never looked in a book, but a good figure with his mistress, upon her upbraid- for their sakes. I have lately met with two pure ing him with want of spirit, he alludes to enter-stories for a Spectator, which I am sure will please prises which he cannot reveal but with the hazard mightily, if they pass through thy hands. The firs of his life. When he is worked thus far, with a of them I found by chance in an English book. little flattery of her opinion of his gallantry, and called Herodotus, that lay in my friend Dapperdesire to know more of it out of her overflowing wit's window, as I visited him one morning. fondness to him, he brags to her until his life is in luckily opened in the place where I met with the her disposal. following account. He tells us, that it was the When a man is thus liable to be vanquished by manner among the Persians to have several fars the charms of her he loves, the safest way is to de- in the kingdom, at which all the young unmarried termine what is proper to be done, but to avoid women were annually exposed to sale. The mes all expostulation with her before he executes what who wanted wives came hither to provide them he has resolved. Women are ever too hard for us selves. Every woman was given to the highest upon a treaty; and one must consider how senseless bidder, and the money which she fetched laid aside a thing it is to argue with one whose looks and for the public use, to be employed as thou shal gestures are more prevalent with you, than your hear by and by. By this means the richest people reasons and arguments can be with her. It is a had the choice of the market, and culled out a most miserable slavery to submit to what you dis- the most extraordinary beauties. As soon as the approve, and give up a truth for no other reason, fair was thus picked, the refuse was to be distri but that you had not fortitude to support you in buted among the poor, and among those who could asserting it. A man has enough to do to conquer not go to the price of a beauty. Several of these his own unreasonable wishes and desires; but he married the agreeables, without paying a farthing does that in vain, if he has those of another to for them, unless somebody chanced to think it gratify. Let his pride be in his wife and family, worth his while to bid for them, in which case t Let him give them all the conveniences of life in best bidder was always the purchaser. But now such a manner as if he were proud of them; but let you must know, Spec, it happened in Persia asi it be his own innocent pride, and not their exor- does in our own country, that there were as many bitant desires, which are indulged by him. In this ugly women as beauties or agreeables; so that by case all the little arts imaginable are used to soften consequence, after the magistrates had put off a a man's heart, and raise his passion above his un-great many, there were still a great many derstanding. But in all concessions of this kind, a stuck upon their hands. In order therefore to clear man should consider whether the present he makes the market, the money which the beauties had sold flows from his own love, or the importunity of his for, was disposed of among the ugly; so that a beloved. If from the latter, he is her slave: if poor man who could not afford to have a beauty from the former, her friend. We laugh it off, and for his wife, was forced to take up with a fortune: do not weigh this subjection to women with that the greatest portion being always given to the most seriousness which so important a circumstance de deformed. To this the author adds, that every Why was courage given to man, if his poor man was forced to live kindly with his wife, wife's fears are to frustrate it? When this is once or, in case he repented of his bargain, to retur indulged, you are no longer her guardian and pro- her portion with her to the next public sale. tector, as you were designed by nature; but, in 'What I would recommend to thee on this occa compliance to her weaknesses, you have disabled sion is, to establish such an imaginary fair in Great yourself from avoiding the misfortunes into which Britain: thou couldst make it very pleasant, by they will lead you both, and you are to see the matching women of quality with coblers and ca hour in which you are to be reproached by herself men, or describing titles and garters leading off in for that very complaisance to her. It is indeed great ceremony shopkeepers, and farmers' daugh the most difficult mastery over ourselves we can ters. Though, to tell thee the truth, I am conpossibly attain, to resist the grief of her who charms foundedly afraid, that as the love of money pre us; but let the heart ache, be the anguish never so vails in our island more than it did in Persia, We quick and painful, it is what must be suffered and should find that some of our greatest men would passed through, if you think to live like a gentle-choose out the portions, and rival one another for man, or be conscious to yourself that you are a the richest piece of deformity: and that, on the man of honesty. The old argument, that you do contrary, the toasts and belles would be bought up not love me if you deny me this,' which first was by extravagant heirs, gamesters, and spendthrifts used to obtain a trifle, by habitual success, will Thou couldst make very pretty reflections upon oblige the unhappy man who gives way to it, to re- this occasion in honour of the Persian politics, who sign the cause even of his country and his honour.' took care, by such marriages, to beautify the upper part of the species, and to make the greatest per



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