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such objects will give our discourse a noble vigo an invincible force, beyond the power of any b man consideration. Tully requires in his perfect orator some skill in the nature of heavenly bodies, because, says he, his mind will become more et tensive and unconfined; and when he descends to treat of human affairs, he will both think s write in a more exalted and magnificent manner For the same reason that excellent master woul have recommended the study of those great
THE following discourse is printed as it came to my glorious mysteries which revelation has discorent hands, without variation.
Cambridge, Dec. 11.
to us; to which the noblest parts of this systemd the world are as much inferior as the creatures less excellent than its Creator. The wisest and
'It was a very common inquiry among the an-most knowing among the heathens had very pur cients, why the number of excellent orators, under and imperfect notions of a future state. They bad all the encouragements the most flourishing states indeed some uncertain hopes, either received could give them, fell so far short of the number of tradition, or gathered by reason, that the existente those who excelled in all other sciences. A friend of virtuous men would not be determined by the of mine used merrily to apply to this case an ob- separation of soul and body: but they either de servation of Herodotus, who says, that the most believed a future state of punishment and mise useful animals are the most fruitful in their gene. or, upon the same account that Apelles painte ration; whereas the species of those beasts that Antigonus with one side only towards the spectat are fierce and mischievous to mankind are but that the loss of his eye might not cast a blemis scarcely continued. The historian instances in a upon the whole piece: so these represented hare, which always either breeds or brings forth; condition of man in its fairest view, and end to and a lioness, which brings forth but once, and voured to conceal what they thought was a defa then loses all power of conception. But leaving mity to human nature. I have often observed, my friend to his mirth, I am of opinion that in these that whenever the above-mentioned orator in a latter ages we have greater cause of complaint philosophical discourses is led by his argument be than the ancients had. And since that solemn fes-the mention of immortality, he seems like one tival is approaching, which calls for all the power awaked out of sleep; roused and alarmed with the of oratory, and which affords as noble a subject for dignity of the subject, he stretches his imaginati b the pulpit as any revelation has taught us, the de- to conceive something uncommon, and, with the of sign of this paper shall be to show that our mo- greatness of his thoughts, casts, as it were, a glup derns have greater advantages towards true and round the sentence. Uncertain and unsettled a solid eloquence than any which the celebrated was, he seems fixed with the contemplation of speakers of antiquity enjoyed. The first great and substantial difference is, that forced so great a lover of truth as he was And nothing but such a glorious prospect could be the their common-places, in which almost the whole clare his resolution never to part with his person force of amplification consists, were drawn from sion of immortality, though it should be proved par the profit or honesty of the action, as they regard. be an erroneous one. But had he lived to see tha ed only this present state of duration. But Christi- that Christianity has brought to light, how va anity, as it exalts morality to a greater perfection, he have lavished out all the force of eloquence whi as it brings the consideration of another life into those noblest contemplations which human natal the question, as it proposes rewards and punish. is capable of, the resurrection and the judgm ments of a higher nature and a longer continuance, that follows it! How had his breast glowed is more adapted to affect the minds of the audience, pleasure, when the whole compass of futurity naturally inclined to pursue what it imagines its open and exposed to his view! How would his greatest interest and concern. torians report, could shake the firmest resolutions mysteries of the incarnation! How would he If Pericles, as his- gination have hurried him on in the pursuit of of his hearers, and set the passions of all Greece entered, with the force of lightning, into the in a ferment, when the present welfare of his tions of his hearers, and fixed their attention, country, or the fear of hostile invasions, was the spite of all the opposition of corrupt nature, subject; what may be expected from that orator those glorious themes which his eloquence who warns his audience against those evils which painted in such lively and lasting colours! have no remedy, when once undergone, either from prudence or time? As much greater as the evils in with no small pleasure I lately met with a f This advantage Christians have; and it a future state are than these at present, so much ment of Longinus, which is preserved, are the motives to persuasion under Christianity mony of that critic's judgment, at the beginning greater than those which mere moral considerations a manuscript of the New Testament in the Could supply us with. But what I now mention can library. After that author has numbered relates only to the power of moving the affections. the most celebrated orators among the Grecians There is another part of eloquence which is indeed says, "add to these Paul of Tarsus, the patro its masterpiece; I mean the marvellous, or sub- an opinion not yet fully proved." As a heate lime. In this the Christian orator has the advan-be condemns the Christian religion; and, as tage beyond contradiction. Our ideas are so infi- impartial critic, he judges in favour of the nitely enlarged by revelation, the eye of reason moter and preacher of it. To me it seems has so wide a prospect into eternity, the notions the latter part of his judgment adds great we of a Deity are so worthy and refined, and the ac- to his opinion of St. Paul's abilities, since, un counts we have of a state of happiness or misery all the prejudice of opinions directly opposite, so clear and evident, that the contemplation of is constrained to acknowledge the merit of apostle. And no doubt such as Longinus desc St. Paul, such he appeared to the inhabitant
t of the
as a test
say d their
cil gem those countries which he visited and blessed with, rious. The finest works of invention and imaginable force be those doctrines he was divinely commissioned to tion are of very little weight when put in the bapreach. Sacred story gives us, in one circumstance, lance with what refines and exalts the rational convincing proof of his eloquence, when the men mind. Longinus excuses Homer very handsomely, of Lystra called him Mercury, "because he was when he says the poet made his gods like men, the chief speaker," and would have paid divine that he might make his men appear like the gods. unan as worship to him, as to the God who invented and But it must be allowed that several of the ancient more enhed presided over eloquence. This one account of our philosophers acted as Cicero wishes Homer had he reach tapostle sets his character, considered as an ora- done: they endeavoured rather to make men like mended the motor only, above all the celebrated relations of the gods than gods like men. tenes vid skill and influence of Demosthenes and his con- According to this general maxim in philosophy, ich the temporaries. Their power in speaking was admir- some of them have endeavoured to place men in e as meci teed, but still it was thought human: their eloquence such a state of pleasure, or indolence at least, as than its Car warmed and ravished the hearers, but still it was they vainly imagined the happiness of the Supreme amethought the voice of man, not the voice of God. Being to consist in. On the other hand, the most notion at What advantage then had St. Paul above those of virtuous sect of philosophers have created a chiincerus Greece or Rome? I confess I can ascribe this ex-merical wise man, whom they made exempt from thered cellence to nothing but the power of the doctrines passions and pain, and thought it enough to prodhe delivered, which may have still the same influ-nounce him all-sufficient.
oland be rence on his hearers; which have still the power, This last character, when divested of the glare estate when preached by a skilful orator, to make us of human philosophy that surrounds it, signifies no mebreak out in the same expressions as the disciples more than that a good and wise man should so arm ne side who met our Saviour in their way to Emmaus made himself with patience, as not to yield tamely to use of: "Did not our hearts burn within us when the violence of passion and pain; that he should This eye mipang ete talked to us by the way, and while he opened learn so to suppress and contract his desires as to O us the scriptures?" I may be thought bold in my have few wants; and that he should cherish so judgment by some, but I must affirm that no one many virtues in his soul as to have a perpetual orator has left us so visible marks and footsteps source of pleasure in himself.
of his eloquence as our apostle. It may perhaps The Christian religion requires that, after hav be wondered at that, in his reasonings upon idola-ing framed the best idea we are able of the divine mory at Athens, where eloquence was born and flou-nature, it should be our next care to conform ourished, he confines himself to strict argument only; selves to it as far as our imperfections will permit. but my reader may remember what many authors I might mention several passages in the sacred of the best credit have assured us, that all attempts writings on this head, to which I might add many upon the affections and strokes of oratory were maxims and wise sayings of moral authors among expressly forbidden by the laws of that country in the Greeks and Romans.
courts of judicature. His want of eloquence I shall only instance a remarkable passage, to therefore here was the effect of his exact confor- this purpose, out of Julian's Cæsars.*
That emmity to the laws; but his discourse on the resurrec-peror having represented all the Roman emperors, tion to the Corinthians, his harangue before Agrip-with Alexander the Great, as passing in review be pa upon his own conversion, and the necessity of fore the gods, and striving for the superiority, lets hat of others, are truly great, and may serve as full them all drop, excepting Alexander, Julius Cæsar, examples to those excellent rules for the sublime, Augustus Cæsar, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and which the best of critics has left us. The sum of Constantine. Each of these great heroes of antitell this discourse is, that our clergy have no further quity lays in his claim for the upper place; and in to look for an example of the perfection they may order to it, sets forth his actions after the most adarrive at than to St. Paul's harangues; that when vantageous manner. But the gods, instead of bedbe, under the want of several advantages of na-ing dazzled with the lustre of their actions, inquire ture as he himself tells us, was heard, admired, by Mercury into the proper motive and governing and made a standard to succeeding ages by the principle that influenced them throughout the best judges of a different persuasion in religion; I whole series of their lives and exploits. Ålexander say our clergy may learn that, however instructive tells them that his aim was to conquer; Julius their sermons are, they are capable of receiving a Cæsar, that his was to gain the highest post in his great addition; which St. Paul has given them a country; Augustus, to govern well; Trajan, that noble example of, and the Christian religion has furnished them with certain means of attaining to.' [DR. PEARCE, afterwards Bp. of Rochester.]
No 634. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 17, 1714.
Ο ελάχιστων δεομενο είγιςα Θεων.
SOCRATES, apud XEN.
The fewer our wants, the nearer we resemble the gods.
his was the same as that of Alexander, namely, to conquer. The question, at length, was put to Marcus Aurelius, who replied, with great modesty, that it had always been his care to imitate the gods. This conduct seems to have gained him the most votes and best place in the whole assembly. Marcus Aurelius, being afterwards asked to explain himself, declares, that, by imitating the gods, he endeavoured to imitate them in the use of his understanding and of all other faculties; and, in particular, that it was always his study to have as few wants as possible in himself, and to do all the good he could to others.
Among the many methods by which revealed reIr was the common boast of the heathen philoso-ligion has advanced morality, this is one, that it phers, that by the efficacy of their several doc- has given us a more just and perfect idea of that trines, they made human nature resemble the di-Being whom every reasonable creature ought to imi vine. How much mistaken soever they might be tate. The young man in a heathen comedy, might in the several means they proposed for this end, it must be owned that the design was great and glo.
• Spanheim, Les Cesars de L'Empereur Julien, 412
justify his lewdness by the example of Jupiter; as, any created world can do: and that therefore, indeed, there was scarce any crime that might not it is not to be supposed that God should make a be countenanced by those notions of the deity world merely of inanimate matter, however diver which prevailed among the common people in the sified or inhabited only by creatures of no highe heathen world. Revealed religion sets forth a pro-an order than brutes, so the end for which he de per object for imitation in that Being who is the signed his reasonable offspring is the contemplation pattern, as well as the source, of all spiritual perfection.
of his works, the enjoyment of himself, and in bot to be happy; having, to this purpose, endowed the While we remain in this life we are subject to with correspondent faculties and desires. He ca innumerable temptations, which, if listened to, have no greater pleasure from the bare review d will make us deviate from reason and goodness, his works than from the survey of his own ik the only things wherein we can imitate the Su- but we may be assured that he is well pleased preme Being. In the next life we meet with no- the satisfaction derived to beings capable of it, asi thing to excite our inclinations that doth not de- for whose entertainment he hath erected this i serve them. I shall therefore dismiss my reader mense theatre. Is not this more than an intimarisi with this maxim, viz. Our happiness in this of our immortality? Man, who, when considered, world proceeds from the suppression of our de-as on his probation for a happy existence hereare sires, but in the next world from the gratification is the most remarkable instance of Divine wisha, of them.'
[The Author uncertain.]
N° 635. MONDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1714.
Sentio te sedem hominum ac domum contemplari; quæ si tibi parva (ut est) ita videtur, hæc coelestia semper spectato; illa humana contemnito.
CICERO Somn. Scip.
if we cut him off from all relation to eternity, the most remarkable and unaccountable comp sition in the whole creation. He hath capacite to lodge a much greater variety of knowledge the he will be ever master of, and an unsatisfied c osity to tread the secret paths of nature and pr dence: but with this, his organs, in their prese structure, are rather fitted to serve the necessite of a vile body, than to minister to his understa ing; and, from the little spot to which he is cha ed, he can frame but wandering guesses concer ing the innumerable worlds of light that encompas bigness, do but just glimmer in the remote spaces the heavens; and when, with a great deal of him, which, though in themselves of a prodigi THE following essay comes from the ingenious ascent of truth, and beholds with pity the and pains, he hath laboured a little way up the stee author of the letter upon Novelty, printed in a ling multitude beneath, in a moment his foot slide late Spectator: the notions are drawn from the and he tumbles down headlong into the grave. Platonic way of thinking; but, as they contribute to raise the mind, and may inspire noble senti-justice to the Creator of the world, that there is Thinking on this, I am obliged to believe, ments of our own future grandeur and happiness, another state when man shall be better situated fr I think it well deserves to be presented to the contemplation, or rather have it in his power public.
I perceive you contemplate the seat and habitation of men which, if it appears as little to you as it really is, fix your eyes perpetually upon heavenly objects, and despise earthly.
remove from object to object, and from world If the universe be the creature of an intelligent other helps, for making the quickest and m world; and be accommodated with senses, a mind, this mind could have no immediate regard to amazing discoveries. How doth such a genius himself in producing it. He needed not to make Sir Isaac Newton, from amidst the darkness the trial of his omnipotence to be informed what ef- involves human understanding, break forth, a fects were within its reach; the world, as existing appear like one of another species' The vast in his eternal idea, was then as beautiful as now it chine we inhabit lies open to him; he seems to is drawn forth into being; and in the immense unacquainted with the general laws that goes abyss of his essence are contained far brighter it; and while with the transport of a philosop scenes than will be ever set forth to view; it being he beholds and admires the glorious work, bes impossible that the great Author of nature should capable of paying at once a more devout bound his own power by giving existence to a more rational homage to his Maker. But, system of creatures so perfect that he cannot im how narrow is the prospect even of such a mix prove upon it by any other exertions of his al-And how obscure, to the compass that is taken mighty will. Between finite and infinite there is by the ken of ap angel, or of a soul but new an unmeasured interval not to be filled up in end- escaped from its imprisonment in the body! Fr less ages; for which reason the most excellent of my part, I freely indulge my soul in the confidence all God's works must be equally short of what his of its future grandeur; it pleases me to think power is able to produce as the most imperfect, I, who know so small a portion of the works and may be exceeded with the same ease, the Creator, and with slow and painful steps cre
This thought hath made some imagine (what it up and down on the surface of this globe, shall e must be confessed is not impossible) that the un-long shoot away with the swiftness of imagination fathomed space, is ever teeming with new births, trace out the hidden springs of nature's operations the younger still inheriting a greater perfection be able to keep pace with the heavenly bodies i than the elder. But, as this does not fall within the rapidity of their career, be a spectator my present view, I shall content myself with long chain of events in the natural and mos taking notice, that the consideration now men- worlds, visit the several apartments of the cr tioned proves undeniably, that the ideal worlds in tion, know how they are furnished and how the Divine understanding yield a prospect incom-habited, comprehend the order, and measure parably more ample, various, and delightful, than magnitudes and distances of those orbs, which
to us seem disposed without any regular desig and set all in the same circle; observe the
I world cand be supposed t ly of our e abited caree
in brutes, so that sonable
pendance of the darts of each system, and (if our versing with heavenly beings. Are not spirits caminds are big enough to grasp the theory) of the pable of mutual intelligence, unless immersed in several systems upon one another, from whence bodies, or by their intervention? Must superior results the harmony of the universe. In eternity a natures depend on inferior for the main privilege great deal may be done of this kind. I find it of of sociable beings, that of conversing with, and use to cherish this generous ambition; for, besides knowing each other? What would they have done thee the secret refreshment it diffuses through my soul, had matter never been created? I suppose, not git engages me in an endeavour to improve my fa bave lived in eternal solitude. As incorporeal culties as well as to exercise them conformably to substances are of a nobler order, so be sure their the rank I now hold among reasonable beings, and manner of intercourse is answerably more expefrom the the hope I have of being once advanced to a more dite and intimate. This method of communication assured exalted station. we call intellectual vision, as somewhat analagous denved be The other, and the ultimate end of man, is the to the sense of seeing, which is the medium of our and enjoyment of God, beyond which he cannot form a acquaintance with this visible world. And in some Bets wish. Dim at the best are the conceptions we have such way can God make himself the object of im
of the Supreme Being, who, as it were, keeps his mediate intuition to the blessed; and as he can, it hit creatures in suspense, neither discovering nor hid- is not improbable that he will, always condescendrating himself; by which means, the libertine hath a ing, in the circumstances of doing it, to the weakhandle to dispute his existence, while the most are ness and proportion of finite minds. His works able and content to speak him fair, but in their hearts prefer but faintly reflect the image of his perfections; it e creat every trifling satisfaction to the favour of their is a second-hand knowledge: to have a just idea Teater Maker, and ridicule the good man for the sin of him it may be necessary to see him as he is. isterd gularity of his choice. Will there not a time But what is that? It is something that never entered ecret po come when the free-thinker shall see his impious into the heart of man to conceive; yet what we is, baca schemes overturned, and be made a convert to the can easily conceive, will be a fountain of unspeakfted as truths he hates? When deluded mortals shall be able and everlasting rapture. All created glories convinced of the folly of their pursuits; and the will fade and die away in his presence. Perhaps few wise, who followed the guidance of Heaven, it will be my happiness to compare the world with and, scorning the blandishments of sense, and the fair exemplar of it in the Divine Mind; perthe sordid bribery of the world, aspired to a ce-haps, to view the original plan of those wise delestial abode, shall stand possessed of their ut- signs that have been executing in a long succesmost wish in the vision of the Creator? Here the sion of ages. Thus employed in finding out his mind heaves a thought now and then towards him, works, and contemplating their Author, how shall and hath some transient glances of his presence: I fall prostrate and adoring, my body swallowed when in the instant it thinks itself to have the up the immensity of matter, my mind in the infi fastest hold, the object eludes its expectations, and nitude of his perfections! it falls back tired and baffled to the ground.[ Doubtless there is some more perfect way of con
Accompts, their great usefulness,
Acetus, his character
55 Amazons, their commonwealth,
They marry their male allies,
77 Ambition never satisfied,
The occasion of factions,
By what to be measured,
Many times as hurtful to the princes who are led by i
as the people,
Most men subject to it,
Of use when rightly directed,
And means to conquer it,
The absence of lovers, death in love,
The character of an absent man out of Bruyere,
How to be made easy,
The end of it,
The effects of it in the mind,
Subjects us to many troubles,
Acosta, his answer to Limborch, touching the multiplicity
Acrostic, piece of false wit, divided into simple and com-
Act of deformity, for the use of the Ugly club,
Action, the felicity of the soul
A threefold division of our actions,
No right judgment to be made of them,
A necessary qualification in an orator,
Tully's observations on action adapted to the British
Actions, principles of, two in man,
Actor, absent, who so called by Theophrastus,
Admiration, one of the most pleasing passions,
The true object of a laudable ambition,
Americans, their opinions of souls,
Exemplified in a vision of one of their countrymen,
213 Amity between agreeable persons of different sexes danger
541 Amoret the jilt reclaimed by Philander,
Ample (Lady,) her uneasiness, and the reasons of it,
541 Anacharsis, the Corinthian drunkard, a saying of his,
22 Animals, the different make of every species,
Exemplified in several instances,
God himself the soul of brutes,
The variety of arms with which they are provided by
Anne Boleyne's last letter to King Henry VIII.
The most abject of wishes,
512 Answers to several letters at once,
579 Anthony (Mark,) his witty mirth commended by Tully,
33 Anxieties, unnecessary, the evil of them and the vanity of
38 Apes, what women so called, and described,
38 Apollo's temple on the top of Leucate, by whom frequented,
404 Apothecary, his employment,
460 Apparitions, the creation of weak minds,
95 Appearances, the veneration of respect paid to them in
Things not to be trusted for them,
Appetites, sooner moved than the passions,
Applause (public,) its pleasure,
A comfortable old age the reward of a well-spent
The authority of an aged virtuous person preferable to
April, (the first of,) the merriest day in the year,
Censure and applause should not mislead us,
Arabella (Mrs.,) the great heiress, the Spectator's fellow
The authority assumed by some people on the account
Aglaus, his story told by Cowley,
Agreeable man, who,
The art of being agreeable in company,
Albacinda, her character,
Alexander the Great, wry necked,
His artifice in his Indian expedition,
His answer to those who asked him if he would not
Wherein he imitated Achilles in a piece of cruelty, and
His complaint to Aristotle,
Allegories, like light to a discourse,
Eminent writers faulty in them,
The reception the Spectator's allegorical writings meet
Allusions, the great art of a writer,
Almighty, his power over the imagination,
Verses on Arabella's singing,
Araspas and Panthea, their story out of Xenophon,
The greatness of the manner how it strikes the faney,
The concave and convex figures have the greatest air,
127 Aretine made all the princes of Europe his tributaries,
Socrates's way of arguing,
In what manner managed by states and communities,
337 Argus; his qualifications and employments under Juno,
Her fable of the lion and the man, in answer to the story
Her story of Inkle and Yarico,
501 Aristinætus, his letters, some account of them,
421 Aristotle, his observation upon the Iambic verse,
Aristotle's saying of his being,
Amanda, her adventures,
Amaryllis, her character,
His account of the world,
The inventor of syllogism,