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Swede, or Frenchman at different times; or rather filled with pyramids of China, and adorned with the fancy myself like the old philosopher, who upon workmanship of Japan. Our morning's draught being asked what countryman he was, replied, comes to us from the remotest corners of the earth. that he was a citizen of the world. We repair our bodies by the drugs of America, and repose ourselves under Indian canopies. My friend Sir Andrew calls the vineyards of France

For these reasons there are not more useful members in a commonwealth than merchants. They knit mankind together in a mutual inter

Though I very frequently visit this busy multitude of people, I am known to nobody there but my friend Sir Andrew; who often smiles upon me our gardens; the spice-islands, our hot-beds; the as be sees me bustling in the crowd, but at the Persians our silk-weavers, and the Chinese our same time connives at my presence without taking potters. Nature indeed furnishes us with the bare further notice of me. There is indeed a merchant necessaries of life, but traffic gives us a great vaof Egypt, who just knows me by sight, having for-riety of what is useful, and at the same time supmerly remitted me some money to Grand Cairo* ;plies us with every thing that is convenient and but as I am not versed in the modern Coptic, ornamental. Nor is it the least part of this our our conferences go no further than a bow and a happiness, that whilst we enjoy the remotest pro grimace. ducts of the North and South, we are free from This grand scene of business gives me an infinite those extremities of weather which give them variety of solid and substantial entertainments. As birth; that our eyes are refreshed with the green I am a great lover of mankind, my heart naturally fields of Britain, at the same time that our pasverflows with pleasure at the sight of a prosperlates are feasted with fruits that rise between the eus and happy multitude, insomuch that at many tropics. public solemnities I cannot forbear expressing my joy with tears that have stolen down my checks For this reason I am wonderfully delighted to see sich a body of men thriving in their own private course of good offices, distribute the gifts of nafortunes, and at the same time promoting the pub-ture, find work for the poor, add wealth to the le stock; or, in other words, raising estates for rich, and magnificence to the great. Our English their own families, by bringing into their country merchant converts the tin of his own country into Whatever is wanting, and carrying out of it what- gold, and exchanges its wool for rubies. The ever is superfluous. Mahometans are clothed in our British manufac. Nature seems to have taken a particular care to ture, and the inhabitants of the frozen zone warmsseminate her blessings among the different re-ed with the fleeces of our sheep. gets of the world, with an eye to this mutual rcourse and traffic among mankind, that the ives of the several parts of the globe might have and of dependence upon one another, and be rated together by their common interest. Almost every degree produces something peculiar to it. The food often grows in one country, and the sace in another. The fruits of Portugal are corrected by the products of Barbadoes, and the inon of a China plant is sweetened by the pith The Philippic islands give a avour to our European bowls. The single dress woman of quality is often the product of an dred climates. The muff and the fan come Zether from the different ends of the earth. The f is sent from the torrid zone, and the tippet beneath the pole. The brocade petticoat

When I have been upon the 'Change, I have often fancied one of our old kings standing in person, where he is represented in effigy, and looking down upon the wealthy concourse of people with which that place is every day filled. In this case, how would he be surprised to hear all the languages of Europe spoken in this little spot of his former dominions, and to see so many private men, who in his time would have been the vassals of some powerful baron, negociating like princes for greater sums of money than were formerly to be met with in the royal treasury! Trade, without enlarging the British territories, has given us a kind of additional empire. It has multiplied the number of the rich, made our landed estates infinitely more valuable than they were formerly, and added to them an accession of other estates

of an Indian cane.

ses out of the mines of Peru, and the diamond as valuable as the lands themselves. aecklace out of the bowels of Indostan.



If we consider our own country in its natural ospect, without any of the benefits and advanges of commerce, what a barren uncomfortable pot of earth falls to our share! Natural historians ls, that no fruit grows originally among us, des hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with delicacies of the like nature; that our cliatt, of itself, and without the assistance of art, make no further advances towards a plum to a sloe, and carries an apple to no greater WHEN I travelled, I took a particular delight in ction than a crab: that our melons, our hearing the songs and fables that are come from thes, our figs, our apricots, and cherries, are father to son, and are most in vogue among the gers among us, imported in different ages, and common people of the countries through which I alized in our English gardens; and that they passed; for it is impossible that any thing should all degenerate and fall away into the trash be universally tasted and approved by a multitude, own country, if they were wholly neglected though they are only the rabble of a nation, which planter, and left to the mercy of our sun hath not in it some peculiar aptness to please and Nor has traffic more enriched our vege- gratify the mind of man. Human nature is the world, than it has improved the whole face same in all reasonable creatures; and whatever re among us. Our ships are laden with the falls in with it, will meet with admirers amongst of every climate. Our tables are stored readers of all qualities and conditions. Moliere, pices, and oils, and wines. Our rooms are as we are told by Monsieur Boileau, used to read all his comedies to an old woman who was his housekeeper, as she sat with him at her work by

• Sce No. 1.

N° 70. MONDAY, MAY 21, 1711.

Interdum vulgus rectum videt.

HOR. 1 Ep. ii. 63.
Sometimes the vulgar see and judge aright.

the chimney corner; and could fortel the success of his play in the theatre, from the reception it met at his fire-side; for he tells us the audience always followed the old woman, and never failed to laugh in the same place.

The next point observed by the greatest heroic I know nothing which more shows the essential poets, hath been to celebrate persons and actions and inherent perfection of simplicity of thought, which do honour to their country: thus Virgil's above that which I call the Gothic manner in hero was the founder of Rome, Homer's a prince writing than this, that the first pleases all kinds of Greece; and for this reason Valerius Flaccus of palates, and the latter only such as have formed and Statius, who were both Romans, might be justto themselves a wrong artificial taste upon little ly derided for having chosen the expedition of the fanciful authors and writers of epigram. Homer, Golden Fleece, and the Wars of Thebes, for the Virgil, or Milton, so far as the language of their subjects of their epic writings. poems is understood, will please a reader of plain The poet before us has not only found out an common sense, who would neither relish nor com-hero in his own country, but raises the reputation prehend an epigram of Martial, or a poem of of it by several beautiful incidents. The English Cowley: so, on the contrary, an ordinary song or are the first who take the field, and the last who ballad that is the delight of the common people, quit it. The English bring only fifteen hundred cannot fail to please all such readers as are not to the battle, the Scotch two thousand. The Engunqualified for the entertainment by their affecta-lish keep the field with fifty-three; the Scotch tion or ignorance; and the reason is plain, because retire with fifty-five: all the rest on each side bethe same paintings of nature, which recommend it ing slain in battle. But the most remarkable cirto the most ordinary reader, will appear beautiful cumstance of this kind, is the different manner in to the most refined. which the Scotch and English kings receive the news of this fight and of the great men's deaths who commanded in it:

The old song of Chevy-Chase is the favourite ballad of the common people of England, and Ben Jonson used to say he had rather have been the author of it than of all his works Sir Philip Sid.. ney, in his discourse of poetry, speaks of it in the following words: 'I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas, that I found not my heart more moved than with a trumpet; and yet it is sung by some blind Crowder with no rougher voice than rude style; which being so evil apparelled in the dust and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it work trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindar? For my own part, I am so professed an admirer of this antiquated song, that I shall give my reader a critique upon it, without any further apology for so doing.

'God save the king and bless the land
In plenty, joy, and peace;

And grant henceforth that foul debate
"Twixt noblemen may cease."

This serious display of the beauties of Chevy Chase exposed Addison to the ridicule of Wagstaffe, and the contempt of Den nis.-See Johnson's Lives of the English Poets, vol. ii. p. 138,

8vo. 1801.

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'Now God be with him, said our king,

Sith 'twill no better be,

I trust I have within my realm
Five hundred good as he.

The greatest modern critics have laid it down as
a rule, That an heroic poem should be founded
upon some important precept of morality, adapted
to the constitution of the country in which the poet
writes. Homer and Virgil have formed their plans
in this view. As Greece was a collection of many
governments, who suffered very much among
themselves, and gave the Persian emperor, who
was their common enemy, many advantages over
them by their mutual jealousies and animosities,
Homer, in order to establish among them an union,
which was so necessary for their safety, grounds At the same time that our poet shows a laudable
his poem upon the discords of the several Grecian partiality to his countrymen, he represents the
Scots after a manner not unbecoming so bold and

princes who were engaged in a confederacy against
an Asiatic prince, and the several advantages brave a people :
which the enemy gained by such their discords
At the time the poem we are now treating of was
written, the dissensions of the barons, who were
then so many petty princes, ran very high, whether
they quarrelled among themselves, or with their
neighbours, and produced unspeakable calamities His sentiments and actions are every way suitable
to the country. The poet, to deter men from such to an hero. One of us two, says he, must die: I
unnatural contentions, describes a bloody battle am an earl as well as yourself, so that you can
and dreadful scene of death, occasioned by the have no pretence for refusing the combat: how.
mutual feuds which reigned in the families of an ever, says he, it is pity, and indeed would be a
English and Scotch nobleman. That he designed sin, that so many innocent men should perish for
this for the instruction of his poem, we may learn our sakes; rather let you and I end our quarre!
from his four last lines, in which, after the example in single fight:
of the modern tragedians, he draws from it a pre-
cept for the benefit of his readers:

"Yet shall not Scot, nor Scotland say,

But I will vengeance take,
And be revenged on them all
For brave Lord Percy's sake.

This vow full well the king perform'd

After on Humble down,

In one day fifty knights were slain,
With lords of great renown.

And of the rest of small account
Did many thousands die, &c.'

Earl Douglas on a milk white steed,
Most like a baron bold,
Rode foremost of the company,
Whose armour shone like gold.'

The battle of Otterburn (or Chevy Chase) was fought July
31st, 1 88; when the King of Scotland was Robert II. and the
King of England Richard II. See Blair's Chronology, Plate
XLVIII. But here we have James and Henry.

+ It is not easy to discover how this could be. The field of
battle was above 300 miles from London, and not 100 from

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Tum sic expirans Accam ex æqualibus unam
Alloquiur; fida ante alias que sota Camilla,
Quicum partiri curas; atque hæc ita fatur :
Hactenus, Acta soror, poui: nunc vulnus acerbum
Conficit et tenebris nigrescunt omnia circum:
Effuge, et hæc Turno mandata novissima perfer ;
Succedat pugnæ, Trojanosque arceat urbe :
Jamque vale.-

A gathering mist o'erclouds her cheerful eyes;
And from her cheeks the rosy colour flies,
Then turns to her, whom, of her female train,
She trusted most, and thus she speaks with pain:
Acen, 'tis past! he swims before my sight,
Inexorable death; and claims his right.
Bear my last words to Turnus; fly with speed,
And bid him timely to my charge succeed :
Repel the Trojans, and the town relieve.

'Lord Percy sees my fall."

* ————————- Vicisti, et victum tendere palmas Ausoni videre

En. xi. 820.


Turnus did not die in so heroic a manner; though our poet seems to have had his eye upon Turnus's speech in the last verse:

"Then leaving life, Earl Percy took
The dead man by the hand,
And said, Earl Douglas, for thy life
Would I had lost my land.

The Latian chiefs have seen me beg my life.
En. xii. 936.

Earl Percy's lamentation over his enemy is generous, beautiful, and passionate; I must only caution the reader not to let the simplicity of the style, which one may well pardon in so old a poet, prejudice him against the greatness of the thought:

O Christ! my very heart doth bleed
With sorrow for thy sake;
For sure a more renowned knight
Mischance did never take.'

Merry-men, in the language of those times, is no more than a cheerful word for companions and THE entire conquest of our passions is so difficult fellow-soldiers. A passage in the eleventh book of a work, that they who despair of it should think of Virgil's Eneid is very much to be admired, where a less difficult task, and only attempt to regulate Camilla, in her last agonies, instead of weeping them. But there is a third thing which may conover the wound she had received, as one might tribute not only to the ease, but also to the pleahave expected from a warrior of her sex, considers sure of our life; and that is refining our passions only (like the hero of whom we are now speaking) to a greater elegance than we receive them from how the battle should be continued after her death: nature. When the passion is Love, this work is

performed in innocent, though rude and uncultivated minds, by the mere force and dignity of the object. There are forms which naturally create respect in the beholders, and at once inflame and chastise the imagination. Such an impression as this gives an immediate ambition to deserve, in order to please. This cause and effect are beautifully described by Mr. Dryden in the fable of Cymon and Iphigenia. After he has represented Cymon so stupid, that

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Scribere jussit amor.

OVID, Epist. iv. 10.
Love bade me write.



"He whistled as he went, for want of thought;"

he makes him fall into the following scene, and shows its influence upon him so excellently, that it appears as natural as wonderful:

It happen'd on a summer's holiday.
That to the greenwood-shade he took his way;
His quarter-staff, which he could ne'er forsake,
Hung half before, and half behind his back,
He trude'd along, unknowing what he sought,
And whistled as he went, for want of thought.

By chance conducted, or by thirst constrain'd,
The deep recesses of the grove he gain'd;
Where in a plain, defended by the wood,
Crept through the matted grass a crystal flood,
By which an alabaster fountain stood:
And on the margin of the fount was laid
(Attended by her slaves) a sleeping maid,
Like Dian and her nymphs, when, tir'd with sport,
To rest by cool Eurotas they resort:
The dame herself the goddess well express'd,
Not more distinguish'd by her purple vest,
Than by the charming features of her face,
And e'en in slumber a superior grace;
Her comely limbs compos'd with decent care,
Her body shaded with a slight cymarr:
Her bosom to the view was only bare:
The fanning wind upon her bosom blows,
To meet the fanning wind the bosom rose;
The fanning wind and purling streams continue her


* See No. 74.

The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes,
And gaping mouth, that testify'd surprise;
Fix'd on her face, nor could remove his sight,
New as he was to love, and novice in delight:
Long mute he stood, and leaning on his staff,
His wonder witness'd with an idiot laugh;
Then would have spoke, but by his glin'ring sense
First found his want of words, and fear'd offence;
Doubted for what he was he should be known,
By his clown-accent, and his country-tone."




I could write all day; but the time being short, and paper little, no more from your never-failing lover till death,


Poor James! since his time and paper were so short, I that have more than I can use well of both, will put the sentiments of this kind letter (the style of which seems to be confused with scraps he had got in hearing and reading what he did not understand) into what he meant to express.

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But lest this fine description should be excepted against, as the creation of that great master, Mr. Dryden, and not an account of what has really ever happened in the world, I shall give you verbatim, the epistle of an enamoured footman in the country to his mistress. Their surnames shall not be CAN you then neglect him who has forgot all his ieved, because their passions demand a greater recreations and enjoyments, to pine away his life respect than is due to their quality. James is serin thinking of you? When I do so, you appear vaut in a great family, and Elizabeth waits upon more amiable to me than Venus does in the most the daughter of one as numerous, some miles off beautiful description that ever was made of her. her lover. James, before he beheld Betty, was vain All this kindness you return with an accusation, of his strength, a rough wrestler, and quarrelsome that I do not love you: but the contrary is so ma cudgel-player; Betty a public-dancer at may-poles, nifest, that I cannot think you in earnest. But the a romp at stool ball: he always following idle wo certainty given me in your message by Molly, that men, she playing among the peasants: he a coun-you do not love me, is what robs me of all comtry bully, she a country coquette. But love has fort. She says you will not see me if you can made her constantly in her mistress's chamber, bave so much cruelty, at least write to me, that ! where the young lady gratifies a secret passion of may kiss the impression made by your fair hand. her own, by making Betty talk of James; and I love you above all things; and in my condition, James is become a constant waiter near his mas-what you look upon with indifference is to me the ter's apartment, in reading, as well as he can, ro most exquisite pleasure or pain. Our young lady mances. I cannot learn who Molly is, who it seems and a fine gentleman from London, who are to walked ten miles to carry the angry message, marry for mercenary ends, walk about our gar which gave occasion to what follows. dens, and hear the voice of evening nightingales, as if for fashion-sake they courted those solitudes, because they have heard lovers do so. Oh Betty! could I hear these rivulets murmur, and birds sing, while you stood near me, how little sensible should be that we are both servants, that there is any thing on earth above us! Oh! I could write to you as long as I love you, till death itself.


N° 72. WEDNESDAY, MAY 23, 1711.

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May 14, 1711. REMEMBER your bleeding lover, who lies bleed-I ing at the wounds Cupid made with the arrow he borrowed at the eyes of Venus, which is your sweet person.

Nay more, with the token you sent me for my
love and service offered to your sweet person;
which was your base respects to my ill conditions; in a woman coquetry, in a man inconstancy.
when alas! there is no ill conditions in me, but
quite contrary; all love and purity, especially to
your sweet person; but all this I take as a jest.

N. B. By the words ill-conditions, James means


But the sad and dismal news which Molly brought me struck me to the heart, which was it seems, and is, your ill conditions for my love and respects to you.

For she told me, if I came forty times to you, you would not speak with me, which words I am sure is a great grief to me.

Now my dear, if I may not be permitted to your sweet company, and to have the happiness of speaking with your sweet person, I beg the favour of you to accept of this my secret mind and HAVING already given my reader an account of thoughts, which hath so long lodged in my breast, several extraordinary clubs both ancient and mothe which if you do not accept, I believe will godern, I did not design to have troubled him with nigh to break my heart.

For indeed, my dear, I love you above all the beauties I ever saw in all my life.

This man's name (Mr. Nichols informs us) was James Hirst, who was a servant to the Hon. Edward Wortley, Esq. and, in de livering a parcel of letters to his master, gave by mistake this

The young gentleman, and my master's daugh-letter, which he had just prepared for his sweetheart, and kept ter, the Londoner that is come down to marry her, in its stead one of his master's. He quickly returned to rectify sat in the arbour most part of last night. Oh, dear the blunder, but it was too late. Unfortunately the letter to Betty was the first that presented itself to Mr. Wortley, who had Betty, must the nightingales sing to those who indulged his curiosity in reading the love tale of his enamoured marry for money, and not to us true lovers! Oh, footman, James requested to have it returned, in vain. "No, my dear Betty, that we could meet this night James," said his master," you shall be a great man, and this letter where we used to do in the wood!

must appear in the Spectator."

James succeeded in putting an end to Betty's ill conditions, and obtained her consent to marry him; but the marriage was prevented by her sudden death. James Hirst, soon after, from

Now, my dear, if I may not have the blessing of kissing your sweet lips, I beg I may have the his regard and love for Betty, married her sister, and died (about happiness of kissing your fair hand, with a few 1776) by Pennistone, in the neighbourhood of Wortley, near lines from your dear self, presented by whom you walked ten miles to carry the angry message which occasioned successor was who please to think fit. I believe if time would permit the preceding letter.'

Genus immortale manet, multosque per annos
Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum.

Th' immortal line in sure succession reigns,
The fortune of his family remains,
And grandsires' grandsons the long list contains.

VIRG. Georg.iv: 208.

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any more narratives of this nature; but I have cards. It is also said, that they observe the law in
lately received information of a club, which I can Ben Jonson's club, which orders the fire to be
call neither ancient nor modern, that I dare say always kept in (focus perennis esto), as well for
will be no less surprising to my reader than it was the convenience of lighting their pipes, as to cure
to myself; for which reason I shall communicate it the dampness of the club-room. They have an old
to the public as one of the greatest curiosities in woman in the nature of a vestal, whose business it
its kind.
is to cherish and perpetuate the fire, which burns

A friend of mine complaining of a tradesman from generation to generation, and has seen the who is related to him, after having represented him glass-house fires in and out above an hundred as a very idle worthless fellow, who neglected his times. family, and spent most of his time over a bottle, told me, to conclude his character, that he was a an eye of contempt, and talks even of the Kit-Cat The Everlasting club treats all other clubs with member of the Everlasting club. So very odd a and October as of a couple of upstarts. title raised my curiosity to inquire into the nature ordinary discourse (as much as I have been able Their of a club that had such a sounding name; upon to learn of it) turns altogether upon such advenwhich my friend gave me the following account: tures as have passed in their own assembly of members who have taken the glass in their turns


TRE Everlasting club consists of a hundred mem- for a week together, without stirring out of the bers, who divide the whole twenty-four hours club: of others who have smoked an hundred pipes among them in such a manner, that the club sits at a sitting; of others who have not missed their day and night from one end of the year to another: morning's draught for twenty years together. no party presuming to rise till they are relieved Sometimes they speak in raptures of a run of by those who are in course to succeed them. By ale in King Charles's reign; and sometimes reflect this means a member of the Everlasting club never with astonishment upon games at whist, which have wants company; for though he is not upon duty been miraculously recovered by members of the himself, he is sure to find some who are ; so that if society, when in all human probability the case he be disposed to take a whet, a nooning, an was desperate. evening's draught, or a bottle after midnight, he goes to the club, and finds a knot of friends to his mind.

sing at all hours to encourage one another to They delight in several old catches, which they ing; with many other edifying exhortations of the moisten their clay, and grow immortal by drink

It is a maxim in this club, that the steward never dies; for as they succeed one another by like nature. way of rotation, no man is to quit the great elbowchair which stands at the upper end of the table, till his successor is in a readiness to fill it; insomuch that there has not been a sede vacante in the memory of man.

which times they fill up vacancies, appoint waiters, There are four general clubs held in a year, at confirm the old fire-maker, or elect a new one, settle contributions for coals, pipes, tobacco, and other necessaries.

The senior member has outlived the whole club



O Dea certe!

This club was instituted towards the end (or as some of them say, about the middle) of the civil twice over, and has been drunk with the grandfa wars, and continued without interruption till the thers of some of the present sitting members. time of the great fire,* which burnt them out, and dispersed them for several weeks. at that time maintained his post till he had like to The steward have been blown up with a neighbouring house, (which was demolished in order to stop the fire;) and would not leave the chair at last, till he had emptied all the bottles upon the table, and received repeated directions from the club to withdraw himself. This steward is frequently talked of in the club, and looked upon by every member of it as a greater man than the famous captain mentioned in my Lord Clarendon, who was burnt IT is very strange to consider, that a creature like in his ship because he would not quit it without man, who is sensible of so many weaknesses and orders. It is said that towards the close of 1700, imperfections, should be actuated by a love of being the great year of Jubilee, the club had it fame: that vice and ignorance, imperfection and under consideration whether they should break up misery, should contend for praise, and endeavour and debates, it was at length agreed to sit out the on continue their session; but after many speeches as much as possible to make themselves objects of other century. This resolution passed in a general club nemine contradicente.

O goddess! for no less you seem.


But notwithstanding man's essential perfection Having given this short account of the institution very considerable. If he looks upon himself in an is but very little, his comparative perfection may be here endeavour to say something of the manners and continuation of the Everlasting club, I should abstracted light, he has not much to boast of; but and characters of its several members, which I may find occasion of glorying, if not in his own if he considers himself with regard to others, he shall do according to the best lights I have received virtues, at least in the absence of another's imper

in this


fections. This gives a different turn to the reflectheir first institution, they have smoked fifty tons/deavours to shine in himself, and the last to outappears by their books in general, that, since tions of the wise man and the fool. The first en

shine others. The first is humbled by the sense of

of tobacco, drank thirty thousand butts of ale, one thousand hogsheads of red port, two hundred bar.his own infirmities, the last is lifted up by the dis

A. D. 1666.

N° 73. THURSDAY, MAY 24, 1711.

VIRG. En. i. 332.

There has been likewise a great consumption of The wise man considers what he wants, and the

The Leges Convivales of this club will be found in Ben Jonson's works, by Whalley, vol. vii,

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