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[fection; and it is to such as your lordship, that the sciences owe the esteem which they have with the active part of mankind. Knowledge of books in recluse men, is like that sort of lantern, which hides him who carries it, and serves only to pass XA 21008 Qềmanners and studies is usually men- through secret and gloomy paths of his own; but, Macc as one of the strongest motives to affection in the possession of a man of business, it is, as a and estecin; but the passionate vencration I have torch in the band of one who is willing and able 10. your Lordship, I think, flows from an admira- to show those who were bewildered, the way bea of qualities in you, of which, in the whole which leads to their prosperity and welfare. A course of these papers, I have acknowledged my-generous concern for your country, and a passion sclt incapable. While I busy myself as a stranger for every thing which is truly great and noble, upon earth, and can pretend to no other than be- are what actuate all your life and actions; and I ing a looker-on, you are conspicuous in the busy hope you will forgive me that I have an ambition and polite world, both in the world of men, and this book may be placed in the library of so good that of letters. While I am silent and unobserved a judge of what is valuable, in that library where in public meetings, you are admired by all that the choice is such, that it will not be a disparageapproach you, as the life and genius of the con- ment to be the meanest author in it. Forgive me, versation. What an happy conjunction of dif- my lord, for taking this occasion of telling all the ferent talents meets in him whose whole discourse world how ardently I love and honour you; and is at once animated by the strength and force of that I am, with the utmost gratitude for all your reason, and adorned with all the graces and em- favours, my lord, your lordship's most obliged, bellishments of wit! When learning irradiates most obedient, and most humble servant, common life, it is then in its highest use and per


* This very distinguished wit and statesman was fourth son of the baron of Halifax in the county of York; but before his promotion, Hon. George Montague, of Harton, in Northamptonshire, son of he had conferred on him the place of auditor of the exchequer, Henry the first earl of Manchester, and born April 16, 1661. He being succeeded in his post of first lord of the treasury by Sidney was educated at Westminster-school, and at Trinity college, Cam-lord Godolphin. In 1701 the house of commons impeached him bridge; showed very early a most pregnant genius, and quickly of high crimes and misdemeanors, in six articles, which, however, made great progress in learning. In 1684 he wrote a poem "On were dismissed by the house of lords. He was again attacked by the death of King Charles II." in which he displayed his genius to the house of commons in 1702, but without success. In 1704 he such advantage, that he was invited by the earl of Dorset to Lon-wrote "An Answer to Mr. Bromeley's Speech," respecting the don, where he soon increased his fame, particularly by a piece occasional conformity-bill. In 1706 he was one of the commis which he wrote in conjunction with Matthew Prior, and publish- sioners for the union with Scotland; and upon passing the "Bill ed in 1687, under the title of "The Hind and the Panther, tra- for the Naturalization of the illustrious House of Hanover, and vestied to the Story of the Country-mouse and the City-mouse." for the better security of the succession of the crown in the ProUpon the abdication of king James II. he was chosen one of the testant line," his lordship was chosen to carry that act to Hanomembers of the convention, and recommended by the earl of ver. Upon the death of queen Anne, he was one of the lords of Dorset to king William, who immediately allowed him a pension the regency in his majesty's absence from his kingdoms; and of five hundred pounds per annum. After some time, having when George I had taken possession of his throne, his lordship given proofs of his great abilities in the house of commons, he was made one of the commissioners of the treasury, and soon after chancellor of the exchequer; in which post he brought about that great work of recoining all the current money of the nation. In 1698 he was appointed first commissioner of the treasury, and one of the lords justices of England during the king's absence in Holland; and in 1700 was created a peer of England by the title of

was again appointed first commissioner of the treasury, and created earl of Halifax and knight of the garter. He died May 19, 1715, and was interred in Westminster-Abbey. His lordship wrote, besides those mentioned, some other poems, particularly one entitled "The Man of Honour ;" and his works have been since collected, and published among those of the English poets.

N° 81. SATURDAY, JUNE 2, 1711.

Qualis ubi audito venantum murmure tigris
Herruit in maculas --


As when the tigress hears the hunters' din,
A thousand angry spots defile her skin.

unfortunate in her mole, Nigranilla is as unhappy in a pimple, which forces her, against her inclinations, to patch on the whig side.

I am told that many virtuous matrons, who formerly have been taught to believe that this artificial spotting of the face was unlawful, are now reconciled, by a zeal for their cause, to what they could not be prompted by a concern for their beauty. This way of declaring war upon one anoABOUT the middle of last winter I went to see ther, puts me in mind of what is reported of the an opera at the theatre in the Haymarket, tigress, that several spots rise in her skin when she where I could not but take notice of two parties is angry, or as Mr. Cowley has imitated the verses of very fine women, that had placed themselves that stand as the motto of this paper,

She swells with angry pride,
And calls forth all her spots on every side."*

in the opposite side-boxes, and seemed drawn up in a kind of battle-array one against another. After a short survey of them, I found they were patched differently; the faces on one hand being spotted on the right side of the forehead, and those upon the other on the left. I quickly perceived tioned, I had the curiosity to count the patches on that they cast hostile glances upon one another; both sides, and found the tory patches to be about and that their patches were placed in those dif. twenty stronger than the whig; but to make amends ferent situations, as party-signals to distinguish for this small inequality, I the next morning found friends from foes. In the middle boxes between the whole puppet-show filled with faces spotted these two opposite bodies, were several ladies who after the whiggish manner. Whether or no the patched indifferently on both sides of their faces, ladies had retreated hither in order to rally their and seemed to sit there with no other intention but forces I cannot tell; but the next night they came to see the opera. Upon inquiry I found that the in so great a body to the opera that they outbody of Amazons on my right hand, were whigs, numbered the enemy.

When I was in the theatre the time above-men

and those on my left, tories; and that those who This account of party-patches will, I am afraid, had placed themselves in the middle-boxes were a appear improbable to those who live at a distance neutral party, whose faces had not yet declared from the fashionable world: but as it is a disthemselves. These last, however, as I afterwards tinction of a very singular nature, and what perfound, diminished daily, and took their party with haps may never meet with a parallel, I think I one side or the other; insomuch that I observed, in should not have discharged the office of a faithful several of them, the patches which were before Spectator, had not I recorded it.

dispersed equally, are now all gone over to the I have, in former papers, endeavoured to exwhig or tory side of the face. The censorious say pose this party-rage in women, as it only serves to that the men, whose hearts are aimed at, are very aggravate the hatreds and animosities that reign often the occasion that one part of the face is thus among men, and in a great measure deprives the dishonoured, and lies under a kind of disgrace, fair sex of those peculiar charms with which nature while the other is so much set off and adorned by has endowed them.

the owner; and that the patches turn to the right When the Romans and Sabines were at war, and or to the left, according to the principles of the just upon the point of giving battle, the women, man who is most in favour. But whatever may be who were allied to both of them, interposed with the motives of a few fantastical coquettes, who do so many tears and entreaties, that they prevented not patch for the public good so much as for their the mutual slaughter which threatened both parown private advantage, it is certain, that there ties, and united them together in a firm and lasting are several women of honour who patch out of peace.

principle, and with an eye to the interest of their I would recommend this noble example to our country. Nay, I am informed that some of them British ladies, at a time when their country is torn adhere so stedfastly to their party, and are so far with so many unnatural divisions, that if they confrom sacrificing their zeal for the public to their tinue, it will be a misfortune to be born in it. The passion for any particular person, that in a late Greeks thought it so improper for women to intedraught of marriage-articles a lady has stipulated rest themselves in competitions and contentions, with her husband, that whatever his opinions are, that for this reason, among others, they forbad she shall be at liberty to patch on which side she them, under pain of death, to be present at the pleases. Olympic games, notwithstanding these were the public diversions of all Greece.

I must here take notice, that Rosalinda, a famous whig partizan, has most unfortunately a very As our English women excel those of all nations beautiful mole on the tory part of her forehead in beauty, they should endeavour to outshine them which being very conspicuous, has occasioned many in all other accomplishments proper to the sex, mistakes, and given a handle to her enemies to and to distinguish themselves as tender mothers, misrepresent her face, as though it had revolted and faithful wives, rather than as furious partizans. from the whig interest. But whatever this natu- Female virtues are of a domestic turn. The family ral patch may seem to intimate, it is well known is the proper province for private women to shine that her notions of government are still the same. in. If they must be showing their zeal for the This unlucky mole, however, has misled several public, let it not be against those who are perhaps coxcombs; and, like the hanging out of false co- of the same family, or at least of the same religion lours, made some of them converse with Rosalinda or nation, but against those who are the open, in what they thought the spirit of her party, when professed, undaunted enemies of their faith, liberty, on a sudden she has given them an unexpected fire and country. When the Romans were pressed that has sunk them all at once. If Rosalinda is with a foreign enemy, the ladies voluntarily contributed all their rings and jewels to assist the go

In the reign of Queen Anne, even the ladies were strongly nfected with the spirit of party.

Davideis, Book III.



vernment under a public exigence; which appeared his quarterly payments to me, and observe what so laudable an action in the eyes of their country- linen my laundress brings and takes away with her men, that from thenceforth it was permitted by a once a week. My steward brings his receipt realaw to pronounce public orations at the funeral of dy for my signing: and I have a pretty implement a woman in praise of the deceased person, which with the respective names of shirts, cravats, handtill that time was peculiar to men. Would our kerchiefs and stockings, with proper numbers to English ladies,instead of sticking on a patch against know how to reckon with my laundress. This bethose of their own country,show themselves so truly ing almost all the business I have in the world for public-spirited as to sacrifice every one her neck-the care of my own affairs, I am at full leisure to lace against the common enemy, what decrees observe upon what others do, with relation to their ought not to be made in favour of them? equipage and economy.

about me in this town,
When I walk the street, and observe the hurry

"Where, with like haste, through several ways they run; Some to undo, and some to be undone;'*

Since I am recollecting upon this subject such passages as occur to my memory out of ancient authors, I cannot omit a sentence in the celebrated funeral oration of Pericles, which he made in honour of those brave Athenians that were slain in a fight with the Lacedemonians. After having ad-I say, when I behold this vast variety of persons dressed himself to the several ranks and orders of and humours, with the pains they both take for his countrymen, and shown them how they should the accomplishment of the ends mentioned in the behave themselves in the public cause, he turns above verses of Denham, I cannot much wonder at to the female part of his audience; And as for the endeavour after gain, but am extremely astoyou,' says he,' I shall advise you in very few words. nished that men can be so insensible of the danger Aspire only to those virtues that are peculiar to of running into debt. your sex, follow your natural modesty, and think it your greatest commendation not to be talked of One would think it impos one way or other.


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No 82. MONDAY, JUNE 4, 1711.

Caput domina venale sub hasta.

JUV. Sat. iii. 33.

His fortunes ruin'd, and himself a slave.


sible a man who is given to contract debts should not know, that his creditor has, from that moment in which he transgresses payment, so much as that demand comes to, in his debtor's honour, liberty, and fortune. One would think he did not know that his creditor can say the worst thing imaginable of him, to wit, That he is unjust,' without de famation; and can seize his person, without being guilty of an assault. Yet such is the loose and abandoned turns of some men's minds, that they can live under these constant apprehensions, and PASSING under Ludgate the other day, I heard a there be a more low and servile condition, than to still go on to increase the cause of them. Can voice bawling for charity, which I thought I had be ashamed or afraid to see any one man breathsomewhere heard before. Coming near to the ing? Yet he that is much in debt, is in that congrate, the prisoner called me by my name, and dition with relation to twenty different people. desired I would throw something into the box; I There are indeed circumstances wherein men of was out of countenance for him, and did as he bid honest natures may become liable to debts, by some me by putting in half a crown. flecting upon the strange constitution of some men, life, or mortgaging a man's honesty as a security I went away, re- unadvised behaviour in any great point of their and how meanly they behave themselves in all sorts for that of another, and the like: but these inof conditions. The person who begged of me is stances are so particular and circumstantiated, that now, as I take it, fifty: I was weil acquainted with they cannot come within general consideration. him till about the age of twenty-five; at which For one such case as one of these, there are ten, time a good estate fell to him by the death of a where a man, to keep up a farce of retinue and relation. Upon coming to this unexpected good grandeur within his own house, shall shrink at the fortune, he ran into all the extravagancies ima- expectation of surly demands at his door. The ginable, was frequently in drunken disputes, broke debtor is the creditor's criminal, and all the officers drawers' heads, talked and swore loud, was un- of power and state, whom we behold make so mannerly to those above him, and insolent to those great a figure, are no other than so many persons below him. I could not but remark, that it was in authority to make good his charge against him. the same baseness of spirit which worked in his be- Human society depends upon his having the ven baviour in both fortunes: the same little mind was geance law allots him; and the debtor owes his insolent in riches, and shameless in poverty. This liberty to his neighbour, as much as the murderer accident made me muse upon the circumstance of does his life to his prince. being in debt in general, and solve in my mind

Our gentry, are, generally speaking, in debt;

what tempers were most apt to fall into this error and many families have put it into a kind of me. of life, as well as the misfortune it must needs be thod of being so from generation to generation. The to languish under such pressures. As for myself, father mortgages when his son is very young: and my natural aversion to that sort of conversation the boy is to marry, as soon as he is at age, to rewhich makes a figure with the generality of man- deem it, and find portions for his sisters. This, for kind, exempts me from any temptations to ex-sooth, is no great inconvenience to him; for he pense; and all my business lies within a very nar- may wench, keep a public table, or feed dogs, row compass, which is only to give an honest man like a worthy English gentleman, till he has who takes care of my estate, proper vouchers for out-run half his estate, and leave the same incum

A prison for such debtors as were freemen of the city of London. It was built in 1586, across Ludgate hill, close to where the church now stands, and was pulled down in 1762, the pri soners being removed to the London workhouse in Bishopsgate street. They have recently been again removed to a part of Giltspur-street compter.

of more vigour than ordinary goes quite through the estate, or some man of sense comes into it, and scorns to have an estate in partnership, that is to

brance upon his first-born, and so on; till one man

* Cooper's Hill.



On the side of the living, I saw several persons busy in drawing, colouring, and designing. On the side of the dead painters, I could not discover more than one person at work, who was exceedingly slow in his motions, and wonderfully nice in his touches.

say, liable to the demand or insult of any man diversions; which had taken such an entire posliving. There is my friend Sir Andrew, though for session of my imagination, that they formed in it a many years a great and general trader, was never short morning's dream, which I shall communicate the defendant in a law-suit, in all the perplexity to my reader, rather as the first sketch and outof business, and the iniquity of mankind at pre-lines of a vision, than as a finished piece. sent; no one had any colour for the least com- I dreamt that I was admitted into a long, spaplaint against his dealings with him. This is cer- cious gallery, which had one side covered with tainly as uncommon, and in its proportion as laud-pieces of all the famous painters who are now livleseable in a citizen, as it is in a general never to ing, and the other with the works of the greatest have suffered a disadvantage in fight. How dif. masters that are dead. ferent from this gentleman is Jack Truepenny,* who has been an old acquaintance of Sir Andrew and myself from boys, but could never learn our caution. Jack has a whorish unresisting good-nature, which makes him incapable of having a property in any thing. His fortune, his reputation, his time, and his capacity, are at any man's service that comes I was resolved to examine the several artists that first. When he was at school, he was whipped stood before me, and accordingly applied myself thrice a week for faults he took upon him to ex-to the side of the living. The first I observed at cuse others; since he came into the business of the work in this part of the gallery was Vanity, with world, he has been arrested twice or thrice a year his hair tied behind him in a ribbon, and dressed for debts he had nothing to do with, but as surety like a Frenchman. All the faces he drew were for others; and I remember when a friend of his very remarkable for their smiles, and a certain had suffered in the vice of the town, all the physic smirking air which he bestowed indifferently on his friend took was conveyed to him by Jack, and every age and degree of either sex. The toujours inscribed, 'A bolus or an electuary for Mr. True-gai appeared even in his judges, bishops, and privypenny.' Jack had a good estate left him, which counsellors. In a word, all his men were petits came to nothing; because he believed all who pre-maitres, and all his women coquettes. The drapery tended to demands upon it. This easiness and cre- of his figures was extremely well suited to his dulity destroy all the other merit he has; and he faces, and was made up of all the glaring colours has all his life been a sacrifice to others, without that could be mixed together; every part of the ever receiving thanks, or doing one good action. dress was in a flutter, and endeavoured to disI will end this discourse with a speech which I tinguish itself above the rest. heard Jack make to one of his creditors (of whom he deserved gentler usage) after lying a whole night in custody at his suit.

Sir, your ingratitude for the many kindnesses I have done you, shall not make me unthankful for the good you have done me, in letting me see there is such a man as you in the world. I am obliged to you for the diffidence I shall have all the rest of my life: I shall hereafter trust no man so far as to be in his debt.' STEELE.

N° 83. TUESDAY, JUNE 5, 1711.


On the left hand of Vanity stood a laborious workman, who I found was his humble admirer, and copied after him. He was dressed like a German, and had a very hard name that sounded something like Stupidity.

The third artist that I looked over was Fantasque, dressed like a Venetian scaramouch. He had an excellent hand at chimera, and dealt very much in distortions and grimaces. He would sometimes affright himself with the phantoms that flowed from his pencil. In short, the most elaborate of his pieces was at best but a terrifying dream; and one could say nothing more of his finest figures, than that they were agreeable monsters.

The fourth person I examined was very remarkable for his hasty hand, which left his pictures so unfinished, that the beauty in the picture (which was designed to continue as a monument of it to posterity) faded sooner than in the person after whom it was drawn. He made so much haste to

- Animum pictura pascit inani. VIRG. Æn. i. 468. And with an empty picture feeds his mind. WHEN the weather hinders me from taking my di-despatch his business, that he neither gave himself versions without doors, I frequently make a little time to clean his pencils, nor mix his colours. party with two or three select friends, to visit any The name of this expeditious workman was Avathing curious that may be seen under covert. My rice.

If he

principal entertainments of this nature are pic- Not far from this artist I saw another of a quite tures, insomuch that when I have found the wea- different nature, who was dressed in the habit of a her set in to be very bad, I have taken a whole Dutchman, and known by the name of Industry. day's journey to see a gallery that is furnished by His figures were wonderfully laboured. the hands of great masters. By this means, when drew the portraiture of a man, he did not omit a he heavens are filled with clouds, when the earth single hair in his face; if the figure of a ship, there swims in rain, and all nature wears a lowering coun- was not a rope among the tackle that escaped him. tenance, I withdraw myself from these uncomfort-He had likewise hung a great part of the wall with able scenes into the visionary worlds of art; where night-pieces, that seemed to show themselves by I meet with shining landscapes, gilded triumphs, the candles which were lighted up in several parts beautiful faces, and all those other objects that fill of them; and were so inflamed by the sunshine the mind with gay ideas, and disperse that gloomi- which accidentally fell upon them, that at first ness which is apt to hang upon it in those dark sight I could scarcely forbear crying out Fire.' disconsolate seasons.

I was some few weeks ago in a course of these

This sketch of character in Jack Truepenny has been aptly

ough applied to that of Steele himself.

The five foregoing artists were the most considerable on this side the gallery; there were indeed several others whom I had not time to look into. One of them, however, I could car ob.



serving, who was very busy in retouching the finest who lent me these papers, gave me a character of pieces, though he produced no originals of his own. Eucrate, the favourite of Pharamond, extracted His pencil aggravated every feature that was be- from an author who lived in that court. The acfore overcharged, loaded every defect, and poison- count he gives both of the prince and this his faithed every colour it touched. Though this workman ful friend, will not be improper to insert here, bedid so much mischief on the side of the living, he cause I may have occasion to mention many of never turned his eye towards that of the dead. their conversations, into which these memorials of His name was Envy. them may give light.

Having taken a cursory view of one side of the gallery, I turned myself to that which was filled an hour or two from the hurry of business and fa'Pharamond, when he had a mind to retire for by the works of those great masters that were dead; tigue of ceremony, made a signal to Eucrate, by when immediately I fancied myself standing before putting his hand to his face, placing his arm negli a multitude of spectators, and thousands of eyes gently on a window, or some such action as aplooking upon me at once; for all before me appeared indifferent to all the rest of the company. peared so like men and women, that I almost for- Upon such notice, unobserved by others, (for their got they were pictures. Raphael's figures stood in entire intimacy was always a secret) Eucrate reone row, Titian's in another, Guido Rheni's in a paired to his own apartment to receive the king. third. One part of the wall was peopled by Han-There was a secret access to this part of the court, nibal Carrache, another by Corregio, and another at which Eucrate used to admit many whose mean by Rubens. To be short, there was not a great appearance, in the eyes of the ordinary waiters master among the dead, who had not contributed and door-keepers, made them be repulsed from to the embellishment of this side of the gallery. other parts of the palace. Such as these were let The persons that owed their being to these several in here by order of Eucrate, and had audiences of masters, appeared all of them to be real and alive, Pharamond. and differed among one another only in the variety The gate of the unhappy;' and the tears of the This entrance Pharamond called of their shapes, complexions, and clothes; so that afflicted who came before him, he would say, were they looked like different nations of the same spe-bribes received by Eucrate; for Eucrate had the cies. most compassionate spirit of all men living, ex

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Observing an old man (who was the same person cept his generous master, who was always kindled I before mentioned, as the only artist that was at at the least affliction which was communicated to work on this side of the gallery) creeping up and him. In the regard for the miserable, Eucrate down from one picture to another, and retouching took particular care, that the common forms of all the fine pieces that stood before me, I could not distress, and the idle pretenders to sorrow, about but be very attentive to all his motions. I found courts, who wanted only supplies to luxury, should his pencil was so very light, that it worked imper-never obtain favour by his means: but the distresses ceptibly, and after a thousand touches scarce pro- which arise from the many inexplicable occurrences duced any visible effect in the picture on which that happen among men, the unaccountable alienahe was employed. However, as he busied himself tion of parents from their children, cruelty of husincessantly, and repeated touch after touch without bands to wives, poverty occasioned from shipwreck rest or intermission, he wore off insensibly every or fire, the falling out of friends, or such other terlittle disagreeable gloss that hung upon a figure. rible disasters, to which the life of man is exHe also added such a beautiful brown to the posed; in cases of this nature, Eucrate was the shades, and mellowness to the colours, that he patron; and enjoyed this part of the royal favour made every picture appear more perfect than when so much without being envied, that it was never it came fresh from the master's pencil. I could not inquired into, by whose means what no one else forbear looking upon the face of this ancient work-cared for doing, was brought about. man, and immediately, by the long lock of hair upon his forehead, discovered him to be Time.* Whether it were because the thread of my dream was at an end I cannot tell; but upon my taking a survey of this imaginary old man, my sleep left



N° 84. WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 1711.

Quis talia fando

Myrmidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulyssei
Temperet a lachrymis?


'One evening when Pharamond came into the jected; upon which he asked (with a smile which apartment of Eucrate, he found him extremely dewas natural to him) "What, is there any one too miserable to be relieved by Pharamond, that Eucrate is melancholy?"-"I fear there is," answered the favourite: "a person without, of a good air, well dressed, and, though a man in the strength of his life, seems to faint under some inconsolable calamity. All his features seemed suffused with agony of mind; but I can observe in him, that it is more inclined to break away in tears than rage. I asked him what he would have. He said he would speak to Pharamond. I desired his busiHe could hardly say to me, Eucrate, carry me to the king, my story is not to be told twice; I fear I shall not be able to speak it at all." PhaLOOKING Over the old manuscript wherein the pri- did so, and the gentleman approached the king ramond commanded Eucrate to let him enter; he vate actions of Pharamond are set down by way of with an air which spoke him under the greatest table-book, I found many things which gave me concern in what manner to demean himself. The great delight; and as human life turns upon the king, who had a quick discerning, relieved him same principles and passions in all ages, I thought from the oppression he was under: and with the it very proper to take minutes of what passed in most beautiful complacency said to him, "Sir, do that age, for the instruction of this. The antiquary not add to that load of sorrow I see in your countenance the awe of my presence. Think you are speaking to your friend. If the circumstances of your distress will admit of it, you shall find me

VIRG. En. ii. 6,

Who can such woes relate, without a tear,
As stern Ulysses must have wept to hear?

• Hogarth, however, in his Analysis of Beauty,' strongly controverts the received opinion, that time improves the colour ing of pictures.


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