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heaven. All holy beings in the universe must have the same spirit, in kind, though not in degree. That spirit operates in man just as it does in God,-we mean as to its nature; it produces the same kind of desires and feelings in both cases. The principle of universal love which we know by our own consciousness to be the only principle of holiness, begins in God, where it reigns in all its fulness, without variableness or the shadow of turning. All the other divine perfections are concentrated in this; for "God is love." From him, the original Fountain, it comes down to Jesus Christ, who had "his spirit without measure," and whose entire character was derived from the Father. And from Jesus Christ, the same principle descends, though in a far weaker degree, yet unchanged in its nature, to all his followers. They have his spirit. As he is the image of God, so Christians are, in some measure, the image of their Lord and Master. By this likeness, they have fellowship with Christ, and, through him, with the Father. The same spirit extends from the Creator, downward through all intermediate spheres, and through all ranks of intelligent creatures, binding heaven and earth together, in the moral world, as the electric force holds the physical world in harmony.
1. The Captive in Patagonia; or, Life among the Giants. A Personal Narrative. By Benjamin Franklin Bourne. With Illustrations. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, &c. 1853. 12mo. pp. 233.
MR. BOURNE, mate of the schooner John Allyne of New Bedford, was taken by the Patagonians, just within the eastern mouth of the Straits of Magellan, where he had occasion to go ashore; in the Spring of 1849. Here he was held in captivity for more than three months. During this period he was conducted by the roving savages, from encampment to encampment, and in various directions,
till they reached the river Santa Cruz, about a hundred and seventy miles north of the Straits. At the mouth of this river is the small island Sea Lion, called by the Indians Holland, on which an English company is settled for the purpose of collecting Guano. Hither Mr. Bourne escaped, by deceiving his Indian conductors.
The narrative is an account of his sufferings, dangers, and marches, during his captivity, together with a description of the appearance, manners, and life of the Patagonians, and such notices of the country as the author's observation enabled him to give. The value of his work is enhanced by the circumstance of its being, so far as we know, the only personal narrative, that is to be found, of a residence in this inhospitable region. It is well known that the Patagonians are a gigantic race. Mr. Bourne thinks the average height of the men about six feet and a half; some, little less than seven feet. They have broad shoulders, full chests, and muscular frames; with large heads, though low foreheads, and with high cheek bones, like the North American Indians, whom they resemble in complexion, except that they are a shade or two darker. They put forth enormous strength, when sufficiently roused to shake off their constitutional laziness. Low cunning, falsehood, cruelty and licentiousness, mark their character; and, so far as our author could discover, they are destitute of religious observances. Whether they are cannibals, is a question which he leaves in doubt, though he is inclined to answer it in the affirmative.
2. My Life and Acts in Hungary in the years 1848 and 1849. By Arthur Görgei. New York: Harper & Brothers, &c. 1852. 12mo. pp. 616.
We have so little knowledge of Hungarian affairs, as to be incompetent to pronounce on the accuracy of Görgei's narrative, or on the fidelity of his general representation. It is, however, that "other side of the story," which ought to be heard, and of which he has a right to demand a candid examination at least, before he is condemned for the part he acted. Admitting his general statement of facts, it would seem that he was justified in surrendering himself and the Hungarian army to the Russians; since further resistance was impracticable, even in the judgement of President Kossuth. The affairs of Hungary appear to have been in an almost hopeless confusion throughout the brief contest. There were incompetency and mismanagement in the Committee of Defence; among the people at large, there was no systematic combination, but a great deal of indifference and recklessness; and in the army, a great lack of subordination and discipline. The raw troops would not stand fire. From the very first, it was evident enough that the country was not ready to assert its independence, nor to maintain it if asserted. Such is the appearance of the case as presented by Görgei. Trust
ing to his account alone, we should judge that Kossuth, who acted awhile as Dictator, was by no means qualified for the emergency. Though a good man, a lover of his country, and in some respects distinguished by genius, he does not seem, according to these pages, to have had that far-reaching foresight and that sober well-balanced judgement which alone could fit him to conduct a people through a contest for life and liberty. He depended too much on the effect of his eloquence, which indeed always stirred the masses when he addressed them, but the influence of which soon evaporated like the dew when the sun is up. This, however, is but one side of the story, and it is no more to be taken implicitly, than is the other side.
3. Shakspeare and his Times. By M. Guizot. New York: Harper & Brothers, &c. 1852. 12mo. pp. 360.
Though the substance of this work was written and published, in French, more than thirty years ago, and before M. Guizot had attained his world-wide renown as the Historian of modern civilization, yet it is marked with the same profound thought, clear insight into the laws of our social nature, and by the same breadth of view, that distinguish his latter productions. The reader will find striking examples of these characteristics, in his remarks on the nature of dramatic poetry, and of English civilization. That he succeeds as well to give a true and life-like presentation of Shakspeare, may be doubted, without disparagement to the author's head or heart. He understands, admires, and cordially appreciates, the great English poet; but he does all this, as a Frenchman, whose taste has been affected, though not enslaved, by the models of his native literature. Not that he has any national prejudice; but he sometimes refines upon his subject, and sees features in it, which he has imported from the other side of the channel. His greatest failure, however, is, in the sketch which he gives of Shakspeare's Life. Perhaps M. Guizot is not specially fitted to write biography.
4. Corneille and his Times. By M. Guizot. New York: Harper & Brothers, &c. 1852. 12mo. pp. 395.
This, like the preceding work, is, in its main features, the production of M. Guizot in his youth, the original having been first published forty years ago. Nearly one fourth of the volume consists of a review of poetry, in France, before the time of Corneille; the remainder is occupied by critiques on the lives and writings of Corneille, and his contemporaries Chapelain, Rotrou, and Scarron. To us, this work is, on the whole, more interesting than that on Shakspeare, perhaps for the reason that its subject is more novel to us, and perhaps, too, because the author was more completely at home among the poets of his own country. He amuses by the an
ecdotes illustrating the several characters and their associates, while his philosophical views of the drama and of poetry in general, together with his strictures on particular examples, are rich in suggestions to the reader and to the critic.
5. A Guide to Roman History, from the earliest Period to the Close of the Western Empire. By Rev. Dr. Brewer, Author of "Guide to Science," "Guide to English History." ""Guide to English Composition," etc. etc. Carefully revised, and adapted for use in Families and Schools of the United States. New York: C. S. Francis & Co., &c. 1852 18mo. pp. 474.
The use, plan, and execution, of this work are faithfully described in the Preface itself. "This Manual of Roman History contains an account of the rise, progress, and decline of the Roman nation; the causes which tended to its developement and decay; its social, domestic and political constitutions, laws, customs, and habits; and a biographical sketch of the kings and emperors, as well as of those natives and foreigners, whose names are familiar to the classic reader, or whose influence affected this wonderful people. As, however, history serves a two-fold purpose,-illustration as well as instruc tion,-numerous anecdotes and legends have been introduced in a smaller type, to enable students to understand the allusions of ancient and modern authors; but great care has been taken to separate these mythic traditions from authentic history. The accents and quantities of all proper names and Latin words [rather, of nearly all,] have been distinctly marked; the modern names, as well as the latitude and longitude of ancient places, have been added; and every method has been adopted, which the author deemed advisable, to render this Guide to Roman History' amusing and instructive."
The plan, thus described, is well executed, in the method of ques tions and answers, with the addition of brief remarks, scattered over the pages. A large and systematically arranged table of Contents enables those who study or consult the work, to turn at once to any particular period, or series of transactions; and a full Index affords the means of referring to any name, fact or event. The work may be safely recommended as a good and very convenient introduction to the study of Roman History.
6. Basilidis Philosophi Gnostici Sententias ex Hippolyti Libro Karà naowv Aipéoewv, nuper reperto, illustravit J. L. Jacobi, Theol. Dr. et Profess. ordinar. in Academ. Regiomont. Berolini. Apud Wiegandt et Grieben. 1852. [Opinions of Basilides, the Gnostic Philosopher, illustrated from the recently discovered Work of Hippolytus, entitled Against all Heresies. By J. L. Jacobi, &c.] 8vo. pp. 38.
The recent discovery of the work of Hippolytus has created some sensation among the learned, and, it is said, has cast new light on
several points in ecclesiastical history. The manuscript was brought, in a collection of old manuscripts, from the Greek monasteries of Mount Athos, in 1842, and deposited in the National Library of Paris. As it bore the name of no author, and had only the forbidding title," Against all Heresies," and as the copy appeared to have been made as late as the fourteenth century, on cotton paper, it was passed over at first with little attention. At length, Emmanuel Miller, one of the Librarians, happened to discover, in it, some fragments of Pindar, which he copied and sent, in 1846, to his friends in Germany; and, prosecuting his examination of the manuscript, he found it to be an ecclesiastical work of the third century. He supposed it to be Origen's. In 1850, he offered it, for publication, to the University of Oxford; under whose liberal patronage it appeared in 1851. Since that time, it has been ascertained that it is the work, not of Origen, but of Hippolytus, who was bishop of Ostia, near Rome, about A. D. 225. The celebrated Chevalier Bunsen has recently examined it, in a series of Letters and critical Dissertations, translated into English, in four volumes, in which he shows what light Hippolytus reflects on the state and doctrines of the early Christians, and especially on the main points in question between the Church of Rome and the Protestants.
Jacobi's tract, the title of which we have given above, is confined to an exposition of the doctrine of the Gnostic Basilides, as presented by Hippolytus. Our readers may find an account of Basilides in the Ancient History of Universalism, where his opinions are stated, as they had been described by Mosheim and other accredited writers of ecclesiastical history. But Jacobi says that the disclosures made by Hippolytus will compel the learned to change their judgement of some things in the system of that early Gnostic heresiarch. It appears that Basilides followed the Grecian philosophies, in his speculations, much farther than has been hitherto supposed, though he clothed the whole in the Oriental dress. On many points he used the method, and nearly the language, of Philo and of the subsequent Neoplatonic philosophers. We shall not attempt, however, to go over his fantastic scheme. We will give only his views of the final consummation. He holds that all creatures will eventually be rescued from every kind of pain and of positive evil, and be made as happy as their capacity will allow. But for this purpose, the intelligences who had been more immediately engaged in the fashioning of matter, such as the formers of this world and their servants, will be deprived of all knowledge of God and of the higher regions; while the more spiritual natures will come into perfect communion with God, and the full enjoyment of his blessedness. This he calls "the Restitution of all things."
It is important to observe that, according to a fragment of his writings, found in Hippolytus, Basilides quoted from St. John's