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TUR TROUGI IN WHICH THE ORE IS WASHED IN MINES IS CALLED ABACUS MAJOR.

THE KING OF FRANCE HAD FORMERLY THE RIGHT OF APPOINTING ABBOTS OVER TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE MONASTERIES.

ABA] The Scientific and Literary Treasury; [ABB were also other inventions similarly deno. their branches turned towards the enemy, minated; viz. ABACUS PYTHAGORICUS, a so as to form a defence for troops stationed multiplication table, invented by Pytha- behind them. goras; and ABACUS LOGISTICUS, a rectan- ABATOR, in law, one who enters into a gled triangle, whose sides, forming the house or lands, void by the death of the right angle, contain all the numbers from last possessor, before the true heir. 1 to 60, and its area the products of each AB'ATURES, a term, with huntsmen, to two of the opposite numbers. This is also denote the sprigs or grass thrown down by called a canon of sexagesimals.

the stag in passing by. In justice to the present advanced ABB, or ABB-WOOL, a term used by state of science, and at the same time, as a

clothiers for the warp. sincere though feeble tribute to the genius AB'BE, a French word, literally meaning of one of the most scientific men of the an abbot, but the character generally spoage, we are bound to notice in this placeken of under the name of abbé has long a most extraordinary automatic invention ceased to be of any official nature. Before by Mr. Babbage, (infinitely exceeding the the Revolution, the term abbé designated a powers of the abacus of ancient arithme- very numerous body of persons, who had ticians,) the object of which is to compute little or no connexion with the church, exand print the most difficult astronomical cept the apparent one which they derived or navigation tables, &c., such as could not from this title, but who followed a course otherwise be effected without immense in. of theological study, in hopes that the king tellectual and manual labour. We hear would confer on them a real abbey, that that the machine is not yet quite completed, is, a part of the revenues of a monastery. but the inventor asserts, and his assertions They were engaged in every kind of literary are verified by Sir David Brewster and other occupation, and exerted an important influeminent men, that not only can the highest ence on the character of the country; nor operations of arithmetic be performed by was there scarcely a family of distinction this stupendous engine, but it is capable of in France wherein an abbé was not found correcting its own errors, and, when cor- in the capacity of a familiar friend and spi. rected, it can print off the results, inde- ritual adviser. pendent of human aid! By this it appears AB'BESS, the superior of a nunnery, or that the machine consists of two parts, a other religious community of women. She calculating, and a printing part, both of has the same authority as an abbot, but canwhich are absolutely necessary to its entire not exercise any of the spiritual functions. perfection. In explaining his mode of ac- AB'BEY, a religious house governed by complishing such great objects, the inven- a superior, under the title of an abbot or tor observes, “ that nearly all tables of abbess. Abbeys differ in nothing from numbers which follow any law, however priories, except that the latter are governed complicated, may be formed, to a greater by priors, instead of abbots. The abbeys or less extent, solely by the proper ar, of England, at their dissolution under rangement of the successive addition and Henry VIII., became lay-sees; when no subtraction of numbers befitting each less than 190 were dissolved, the yearly retable;" and he then proceeds to shew, by venue of which has been estimated at a series of tables and explanations, the 2,853,0001.; an almost incredible sum, con. theory of his art, as well as the mechanical sidering the value of money in those days. execution required for its performance. At present, an abbey is, in general, the ca. The limits of our work, however, are in- thedral or episcopal church of the see or adequate to give a fair illustration of so diocese in which it stands. skilful a contrivance, but it may be suffi- AB'BOT, was originally the name of cient to lead the enquiring mind to farther every aged monk; but, since the 8th cen. investigation. We may here remark, en tury, it denotes the head of a monastery. passant, that it is to this end that a book In most countries they held a rank next to of reference, so extensive its aim as the that of bishop, and had votes in the ecclepresent, must of necessity be constantly siastical councils. At present they are directed. Wherever, by reason of its bre-chiefly distinguished into regular and comvity, or the magnitude of the subject on mendatory; the former being real monks which it treats, it cannot enter into the ne- or religious, and the latter only seculars or cessary details, it may still excite a laudable lay-men. These last, notwithstanding that curiosity for more elaborate information, the term commendam seems to signify the and thereby lead to its acquirement.] contrary, have the perpetual enjoyment of

ABA'TEMENT, in law, signifies the re- the fruits of their abbeys. Anciently the jecting a suit, on account of some fault ceremony of creating an abbot consisted in either in the matter o proceeding. clothing him with the habit called caculla, ABATEMENT, in heraldry, something added or cowl: putting the pastoral staff into his to a coat of arms, in order to lessen its hand, and the shoes called pedales, on his true dignity, and point out some imperfec. feet; but at present, it is only a simple be. tion or stain in the character of the person nediction. It was because certain ab. who bears it.In commerce, ABATE. bots and priors in England, in right of MENT means a discount in the price of their monasteries, held lands of the crown, commodities for money advanced by the for which they owed military service, that buyer, or some other cause.

they obtained the title of LORDS, and were AB'ATIS, trees cut down and laid with summoned, as barons, to parliament; and

SOME PROTESTANT CIFRGYMEN, IN GERMANY, STILL BIAR TUE TITLE OP ABBOT, WITH THE RIGHT OF 81TTING IN THE DIET OP THE STATES.

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TIE IDLE IVMATES OF A MONASTERY ARE DESIGNATED ABBEY-LUBBERS.

BY THE JEWISH LAW, ABDUCTION IS CONSIDERED A CAPITAL OFFENCE.

ABE]

A New Dictionary of the Pelles Lettres.

[ABO

THE ABDUCTOR OCULI 18 ONB OY THE MUSCLES ARISING FROM THE ORBIT OF THE EYE, AND 18 SOMETIMES CALLED THB SCORNFUL MUSCLE.

from this custom the bishops, in modern adopted the children of others, and brought times, have the same honour.

them up in their own principles. ABBREVIATION, a contracted man- ABELMOSCHUS, the seed of an Egypner of writing words so as to retain only tian plant, which resembles musk in its the initial letters. Such abbreviations were perfume, and is used by the Arabians in in common use with the Romans, as they their coffee. are with us, to save time and space. (For ABERRA'TION, in astronomy, an ap. a complete list of those most necessary to parent motion of the fixed stars, occasioned be known at present, we refer to “ 'The by the progressive motion of light.Treasury of Knowledge."] —ABBREVIA- ABERRATION, in optics, the deviation of TION, a mathematical term, given to the the rays of light, when reflected by a lens process by which a fraction is reduced to

or speculum, whereby they are prevented lower terms.-ABBREVIATION, (in mu- from meeting in the same point. Aberrasie.). One dash, through the stem of a tions are of two kinds, ore arising from minim or crotchet, or under a semibreve, the tigure of the reflecting body, the other converts it into as many quavers as it is from the unequal refrangibility of the rays equal to in time: two dashes into semiqua- themselves. vers; three into demisemiquavers; and so ABEY'ANCE, in law, the expectancy of on. When minims are connected together an estate or possession: thus, if lands be like quavers, semiquavers, &c., they are to leased from one person for life, with reverbe repeated as many times as if they were sion to another for years, the latter estate really such notes. An oblique dash through is in abeyance till the death of the lessee. the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lines after an arpeg. It is a fixed principle of law, that the feegio, signifies that it is to be repeated; for simple of all lands is in somebody, or else quavers, a single dash being used ; for se- in abeyance. miquavers, a double one, and so on.

ABJU RA’TION, a forswearing, or reABBREVIATORS, officers who assist nouncing by oath : in the old law it signi. the vice-chancellor in drawing up the fied a sworn banishment, or an oath taken Pope's briefs, and reducing petitions into to forsake the realm for ever. In its moproper form, to be converted into bulls. dern, and now more usual signification, it

ABDICATION, properly speaking, is a extends to persons, and doctrines, as well roluntary resignation of a dignity, particu- as places. larly a regal one; and if he in whose favour ABLACTA'TION, a sort of ingrafting the abdication was made, dies, or declines trees, by leaving the graft on its proper the offered dignity, the right of the abdi- stock, until it be fully incorporated with cated prince is reverted. Involuntary re- the new stock. Also, the weaning a child signations are, however, also termed abdi. from the breast. cations, as in the case of Napoleon's abdi. ABLEC'TI, in ancient Rome, a chosen cation at Fontainbleau.

band of foreign troops, selected from the ABDITA'RIUM, or ABDITOʻRUM, in extraordinarii sociorum. archæology, a secret place for hiding or ABLEGʻMINA, in Roman antiquity, preserving valuables.

choice parts of the entrails of victims, ABDOMEN, that part of the body usu. called also proficiæ, porricia, prosecta, and ally called the belly. It contains the vis, prosegmina. The ablegmina were sprinkled cera more or less immediately connected with four, and burnt on the altar; the with digestion, and the kidneys which se- priests pouring some wine on them. crete the urine. By anatomists, the abdo- AB'LUENTS, diluting medicines, or men is divided into three anterior regions, such as dissolve and carry off impurities viz. the epigastric, or upper one; the um- from any part of the body. bilical, or middle one; and the hypogastric, ;

ABLUTION, a religious ceremony of or lower one: there is also one posterior washing the body, still used by the Turks region, called regio lumbaris.

and Mahomedans. It originated in the ABDOMINALES, a numerous order of obvious necessity of practising cleanliness, fishes, which have the ventral fins placed for the prevention of diseases in hot counbehind the pectoral, in the abdomen; as tries; for which purpose it was made a resalmon, trout, herrings, carp, sprats, &c. ligious rite; and by an easy transition of It includes the greatest number of the idea, the purity of the body was made to fresh-water species.

typify the purity of the soul: an idea the ABDUCTION, the crime of unlawfully more rational, as it is perhaps physically taking away, either by force or fraud and certain that outward wretchedness debases persuasion, the person of another, whether the inward mind.----ABLUTION, among of child, wife, ward, heiress, or woman ge; physicians, is used either for washing the nerally. The word abduction is also used external parts of the body by baths; or in surgery, to express a peculiar fracture deterging the bowels by thin diluting of the bones.

fluids. ABDUCTOR, in anatomy, a name given ABOL'LA, a kind of military garment to several muscles on account of their ser- worn by the Greek and Roman soldiers. ving to open or draw backwards the parts ABOMA'SUS, the paunch, or fourth into which they are inserted.

stomach of ruminating animals, in which ABELIANS, or A'BELITES, a Chris- the process of digestion is completed. Rutian sect which sprang from the Gnostics. minating animals, or such as chew the They abstained from matrimony, but cud, have four stomachs; the first, is called

FORMERLY, FELONS TAKING REFUGE IN A CHURCH MIGHT ESCAPE PUNISHMENT, BY CONFESSING THEIR GUILT AND ABJURING THE REALM.

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THB ROMISH CHURCH RETAINS ABLUTION BEFORE MASS, AND SOMETIMES AFTER.

THE MOST ABSORBENT SOILS ARE COMPOSED OF ALUMINOUS EARTHS.

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PERSONS WHO DERIVED THEIR INCOMES FROM IRELAND), AND DID NOT RESIDE THERE SIX MONTHS, WERE FORMERLY TAXED TWENTY PER CENT.

venter; the second, reticulum; the third, mand in an action of dower, if any land is omasus; and the fourth, abomasus. It is put therein, which is not in the tenure of in the abomasus of calves and lambs that the defendant; for on a plea of non-tenure, the runnet is found, used for curdling milk. in abatement of the writ, the plaintiff may

ABORI"GENES, a name given to the leave out those lands, and pray that the original or first inhabitants of any country; tenant may answer to the remainder. but more particularly used for the ancient ABRO'TANUM, in botany, a species of inhabitants of Latium, when Æneas with plant arranged under the genus Artemisia; his Trojans came into Italy.

called also Southernwood. ABORTION, in a figurative sense, any AB'SCESS, an inflammatory tumour production that does not come to maturity, containing purulent matter. or any design or project which fails before ABSCISSA, the part of any diameter or it is properly matured. In medicine, it axis of a curve line, crc off by a perpen. means a miscarriage, or the fætus brought | dicular line, called the ordinate. forth before it is perfectly formed.

ABSCISSION, in rhetoric, a figure of ABOUT, the situation of a ship imme- speech, whereby the speaker stops short, diately after she has tacked. --About leaving his hearers to draw their own infer. SHIP, an order to the crew to prepare for ences from the facts he has stated. 'In tacking.

astronomy, the cutting off the light of the AB'RACADAB'RA, a term of incanta. first of three planets when the third comes tion, formerly used as a spell or charm, in conjunction with the middle one. and worn about the neck as an amulet ABSENTEE, a word of modern times, against several diseases. In order to give applied to land-owners and capitalists, whó it the more virtue, it was to be written as expend their incomes in another country. many times as the word contains letters, ABSINTHINE, the bitter principle of omitting always the last letter of the for- absinthium or wormwood. mer, and so forming a triangle. But ABSOLU'TION, a religious ceremony of charms and incantations have had their the church of Rome, by which the priests day; and abracadabra, if used at all, now assume the power to forgive sins. In the serves as a word of jest, like hocus pocus, ancient Christian church, absolution was and other unmeaning gibberish.

a judicial act, by which the priest, in the ABRASION, in medicine, tht corroding name of the community, invoking the faor wearing of the intestines, by sharp and vour of God, announced to the penitent acrimonious humours, or medicines. his remission from ecclesiastical punish

ABRAX'AS, or ABRASAX', in church-his- ment, and readmission into the bosom of tory, a mystical term expressing the supreme the church. The fathers of the Protestant

, 365 dependent deities. It was the principle give and deliver from sin; that a judicial of the Gnostic hicrarchy.ABRAXAS, or power over the souls

Christians is conAbrasaX STONES, are very numerous, and ferred neither on priests nor teachers. represent the human body, with the head AB'SOLUTISM, in matters of theology, of a cock, and the feet of a reptile. The a doctrine charged on the Calvinists; name of Abraxax stone is, in modern times, whereby God is supposed to act from mere applied to a variety of gems that exhibit pleasure, in regard to the salvation of man. enigmatical compositions, but have not the kind. Absolutism is the grand obstacle to true characteristics of the Basilidians. an union between the Lutherans and Cal.

ABʻRAUM, a kind of red clay used by vinists. cabinet-makers to deepen the colour of ABSORP'TION, the process in animated new mahogany.

nature, by which the digested aliments or ABREAST, side by side, or opposite to; substances that support the body are car. a sea term, applied to two or more ships ried into the blood.” In chemistry, absorpranged together. -ABREAST of a place, tion means the conversion of a gaseous means directly opposite to it.

fluid into a liquid or solid, on being united ABREUVOIR", a French word for a with some other solid. watering-place, or any place dug for re- ABSORB’ENTS, calcarious earths, or taining water, as in camps. In architec- other medicines which soak up the redundture, the interstices between two stones to ant humours of the body. be filled up with mortar or cement are ABSORB'ENT VESSELS, are those called abreuvoirs.

which absorb the digested aliment, and ABRIDGʻMENT, the bringing the con- carry the new matter, called chyle, into the tents of a book within a short compass. system. They are either lacteal, or lymThe perfection of an abridgment consists phatic. The chyle being white like milk, in taking only what is material and sub- gives the name lacteal or milky to the vesstantial, and rejecting all superfluities, sels through which it is conveyed. The whether of sentiment or style: in which substance contained in the lymphatic ves. light, abridgments must be allowed to be sels is the old and worn-out particles of eminently serviceable to all whose occu. the system, and such others as may have pations prevent them from devoting much been received in it from the surfaces of the time to literary pursuits.-ABRIDGMENT, body: it is perfectly transparent, on which in law, the shortening a count, or declara account it is called lymph, giving the name tion: thus, in assize, a man is said to lymphatic to its vessels. The term ABabridge his plaint, and a woman her de- SORBENT VESSELS is also used by some

THE TAX ON IRISH ABSENTEES WAS LAID ON AT THE BEGINNING, AND TAKEX OFF ABOUT TIE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

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THE ABSORBENT POWER OF WATER IS A TEST OF THE GOODNESS OF SOIL.

TOTAL ABSTINENCE ABOVE SEVEN DAYS 18 SAID TO BE FATAL TO MAN.

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TO ENCOURAOR THE FISHERIES, AND TUKRKBY INCREASR TIK NUMBER OF MARINENS, QUEEN ELIZABETH PASSED LAWS IN FAVOUR OF ABSTINENCA.

naturalists for the fibres of the roots of wise liberality in this, which induces us to plants, which draw nourishment from the hope their efforts may eventually succeed. surrounding earth.

ÅBÄSTRACT, a concise but general view, ABSTEMII, & name given to persons who or analysis, of some large work; in which could not partake of the sacrament from sense it differs from an abridgment only as their natural aversion to wine.

being shorter, and its entering less mi. ABSTERGENTS, medicines proper for nutely into particulars; and from an excleansing the body from concretions and tract, as this last is only a particular view other impurities, not to be effected by sim- of some part or passage of it. ple abluents. Abstcrgents are of a sapo- ABSTRACTION, in logic, that operation naceous nature, and therefore very different of the mind whereby it forms abstract ideas. from mere abluents.

The faculty of abstraction stands directly AB'STINENCE, the abstaining or re- opposite to that of compounding. By comfraining from what is either useful, agree position we consider those things together, able, or pernicious; but more especially, which, in reality, are not joined together from eating and drinking. In the Romish in any one existence. And by abstraction, church there are " days of abstinence," as we consider those things separately and well as "fast days," the former importing apart, whicl, in reality do not exist apart. a partial, and the latter, a!most a total ab. In its passive sense it implies occupation stinence from food.

with one's-self to the exclusion of other obAB'STINENTS, a sect of Christians who jects.-ABSTRACTION, in chemistry, the appeared in France about the end of the process of drawing off by distillation any third century, professing celibacy, and ab- part of a compound, and returning it again stinence from particular kinds of food, &c. to the residue to be redistilled.

- The most rigid ABSTINENTS of the pre- ABSTRACTI"TIOUS, an epithet for the sent day, are those who, under the whim- native spirits of aromatic vegetables, in sical denomination of tee-totallers, (TEA distinction from those produced by fertotallers ?) profess to abstain wholly from mentation. the use of all liquors stronger than tea or ABUT MENTS, the extremities of any coffee. In the United States, according to body adjoining another, as the extremities a calculation which has appeared, nearly of a bridge resting on the banks or rides of half-a-million belong to the different "tem- a river. Also the junctions or meetiugs of perance societies;" and even their disci. two pieces of timber. ples in England, on a general muster-day, ABYSS', any deep place that is supposed are able to make a display of forces suffi. to be bottomless, as the deepest or un. ciently numerous, we should think, to alarm fathomable parts of the sea. the proprietors and keepers of those tem- ACACIA, a beautiful shrub, one of ples of sin called gin-palaces, which rear the species of which bears rose-coloured their unblushing heads in every street in flowers. In the materia medica, acacia the metropolis, presenting to the mind, is the inspissated juice of the pods of the when viewed in contrast with the squalid minosa Nilotica of Linnæus.

ACÆ'NA, a genus of curious evergreen truly appalling picture of moral, mental, herbaceous exotics, chiefly from South and physical degradation. Whatever means America and New Holland. may be found most effectual for banishing ACADEM'ICS, certain philosophers who the detestable vice of drunkenness from ci- followed the doctrine of Socrates and Plato, vilized life, should most assuredly be pro- as to the uncertainty of knowledge and moted, whether it be tee-totalism, the the incomprehensibility of truth. Acastocks, or the whipping-post; yet we can- demic, in this sense amounts to much the not help feeling that there is something same with Platonist; the difference bebordering upon the ludicrous in these pro- tween thein being only in point of time. miscuous assemblages, where “reformed " They who embraced the system of Plato, drunkards, i. e, emaciated old sots, either among the ancients, were called Academici; affecting abstemiousness or having spent whereas those who did the same since the all their substance in bacchanalian orgies, restoration of learning, have assumed the set up for apostles of temperance, and de- denomination of Platonists. scant on their former bibulous propeusi. ACAD'EMY, in Grecian antiquity, a ties, in order that blushing maidens and in large villa in one of the suburbs of Athens, nocent youths may have an adequate idea where the sect of philosophers called Acaof the enormity of drinking a glass of home- demics held their assemblies. It took its made wine. It should, however be observed name from Academus, a celebrated Athe. that, as among professing Christians some uian, who resided there, and became celeare less strict than others, 80 among the brated from its being the place in which advocates of the “temperance system,” Plato taught philosophy: --ACADEMY, in some give much greater latitude than the modern acceptation, is a society of perothers to the meaning of the term; nay, sons united for the pursuit of some objects there are those, we understand, who, so far of study and application, as the Royal from insisting on the necessity of tee-to- Academy of Arts of London, and the Royal talism, regard it as a wishy-washy doctrine, Academy of Sciences of Berlin. The first and are willing to allow their converts a academy of science, in modern times, was generous glass whenever the wants of the established at Naples, by Baptista Porta, body require one. There appcars to be a in 1560.

ACANXIES OF THE FIXE ARTS ARE TIE BEST INCENTIVES TO GENIUS. [B3

ABSTRACTION IS THI GROUND-WORK OF CLASSIFICATION, BY WHICH THINGS ARE ARRANGED IN ORDERS, GENERA, AND SPECIES. TIE ACCELERATION OF THE MOON WAS DISCOVERED BY DR. HALLEY.

ACANTHOPTERYGIOUS IS THE TERM APPLIED TO THOSE FISHES WHICH HAVE WARD, BONY, AND PRICKLY BACK FINS.

ACA] The Scientific and Literary Treasury ; [acc

ACALYPHA, a genus of exotic shrubs, or pinnace used in military affairs. The natives of North and South America: the acatium was a species of the naves accalyx of the male flowers consists of four tuariæ. small, roundish, concave, and equal petals, ACAU'LOSE, or ACAU'LOUS, among but no corolla; in the female flower the botanists, a term used for such plants as calyx is composed of three leaves, and no have no stem. corolla,

ACCA'LIA, in Roman antiquity, solemn ACALEP'TÆ (Sea Nettles), third class festivals held in honour of Acca Laurentia, of Cuvier's Zoophites. The free species the nurse of Romulus: they were also call. (acalepte libera), float on the sea. The ed Laurentalia. hydrostatic (acalepte hydrostaticæ), are so ACCAPITA'RE, in our old law books, named from the air bladders or vessels by the act of becoming a vassal, or paying which means they suspend themselves in homage to some lord. Hence ACCAPITUM the water.

signified the money paid by a vassal upon ACANA'CEÆ, a class of plants which such an occasion. are prickly, and bear their flowers and ACCELERATION, in mechanics, the seeds on a kind of head.

increase of velocity in a moving body. AcACANTHA, a name given to the prickles celerated motion is that which continually of thorny plants.-Acantha is also used receives fresh accessions of velocity, and is by zoologists for the spines of certain either equally or unequally accelerated. fisies, as those of the echinus marinus, &c. The word is particularly applied to falling

ACANTHACEOUS, an epithet given to bodies tending towards the centre of the all the plants of the thistle kind.

earth by the force of gravity.-ACCELEACAN'THINE, among the ancients, RATING FORCE, being a sort of centripetal something belonging to, or resembling the force, is expressed by that velocity, geneherb acanthus: hence we read of acan- rated in a given time, with which bodies thine garments, acanthine woods, &c. (considered as physical points) move to

ACAN'THOPIS, a genus of venomous wards the central body attracting them by serpents, classed by Cuvier with the vipers, its absolute force. This accelerating force but differing from them in many essential is greater or less, according to the distance characters. They are natives of New Hol. of the centre of the force, in a reciprocal land, where they live in holes at the roots duplicate proportion. The word ACCELEof trees. Their name is derived from the

RATION, is also used astronomically, and is tail, which is terminated by a little spur. applied to the moon, the planets, and fixed

ACANTHOPTERYGII, one of the divi. stars. sions in the natural order of fishes which ACCENDENTES, or ACCENSORES, Cuvier has established. Its name is sug in the church of Rome, an inferior rank of gested by its spinous fins.

ministers, whose business it is to light, ACANTHOŚCELIS, a genus of insects. snuff, and trim the candles and tapers. Order, coleoptera; family, scarabide. ACCEN'DONES, in Roman antiquity,

ACANTHOCI'NUS, a genus of insects. officers in the gladiatorial schools, who exOrder, coleoptera; family, cerambycide. cited and animated the combatants during

ACAN'THURÚS (Thorn-tailed or Lan- the engagement. cet Tish), a genus of fishes; ninth family ACCENSI, in Roman antiquity, certain of Cuvier's order, with spinous fins; found supernumerary soldiers, designed to supin the West Indian Seas, and much re- ply the place of those who should be killed, lished as food.

or anywise disabled.--ACCEN81 also de ACANTHUS, in architecture, an orna- noted a kind of inferior officers, appointed ment representing the leaves of the acan- to attend the Roman magistrates. thus, or herb bear's-breech; principally AC'CENT; a modification of the voice employed in the Corinthian and Compo in pronouncing certain words or syllables : sité capitals.

also, the marks on the words or syllables ; ACANʼZII, Turkish light-horse, the as, the acute accent, marked thus ("), the avant-guarı' of the Grand Seignor's army: grave accent thus (0) the circumflex thus

ACAS'TA, a genus of shells found in (9). This is called grammatical accent, but sponge, and never affixed to haid bodies. ihere is also a rhetorical accent or empha

A'CARUS, in zoology, a numerous genus sis, which is designed to give to a sen. of insects, comprehending the vermin which tence distinctio*8 and clcarness.

In a infest several animals, and mites in general. sentence, therefore, the stress is laid on

ACATALEPSY (acatalepsia), amongan- the most important word, and in a word on cient philosophers, the impossibility of the most important syllable. Wiion the comprehending something; uncertainty in accent falis on A vowel, that vowel has its science.

long sound, as in po'rous; but when it falls ACA'TERY, an officer of the king's on a consonant, the preceding vowel is household, designed to be a check between short, as in potter. Aeeents also not only the clerks of the kitchen and the pur- give a pleasing variety and beauty to the veyors.

modulation of the voice, but often serve ACATHOL'ICI, the naine by which to ascertain the true meaning of the word. Protestants are distinguished in some ca. --In music, accept denotes a certain motholic countries, as a term less objection- dulation or warbling of the sounds, to able than heretics.

express passions, either naturally by the ACATIUM. in antiqnity, a kind of boat yoice, or artiticially by instruments. Every

THE ACCELERATION OF A PLANET, 18 TIE INCREASE OF ITS REAL DIURNAL MOTION, ABOVE ITS MEAN DIURNAL MOTION.

TUE ACCENSI IN THE ROYAN ARMIES POUGHT WITHOUT ARMOUR.

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