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IN THE ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL, CORRECTNESS, PURITY, AND ELEGANCE WERE SUCCESSFULLY CULTIVATED; BUT TRUE GENIUS WAS BAKE.

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ALGEBRA MAY BE REGARDED AS A SPECIES OF THE ANALYTIC ART.

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black and white stones were used instead of wooden men.

ALECTOROMANTIA, in Grecian antiquity, a species of divination performed by means of a cock, in the following manner: A circle being described on the ground, and divided into twenty-four equal portions, in each of these spaces was written one of the letters of the alphabet, and on each of the letters was laid a grain of wheat; after which a cock being turned loose in the circle, particular notice was taken of the grains picked up by the cock, because the letters under them being formed into a word, made the answer desired.

A-LEE', a sea term, used when the wind, crossing or flanking the line of a ship's course, presses upon the masts and sails so as to make her incline to one side, which is called the lee-side: hence, when the helm is moved over to this side, it is said to be a-lee.

ALEM BIC, a vessel formerly used for distilling; in the place of which retorts are now mostly in use.

ALEU'ROMANCY, a species of divination performed by meal or flour. It is sometimes called alphitomancy and crythomancy.

ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. This celebrated library was founded by Ptolemy Soter, for the use of an academy that he instituted in Alexandria; and, by continual additions by his successors, became at last the finest library in the world, containing no fewer than 700,000 volumes. The method followed in collecting books for this library, was, to seize all those which were brought into Egypt by Greeks or other foreigners. The books were transcribed in the museum by persons appointed for that purpose, the copies were then delivered to the proprietors, and the originals laid up in the library. It was eventually burnt by order of the caliph Omar, A. D. 624.

ALEXAN'DRIAN MANUSCRIPT, or CODEX ALEXANDRINUS, a famous copy of the Scriptures, consisting of four volumes, in a large quarto size; which contains the whole Bible, in Greek, including the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocrypha, and some smaller pieces, but not quite complete. This manuscript is now preserved in the British Museum. It was sent as a present to king Charles I., from Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, by Sir Thomas Rowe, ambassador from England to the grand seignior, about the year 1628.

ALEXANDRIAN, or ALEXAN'DRINE, in poetry, a kind of verse, consisting of twelve, or of twelve and thirteen syllables alternately, the pause being always on the sixth syllable. It is so called from a poem on the life of Alexander, written in this way, by some French poet.

AL'GAROTH, POWDER OF, a precipitate obtained by pouring water into the acidulous chloride of antimony.

ALGÆ, in botany, an order of the cryp togamia class of plants. It is one of the seven families or natural tribes into which

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the vegetable kingdom is distributed. The plants belonging to this order have their root, leaf, and stem entire. Under this description are comprehended all the seaweeds, and many other aquatic plants. ALGEBRA, a species of abstract arithmetic, in which letters are put for any numbers, and any desired operations per. formed in a short and simple manner. The first letters of the alphabet are generally adopted for known quantities, and the last for unknown, and the operations are performed by characters, as + for addition; for subtraction; x for multiplication; and for division; with equality. Thus, a, b, c, &c., are commonly put for known quantities: and z, y, z, &c., for unknown or indeterminate quantities: thus if a + be equal to 9 and a is known to be equal to 4, then 94 = 5. Again, if a + x 12, and a = 8, then by adding the two quantities together I get 2 a

=

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20 (because there being + x and - x they destroy one another) and a = 30 10, of course x 2. On such operations as these, extended almost indefinitely, algebra depends, and by them every problem in arithmetic, and almost all in geometry may be solved.

AL'GOL, a fixed star in Caput Medusa, and marked in Perseus. This star is subject to periodic variations in its brightness. It changes from the second magnitude to the fourth in about three hours and a half, and back again in the same time; when it continues of the greatest brightness for about two days and seven hours, then it changes again.

ALGENEB, the name of two fixed stars of the second magnitude; one on the wing of Pegasus, the other on the right shoulder of the constellation Perseus.

ALGORITHM, a term frequently used to denote the practical rules of algebra, and sometimes for the practice of common arithmetic.

AL'GUAZIL, the title of one of the lower orders of Spanish officers of justice, whose business is to execute the orders of the magistrate.

A'LIAS, in law, a Latin word signifying otherwise; often used in describing the accused, who has assumed other names beside his real one.

AL'IBI, in law, a Latin word signifying, literally, elsewhere. It is used by the accused, when he wishes to prove his innocence, by showing that he was in another place when the act was committed.

ALICON'DA, a tree of immense size, which grows at Congo, on the coast of Africa. It bears a melon-like fruit, which affords pulpy nutritious food, and the bark yields a coarse thread, with which the Africans weave a kind of cloth.

A'LIEN, in law, a person born in a foreign country, in contradistinction to a denizen or natural subject. An alien is incapable of inheriting lands in England, till natu ralised according to law. No alien is entitled to vote in the choice of members

THE ALEXANDRINK FORM OF VERSE BECOMES FATIGUING FROM ITS MONOTONY.

THE LEGISLATION OF A NATION IN REGARD TO ALIENS, IS A CRITERION OF ITS LIBERALITY, AND CONSEQUENTLY OF ITS CIVILIZATION.

TO DETERMINE WHAT ALIMENT IS MOST WHOLESOME IN ANY GIVEN CASE, THE DIGESTIVE POWER OF THE INDIVIDUAL IS TO BE CONSIDERED.

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MANY A SIMPLE ALIMENT IS MADE INDIGESTIBLE BY MODERN COOKERY.

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of parliament, has a right to enjoy offices, or can be returned on any jury, unless where an alien is party in a cause; and then the jury is composed of an equal number of denizens and aliens.

ALIENATION, in law, the act of making a thing another man's: or the altering and transferring the property and possession of lands, tenements, or other things, from one man to another. To alienate, in mortmain, is to make over lands or tenements to a religious community, or other body politic. To alienate in fee, is to sell the fee-simple of any land, or other incorporeal right.

ALIGNMENT, in naval affairs, a supposed line drawn to preserve a fleet in its just direction.

ALIMENT, whatever serves as nutriment to animal life. Climate, custom, and the different degrees of want and of civilization, give rise to an innumerable diversity of food and drink, from the repast of a savage to that of an epicure; or from the diet of the carnivorous native of the north to that of the Brahmin, whose appetite is satisfied with vegetables; but all kinds of aliment must contain nutritious substance, which, being extracted by digestion, enters the blood, and effects the repair of the body. ALIMENTARY, in a general sense, is a term applied to whatever belongs to aliment or food. ALIMENTARY DUCT, a name by which some call the intestines, on account of the food passing through them. -ALIMENTARY LAW, among the Romans, that whereby children were obliged to maintain their aged parents.

AL'IMONY, in law, the maintenance sued for by a wife, in case of a legal separation from her husband, wherein she is neither chargeable with elopement nor adultery.

ALIPTA, amongst the Romans, was a slave, whose province it was to anoint his master when he bathed.

ALIQUANT PARTS, such numbers in arithmetic as will not divide or measure a whole number exactly, as 7, which is the aliquant part of 16.

ALIQUOT PARTS, such parts of a number as will divide or measure a whole number exactly, as 2 the aliquot part of 4, 3 of 9, and 4 of 16. Aliquot parts must not be confounded with commensurable ones; for though the former be all commensurable, yet these are not always aliquot parts: thus 4 is commensurable with 6, but is not an aliquot part of it.

AL'ITES, in Roman antiquity, a designation given to such birds as afforded matter for auguries by their flight; in which sense, they are contradistinguished from those called oscines, or those which gave auguries by singing or croaking.

AL'KA, in ornithology, a bird of the anseres, or goose-kind, about the size of a duck, and quite black, except on the breast and belly, which are white: it is commonly called the awk or razor-bill.

AL KAHEST, an universal menstruum possessing the virtue of pervading every

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substance, and capable of resolving all bodies into their ens primum, or first matter. It is explained by Van Helmont to signify a salt of the highest sort, that had attained to the highest state of purity and subtilty.

AL'KALI, among chemists and physi cians, an appellation given to all substances which excite a fermentation when mixed with acids. Originally the term alkali signified only the salt extracted from the ashes of kali or glass-wort; afterwards, it was used for the salts of all plants, extracted in the same manner; and as these were observed to ferment with acids, the signification of the term was still farther extended, so as to comprehend whatever substances had this effect. POTASH is called the regetable alkali. because it is procured from the ashes of all vegetables, in a greater or less proportion, except marine plants, and a few that grow near the sea-shore, which yield sona. This latter is termed the mineral alkali, because it is not only obtained from the ashes of the lastmentioned plants, but is sometimes found native in the earth. AMMONIA, or the volatile alkali, is procured by decomposition, from all animal, and from some vegetable substances; and by putrefaction from all these matters. It is distinguished from the fixed alkalies by its volatility, which is so great that it very easily assumes a gaseous form, and is dissipated by a very moderate degree of heat; and by its pungent smell. Its purest form is that of a gas: it is never solid, unless combined with some other substances; nor liquid but when it is united with water. It is weaker in all its affinities than the fixed alkalies; and is composed of hydrogen and azote, in the proportion of 193 parts of the former to 807 of the latter.

ALKAKEN'GI, or WINTER CHERRY, the fruit of which is a species of nightshade. -ALKAKENGI, in medicine, is used as an abstergent, dissolvent, and diuretic, and is celebrated for its lithotriptic quality. ALKALIMETER, a scientific instrument invented by Descroizelles to measure the purity of different alkalies.

AL'KALINE, in a general sense, is applied to all such things as have the propertics of an alkali. ALKALIZATION, the impregnating a liquor with alkaline salts.

ALKANET, the rk of a root used in dyeing; also for the colouring of oils, in furniture, and other purposes. It imparts compositions for giving colour to mahogany a fine deep-red colour to all unctuous substances and to spirits of wine; but it tinges water with a dull, brownish hue. It is chiefly imported from the Levant, and the plant is a species of bugloss.

ALKER'MES, in pharmacy, a compound cordial medicine, of the form and consistence of a confection.

ALLAH, the Arabian name of God. ALLE GIANCE, in law, the faithful obedience which every subject owes to his prince; being the tie or bond of fidelity

ALKALIES AND ACIDS MAY BE CONSIDERED AS ANTAGONIST SUBSTANCES.

IT IS SUPPOSED THAT THE VEGETABLE AI KALIES MAY BE FOUND TO BE AS NUMEROUS AS THE VEGETABLE ACIDS.

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ALGEBRA MAY

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18 PAR ALRXANDRIAN SCHOOL, CORRECTNESS, PERITY, AND ELEGANCR WERE SUCCESSFULLY CULTIVATED; BUT TRUE GENIUS WAS BARE

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DURING THE CIVIL WARS OF CHARLES 1. AND UNTIL VERY LATELY, ENGLISH ALMANACS HAVE BEEN CONSPICUOUS FOR ASTROLOGICAL PREDICTIONS.

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THE EARLIEST ENGLISH ALMANACS WERE PRINTED IN HOLLAND.

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mariners, is published in England two or three years in advance. It was commenced in 1767, by Dr. Maskelyne, the astronomer royal, and has been regularly continued ever since.

AL MONER, an ecclesiastical officer of the king, appointed to distribute the king's alms to the poor every day.

ALMS, a general term for what is given out of charity to the poor. In the early ages of Christianity, the alms of the charitable were divided into four parts, one of which was allotted to the bishop, another to the priests, and a third to the deacons and sub-deacons, which made their whole subsistence; the fourth part was employed in relieving the poor, and in repairing the churches.

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the first and second letters of the Greek alphabet. It is undoubtedly the most important of all inventions, for by means of it sounds are represented, and language made visible to the eye by a few simple characters. The five books of Moses are universally acknowledged to be the most ancient compositions, as well as the most early specimens of alphabetical writing extant; and it appears that all the languages in use amongst men which have been conveyed in alphabetical characters, have been the languages of people connected, ultimately or immediately, with the Hebrews. Hence a most extensive controversy has existed amongst learned men, whether the method of expressing our ideas by visible symbols, called letters, be really a human ALMS'-HOUSE, a building erected for invention; or whether we ought to attrithe maintenance of a certain number of bute an art so exceedingly useful, to an impoor, aged, or disabled persons. Of these mediate intimation of the Deity. An opi. there are a great number in London, West- nion upon such a subject would necessarily minster, and other towns of note in Eng-be mere conjecture, and therefore useless; land; some endowed by public companies, but we feel that we could not properly pass and others by charitable individuals. over in silence a matter which has so often ALMUTEN, in astrology, the lord of a engaged the attention of the most erudite figure, or strongest planet in a nativity. controversialists.

A'LOA, in Grecian antiquity, a festival kept in honour of Ceres, by the husbandmen, and supposed to resemble our harvest-home.

AL'OE, a tree which originally came from India, remarkable for a bitter juice, called aloes, which is extracted from its leaves, and is very useful in medicine as a purgative. The Socotrine aloe, the leaves of which afford a beautiful violet colour, is an European species much cultivated in Spain. Aloes are an extensive tribe of plants; and while some of them are not more than a few inches in height, others occasionally exceed thirty feet. All the leaves are fleshy, thick, and more or less spinous at the edges or extremity. The great American aloe (agave Americana), when in full flower, presents a most splendid appearance. The stem, which bears the blossoms, rises from the centre of the leaves, branching out on all sides in such a manner as to form a kind of pyramid, composed of greenish-yellow flowers, which stand erect, and are seen in thick clusters at every joint. It is an erroneous notion, though a very generally received one, to suppose that the American aloe does not bloom till it is 100 years old; the fact is, in hot countries it will flower in a few years; but in colder climates, the growth being slower, it is necessarily longer in arriving at maturity.

ALOETICS, a general term for all medicines, the basis or principal ingredient of which is aloes.

ALOGOTROPHIA, in medicine, unequal growth or nutrition in different parts of the body.

ALOPE'CIA, in medicine, a falling off of the hair, occasioned either by a defect of nourishment, or by a bad state of the huALPHABET, the natural or customary series of the several letters of a language. The word is formed from alpha and betu,

mours.

ALPHON'SINE TABLES, astronomical tables made in the reign of Alphonsus X., king of Arragon, who was a great lover of science, and a prince of rare attainments; but though these tables bear his name, they were chiefly drawn up by Isaac Hazan, a learned Jewish rabbi. ALT, in music, that part of the great scale lying between F above the treble cliff note, and G in altissimo.

ALTAR, a place upon which sacrifices were anciently offered to the Almighty, or some heathen deity. Before temples were in use, altars were erected sometimes in groves, sometimes in the highways, and sometimes on the tops of mountains; and it was a custom to engrave upon them the name, proper ensign, or character of the deity to whom they were consecrated. Thus St. Paul observed an altar at Athens, with an inscription, To the unknown God. In the great temples of ancient Rome, there were ordinarily three altars; the first was placed in the sanctuary, at the foot of the statue of the divinity, upon which incense was burnt and libations offered; the second was before the gate of the temple, and upon it they sacrificed the victims; and the third was a portable altar, upon which were placed the offerings and the sacred vessels. The principal altars of the Jews were those of incense, of burnt-offerings, and the altar, or table, for the shewbread.-ALTAR is also used among Christians, for the communion-table. ALTARAGE, the profits arising to a priest on account of the altar, as well the offerings themselves made upon it. ALTERATIVES, such medicines as induce a favourable change in the system, without any manifest operation or evacua

tion.

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ALTERNATION, a rule in arithmetic, by which the changes in any number of things may be determined. It consists of

CHRIST, THE ATONING SACRIFICE FOR SIN, IS CALLED THE ALTAR OF CHRISTIANS.

ALPHA AND OMEGA, THE FIRST AND LAST LETTERS OF THE GREEK ALPHABET, ARE USED IN SCRIPTURE AS A SYMBOL OF THE DIVINE BEING.

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IRONY IS DISTINGUISHED FROM ALLEGORY BY CONVEYING A MEANING DIRECTLY CONTRASY TO THE TRUE SIGNIFICATION OF THE WORDS.

24

NATIVE ALLOYS ARE THOSE METALS FOUND COMBINED WITH OTHER METALS.

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which binds the governed to the governor. The oath of allegiance is that which every

person is required to take before he enters on any office.

ALLEMAN'NIC, in general sense, denotes any thing belonging to the ancient Germans. Thus we meet with Allemannic history, Allemannic language, Allemannic law, &c. ALLEGORY, a series or chain of metaphors continued through a whole discourse. The great source of allegory, or allegorical interpretations, is some difficulty, or absurdity, in the literal and obvious sense.

AJ LEGRO, an Italian word used in music, to denote that the part is to be played in a brisk and sprightly manner. The usual distinctions succeed each other in the following order: grave, adagio, largo, vivace, allegro, presto. Allegro time may be heightened, as allegro assai and allegrissimo, very lively; or lessened, as allegretto or poco allegro, a little lively. Piu allegro is a direction to play or sing a little quicker.

ALL-HAL'LOWS, or ALL-SAINTS, a festival observed by many denominations of Christians, in commemoration of the saints in general. It is kept on the first of November, Gregory IV. having in 835 appointed that day for its celebration.

ALLIANCE, in the civil and canon law, the relation contracted between two persons or two families by marriage.ALLIANCE is also used for a treaty entered into by sovereign princes and states, for their mutual safety and defence.-ALLIANCE, in a figurative sense, is applied to any kind of union or connection: thus we say, there is an alliance between the church and the state.

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ALLIGATION, a rule in arithmetic, teaching how to compound several ingre-dients for any design proposed. It is either medial or alternate. The former shows the rate or price of any mixture, when its several quantities and their rates known. The latter is the method of finding the quantities of ingredients necessary to form a compound of a given rate.

are

AL'LIGATOR, an amphibious animal, so nearly resembling the crocodile of the Nile as to be considered a mere variety. It abounds in the torrid zone, will sometimes grow to the length of 18 or 20 feet, and is covered by a dense hardness of horny scales, impenetrable in most parts to a musket-ball.

ALLITERATION, a figure or embellishment of speech, which consists in the repetition of the same consonants, or of syllables of the same sound, in one sentence. The Greek and Roman literature afford many instances of this; and in English poetry there are also many beautiful specimens of alliterations; though it must be confessed that it is too often used without the requisite skill, and carried too far. In burlesque poetry it is frequently used with excellent effect; though even there the sense should never be sacrificed to the sound. Tastefully used, it is a most en

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chanting ornament, and will equally contribute to softness, to energy, and to solemnity.

ALLO'DIAL LANDS, are those which, under the feudal system, were free. Their owners owed no service to a superior lord. AL'LOPHANE, a mineral, or aluminous earth, of a blue, and sometimes of a green or brown colour, which occurs massive, or in imitative shapes. It gelatinizes in acids. ALLOY, a proportion of any baser metal mixed with one that is finer; thus the gold coin has an alloy of silver and copper, as silver has of copper alone. Alloy also means any compound of any two or more metals whatever; thus, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin; brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, &c. One metal however, does not alloy indifferently with every other metal, but it is governed in this respect by peculiar affinities. ALL'SPICE, so called from its flavour, which unites that of the cinnamon, of the nutmeg, and of the clove, is the pimenta, or Jamaica pepper. ALLUVIAL, a term used by mineralogical and geological writers. By alluvial depositions is meant the soil which has been formed by the destruction of mountains, and the washing down of their particles by torrents of water. The alluvial formations constitute the great mass of the earth's surface.

ALLU'VION, in law, a gradual increase of land along the sea-shore, or on the banks of rivers. This, when slow and impercep tible, is deemed a lawful means of acquisition; but when a considerable portion of land is torn away at once, by the violence of the current, and joined to a neighbouring estate, it may be claimed again by the former owner.

ALMACANTAR, in astronomy, a name for the parallels of altitude on the celestial globe, whose zenith is the pole or vertical point.-ALMACANTAR'S STAFF is an instrument for observing at sea the sun's amplitude rising and setting.

ALMADIE, a kind of canoe, or small vessel, about four fathoms long, usually made of bark, and used by the negroes of Africa.

AL'MAGEST, the name of a celebrated book, composed by Ptolemy; being a collection of many of the observations and problems of the ancients, relating both to geometry and astronomy.

AL'MAGRA, a fine deep-red ochre, with a faint admixture of purple, used both in painting and medicine. ALMA MATER, a title given to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge by their several members who have passed their degrees in either of these universities. ALMANAC, a calendar or table, containing a list of the months, weeks, and days of the year, with an account of the vising and setting of the sun and moon, the most remarkable phenomena of the heavenly bodies, the several festivals and fasts, and other incidental matters.-The NAUTICAL ALMANAC, a most valuable work for

ALLOY IN GOLD AND SILVER MAKES THOSE METALS WEAR BETTER.

WHOLE POEMS ARE SOMETIMES ALLEGORICAL; AS "SPENSER'S FAIRY QUEEN," AND "BUNYAN'S PILGRIM'S PROGRESS."

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