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THERE ARE TWO SPECIES OF AMPHIS BENA, ONE WITH BLACK AND WHITE SPOTS, THE OTHER WHITE; BOTH ARE HARMLESS.

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JULIUS CESAR ERECTED THE FIRST LARGE AMPHITHEATRE AT ROME.

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AMPHIDRO'MIA, an Athenian festival celebrated on the fifth day after the birth of a child, when it was carried round the fire, and presented to the household gods. AMPHIMAS'CHALI, in antiquity, a name given to coats with two sleeves, worn only by freemen.

AMPHISBÆ'NA, a serpent which moves with either end forward, a power produced by an arrangement of 200 or 300 rings, through its length.

AMPHIS'CII, the name applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone. Amphiscii, as the word imports, have their shadows one part of the year towards the north, and at the other towards the south, according to the sun's place in the ecliptic. When the sun is in its zenith they have no shadow, wherefore Pliny calls them Ascii.

AMPHITHEATRE, in antiquity, a spacious edifice, built either round or oval, with a number of rising seats, upon which the people used to sit and behold the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other sports. Some of them, as the Coliseum at Rome, were capable of containing from 50,000 to 80,000 spectators. The principal parts of the amphitheatre were the arena, or place where the gladiators fought; cavea, or hollow place where the beasts were kept; podium, or projection at the top of the wall which surrounded the arena, and was assigned to the senators; gradus, or benches, rising all round above the podium; aditus, or entrances; and vomitoria, or gates which terminated the aditus.

AMPHITRITE, in zoology, the name of a small naked sea insect, of an oblong figure, with only one tentaculum, resembling a piece of thread.

AM'PHORA, in antiquity, a liquid measure in use among the Greeks and Romans. The Roman amphora contained forty-eight sextaries, and was equal to about seven gallons one pint, English winemeasure; and the Grecian, or Attic amphora, contained one third more. Amphora was also a dry measure in use among the Romans, and contained three bushels.

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celestial body when rising or setting, and
east or west point of the compass. It
ways equal to the difference between
the true amplitude and the variation of the
compass.
AMPULLA, an ancient drinking vessel;
and among ecclesiastical writers it denotes
one of the sacred vessels used at the altar.
The ampulla is still a distinguished vessel
in the coronation of the kings of England
and France. The vessel now in use in
England is of the purest chased gold, and
represents an eagle with expanding wings
standing on a pedestal, near seven inches
in height, and weighing about ten ounces.
It was deposited in the Tower by the gal-
lant Edward, surnamed the Black Prince.

AM'PYX, in antiquity, a kind of golden chain, which served to bind the hair of horses, and sometimes of men and women, on the forehead.

AM'ULET, a superstitious charm or preservative against mischief, witchcraft, or diseases. They were made of stone, metal, animals, and, in fact, of every thing which fancy or caprice suggested. Sometimes they consisted of words, characters, and sentences, ranged in a particular order, and engraved upon wood, &c., and worn about the neck, or some other part of the body. At other times they were neither written nor engraved; but prepared with many superstitious ceremonies, great regard being usually paid to the influence of the stars. AMUSETTE, a small one-pound cannon, employed in war, in mountainous regions; and which for lightness and facility of movement, possesses great advantages.

AMYG'DALOID, a compound mineral, composed of spheroidal particles or vesicles of lithomarge, green earth, calc spar, and steatite, imbedded in a basis of finegrained green-stone, or wacke.

AMYGDALO'IDES LAPIS, in natural history, a stone which resembles the kernel of an almond. It is the petrified spine of the sea-urchin.

AM'ZEL, in ornithology, the English name of two species of merulæ, or blackbirds.

AMPHORITES, in antiquity, a sort of literary contest in the island of Egina, A'NA, a name given to amusing miscelwhere the poet who made the best dithy-lanies, consisting of anecdotes, traits of rambic verses in honour of Bacchus was character, and incidents relating to any rewarded with an ox. person or subject.-ANA, among physicians, denotes an equal quantity of the ingredients which immediately precede it in prescriptions; as syrup and water, ana, aa or a 3ii. that is, of syrup and water each two ounces.

AMPHOTI DES, in antiquity, a kind of armour or covering for the ears, worn by the ancient pugiles, to prevent their adversaries from laying hold of this part. AMPLIFICATION, in rhetoric, part of a discourse or speech, wherein a crime is aggravated, a praise or commendation heightened, or a narration enlarged, by an enumeration of circumstances, so as to excite the proper emotions in the minds of the auditors.

AMPLITUDE, in astronomy, an arc of the horizon intercepted between the east or west point and the centre of the sun, or a planet, at its rising or setting.-AMPLITUDE MAGNETICAL, is an arc of the horizon contained between the centre of the

ANABAPTISTS, a name given to a Christian sect, because they objected to infant baptism, and baptized again those who joined them. They appeared in Germany in 1521, immediately after the rise of Lutheranism. At first they preached up an entire freedom from all subjection to the civil as well as ecclesiastical power; but the tenct from whence they take their name, and which they still maintain, is their re-baptizing all new converts to their sect. The Baptists of England form a dis

THE SCALIGERIANA WAS THE FIRST BOOK EVER PUBLISHED OF THE "ANA" CLASS.

AMULETS, CHARMS, PALMISTRY, AND LUCKY OR UNLUCKY DAYS, ARE THE RELICS OF AGES OF IGNORANCE AND MENTAL SLAVERY.

ANAGRAM (MILITARY), FOR "HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON!" READ "WELL FOUGHT, KNO DISGRACE IN THEE." [K, i. e. KNIGHT.]

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A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

tinct sect, without any connexion with the ancient Anabaptists here spoken of.

ANAB'ASIS, the title of Xenophon's description of the younger Cyrus's expedition against his brother, in which the writer bore a principal part.—ANABASIS, among physicians, denotes either the increase or augmentation of a fever in general, or of any particular paroxysm.

ANABRO'SIS, in medicine, a corrosion of the solid parts by acrid humours.

ANACALYPTE'RIA, in antiquity, festivals among the Greeks on the third day after marriage, when the bride was allowed to take off her veil, which she had till that time worn.

ANACAR'DIUM, or CASHEW-NUT TREE, a native of the West Indies, where it grows to the height of 20 feet. The fruit is as large as an orange, and full of an acid juice, which is frequently used in making punch; and at the apex grows a kidney-shaped nut, the kernel of which is sweet and pleasant; but between it and the shell is a thick liquid, of such a caustic nature in the fresh nuts, that if the lips touch it they will be immediately blistered. ANACATHAR'SIS, in medicine, a cleansing of the lungs by expectoration.This term is likewise applied by divines to the clearing up of obscure passages of Scripture, by a spiritual interpretation.

ANACAMPTE'RIA, in ecclesiastical antiquity, edifices adjacent to churches, designed for the entertainment of strangers and the poor.

ANACAMPTICS, the term formerly used to denote that branch of the science of optics which is now called catoptrics.

ANACHRONISM, in literature, an error with respect to chronology, whereby an event is placed earlier than it really happened; in which sense it stands opposite to parachronism.

ANACLASTICS, that part of optics which considers the refraction of light. ANACLETE'RIA, a solemn festival celebrated by the ancients, when their kings or princes came of age, and assumed the reins of government.

ANACLINOP'ALE, among the ancient athletæ, a kind of wrestling, performed on the ground; the combatants voluntarily throwing themselves down for that purpose. ANACREONTIC VERSE, in ancient poetry, a kind of verse, so called from its being much used by the poet Anacreon. It consisted of three feet, generally spondees and iambics, sometimes anapæsts, and was peculiarly distinguished for softness and tenderness.

ANACLINTE'RIA, in antiquity, a kind
of pillows on the dining-bed, whereon the
guests leaned.
ANACOLUTHON, in grammar or rhe-
toric, a want of coherency, generally aris-
ing from inattention on the part of the
writer or orator.

ANACOLYPPA, an Indian plant, the
juice of which is a preservative against the
bite of the cobra capella.

ANADE'MA, in antiquity, an ornament

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of the head, wherewith victors at the sacred games had their temples bound, and also worn by the Grecian women. ANADIPLO'SIS, a figure in rhetoric and poetry, in which the last word or words of a sentence are repeated at the beginning of the next ANESTHETICS. Substances which produce insensibility apparently by suspending certain of the functions of the nervous system: among these the vapour of ether and of chloroform are the most manageable, and have lately attracted much notice in reference to the performance of surgical operations under their influence. AN AGRAM, the change of one word or phrase into another, by the transposition of its letters. They were very common among the ancients, and occasionally contained some happy allusion; but, perhaps, none were more appropriate than the anagram made by Dr. Burney on the name of the hero of the Nile, just after that important victory took place: HORATIO NELSON, "Honor est a Nilo." They are frequently employed satirically, or jestingly, with little aim beyond that of exercising the ingenuity of their authors. Thus, if the reader were to transpose the letters contained in the title of the Queen, HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY ALEXANDRINA VICTORIA! he would find that the following anagram might be formed of them: "Ah! my extravagant joco-serious radical Minister." Now it may be difficult to imagine any thing more ridiculous or inapplicable than such an exclamation, yet one half of the anagrams in existence are not a whit more absurd. [A few more anagrams are inserted between the marginal rules, but the only ones for which we claim originality are those on the Queen and the Duke of Wel lington: in the latter the redundant letter may well be allowed to stand for his numerous orders of knighthood, and his long career of successful valour entitled him to the appellation of a KNIGHT par excellence.] ANALE'CTA, a collection of extracts from different works. With the ancients, Analecta signified a servant whose business it was to gather up what fell from the table. ANALEM'MA, in geometry, a projec tion of the sphere on the plane of the meridian. ANALEPTICS, in medicine, restoratives which serve to repair the strength, and to raise the depressed spirits. AN'ALOGUE. In comparative anatomy, an organ which resembles another in its functional relations; thus, the wing of a bird is analogous to the wing of the flying lizard, and to the wing of an insect, though it be not in its structural relations the corresponding organ of the body: ANAL'OGY, a certain relation and agreement between two or more things, which in other respects are entirely different. it may be defined, an important process of reasoning, by which we infer similar fects and phenomena from similar causes and events. A great part of our philosophy has no other foundation than analogy. ANALYSIS, in chemistry, is the sepa

ASTRONOMERS," READ "NO MORE STARS."

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ANAGRAMS (OLD POLITICAL ONES), FOR "PATRIOTISM," READ "O 'TIS A MR. PITT;" AND FOR "OPPOSITION," READ "O POISON PITT." [EACH WANTS A T.]

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32

THE MANUFACTURE OF ANCHORS REQUIRES GREAT KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE OF IRON, AND SKILL IN THE ART OF WORKING IT.

"TO CAST ANCHOR" IS TO LET GO THE ANCHOR, TO KEEP THE SHIP AT REST.

ANA]

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ration of any substance into its constituent parts, to ascertain their nature, relative proportions, and their mode of union.ANALYSIS, among mathematicians, is the art of discovering the truth or falsehood of a proposition, or its possibility and impossibility. This is done by supposing the proposition, such as it is, true; and examining what follows from thence, until we arrive at some evident truth, or some impossibility, of which the first proposition is a necessary consequence; and from thence establish the truth or impossibility of that proposition.-ANALYSIS, among grammarians, is the explaining the etymology, construction, and other properties of words. -The analysis of finite quantities is properly called specious arithmetic, or algebra; the analysis of infinite quantities is the method of fluxions or differential calculus. -ANALYSIS is also used for a brief, but methodical, illustration of the principles of a science; in which sense it is nearly synonymous with what is termed a synopsis. ANAMNE'SIS, in rhetoric, an enumeration of the things treated of before; which is a sort of recapitulation.

ANAMORPHO'SIS, in perspective and painting, the representation of some image, either on a plane or curved surface, deformed, or distorted; which in a certain point of view appears regular and in just proportion.

ANA'NAS, in botany, a species of bromelia, commonly called pine-apple, from the similarity of its shape to the cones of firs and pines.

ANAPH'ORA, a rhetorical figure, which consists in the repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several successive sentences.ANAPHORA, in astronomy, an ascension or rising of the twelve signs of the zodiac from the east to the west, by the daily course of the heavens. ANAPLEROTICS, in pharmacy, such medicines as promote the growth of flesh in wounds and ulcers.

ANAR'CHI, in antiquity, an epithet applied by the Athenians to the four supernumerary days in their year, in which they had no magistrates.

ANʼARCHY, a society without a government, or where there is no supreme governor. A'NAS, in ornithology, a species of birds belonging to the order of anseres, of which there are about 100 species. ANASTALTICS, in pharmacy, astringent or styptic medicines.

ANASTATICA, in botany, the rose of

Jericho.

ANASTROPHE, in rhetoric, the inversion of words in a sentence, or the placing them out of their natural order.

ANATH'EMA, among ecclesiastical writers, imports whatever is set apart, separated, or divided; but the word is most usually intended to express the cutting off a person from the privileges of society, and from communion with the faithful. The anatheina differs from simple excommunication, inasmuch as the former is attended

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with curses and execrations. Anathemas are judiciary and abjuratory: the former can only be denounced by a council, a pope, or a bishop; the latter makes a part of the ceremony of abjuration, the convert being obliged to anathematize the heresy he abjures.

ANATOMY, the act of dissecting bodies for the purpose of examining their structure, and the nature, uses, and functions of their several parts; also the knowledge of the human body derived from such dissections and examinations. Anatomy_is divided into human and comparative. Human anatomy is that which is employed on the human body; comparative anatomy, that which is employed upon the bodies of other animals, these serving for the more accurate distinctions of several parts, and supplying the defects of human subjects. As a philosophic inquiry, it may be observed, that it is impossible not to be interested in the conformation of our own bodies as a religious one, it will not fail to impress us with the most becoming ideas of our Creator. AN'CESTORS, those from whom a person is descended in a direct line, the father and mother not included. The law makes a difference between ancestors and predecessors, the first being applied to a natural person, as a man and his ancestors, and the latter to a body politic, as a bishop and his predecessors. We say likewise, a prince and his predecessors, to signify the kings that have reigned before; but we never say a king and his ancestors, unless he is by birth descended of his predecessors. AN'CESTRY, the line of ancestors or forefathers from which any person is descended.

AN'CHOR, a heavy, strong, crooked instrument of iron, cast or dropped from a ship into the water to retain her in a convenient station in a harbour, road, or river. Anchors were originally mere weights: at present they are intended to fasten in the ground as hooks. They are contrived so as to sink into the earth as soon as they reach it, and to hold a great strain before they can be loosened or dislodged. Every ship has, or ought to have, three principal anchors, with a cable to each, viz. the sheet, the best bower, and the small bower, so called from their usual situation on the ship's bows. There are besides small anchors for moving a ship from place to place in a harbour or river, where there may not be room or wind for sailing; these are the stream-anchor, the kedge, and the grapnel. The last, however, is chiefly designed for boats. ANCHORAGE, the ground that is fit for holding the anchor; also the duty taken of ships for the use of the haven where they cast anchor. AN'CHORET, AN'CHORITE, or AN. ACH'ORET, in a general sense, means a hermit, or one who voluntarily lives apart from the world. In all ages and in all countries, retirement from the world has been considered as facilitating the attainment of

• TO WEIGH ANCHOR" IS TO HEAVE OR RAISE THE ANCHOR OUT OF THE GROUND.

THE WORD ANCHOR IS USED IN A FIGURATIVE SENSE, TO DENOTE THAT WHICH GIVES STABILITY, OR ON WHICH WE PLACE DEPENDANCE.

THE PYTHAGOREANS, STOICS, CYNICS, AND PLATONISTS, RECOMMEND THE SELF-DENIAL AND QUIET OF THE SOLITARY SAGE.

AND]

ANCHORETS CALL SOLITUDE THE DELIGHT AND SCHOOL OF GREAT MINDS.

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

a virtuous life. In Egypt and Syria, where Christianity became blended with the Grecian philosophy, and strongly tinged with the peculiar notions of the East, the anchorets were most numerous; and from those who lived in cells, in the vicinity of a church, the convents of a later period sprung, which were filled with inmates anxious to escape from the tumult and bloodshed which marked the beginning of the middle ages.

ANCHOVY, a small sea-fish much used in sauce; it is so like the common sprat, that the latter is often pickled and sold under its name.

ANCHYLO'SIS, in medicine, a stiffness or immobility of the joints, arising from various causes, and often connected with deformities of the limbs. For the most part it is the result of inflammation in the membrane lining the joints.

ANCO'NY, in the iron works, a piece of half-wrought iron, of about three quarters of a hundred weight, of the shape of a bar at the middle, but rude and unwrought at the ends. It is afterwards sent to a forge called a chafery, where the ends are wrought into the shape of the middle, and the whole is made into a bar.

ANCTER, in surgery, the fibula or button by which the lips of wounds are held together.

ANCUBITUS, in medicine, that affection of the eyes in which they seem to contain sand.

ANCY'LE, or ANCI'LE, in antiquity, a small brazen shield which fell, as was pretended, from heaven in the reign of Numa Pompilius, when a voice was heard, declaring that Rome should be mistress of the world as long as she should preserve this holy buckler.

ANCYLOBLEPH'ARON, in medicine, a disease of the eye which closes the eyelids. ANCY'LOGLOSSUM, in medicine, a contraction of the ligaments of the tongue, so as to hinder the speech.

ANDA'BATÆ, in antiquity, gladiators, who, mounted on horseback, or in chariots, fought blindfold, the helmet covering their

eyes.

ANDANTE, in music, the Italian term for exact and just time in playing, so as to keep the notes distinct from each other.

ANDANTE LARGO, signifies that the music must be slow, the time exactly observed, and each note distinct.

ANDANTI'NO, in music, an Italian word for gentle, tender; somewhat slower than andante.

ANDRAPODISTES, in antiquity, dealers in slaves, being in general kidnappers that stole children for the purpose of selling them.

ANDROIDES, in mechanics, a term used to denote an automaton in the figure of a man, which, by means of certain springs and other mechanical contrivances, is enabled to walk, and perform other actions of a man. The construction of an androides is justly supposed to indicate great skill in mechanics, and, with that of various

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other automata, has frequently engaged the attention of ingenious minds.

ANDROGYNOUS, in botany, an epithet for plants bearing male and female flowers on the same root, without any mixture of hermaphrodites. ANDROM'EDA, in astronomy, a small northern constellation consisting of numerous stars. It is represented by the figure of a woman chained, and is situated behind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus. -ANDROMEDA, in botany, is the marsh cystus. In entomology, a species of papilio, found in Italy. ANEMOMETER, an instrument used for measuring the force and velocity of the wind. Various instruments have been invented for this purpose; the first of which is attributed to Wolfius, who described it in 1709; but considerable improvements have been since made upon its construction. In the experiments made by Dr. Lind with his anemometer, he found, in one instance, that the force of the wind was such as to be equal to upwards of 34 lbs. on a square foot, answering to a velocity of 93 miles per hour!

ANEM'ONE, a beautiful flower, originally brought from the East, but now much cultivated in our garders. The word signifies properly wind-flower, because it was supposed that it opened only when the wind blew.

ANEM'OSCOPE, a machine showing from what point of the compass the wind blows. This is done by means of an index moving about an upright circular plate, the index being turned by an horizontal axis, and the axis by an upright staff, at the top of which is the fane moved about by the wind. Some are so made as, even in the absence of the observer, to note down the changes of the wind! But any contrivance, however simple, which indicates the direction of the wind, is properly an anemoscope.

AN'EROID BAROMETER, a recently invented instrument for indicating the va riations of atmospheric pressure, and differing from the ordinary barometer in this, that, whereas, in the latter, the pressure of the atmosphere is measured by the height of the columu of mercury which it supports; in the former, the differences of pressure are measured by the effect produced on a metallic spring, no fluid being employed. AN EURISM, in surgery, a diseased swelling of an artery, attended with a continued pulsation. Though aneurisms most frequently happen in the brachial artery, yet the disorder is not restrained to that part alone; for they may arise from an infinite number of cases, both external and internal, in all parts, where there are any arterial trunks or considerable branches distributed.

AN'GEL, the name given to those spiritual, intelligent beings, who are supposed to execute the will of God, in the government of the world. It is sometimes used in a figurative, and at others in a literal sense. The number of angels is no where

VENUS IS SAID TO HAVE CHANGED ADONIS INTO AN ANEMONE.

ONE OF THE MOST CELEBRATED ANDROIDES REPRESENTED A FLUTE-PLAYER, WHICH EXHIBITED AT PARIS A CENTURY AGO.

83

THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE, AND EVEN ENGLISH AS NOW SPOKEN, BEARS A STRIKING RESEMBLANCE TO THE LOW GERMAN.

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THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELIC BEINGS IS TERMED "ANGELOLOGY."

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mentioned in scripture; but it is always represented as immensely great, and also that there is a subordination among them. Hence ecclesiastical writers make an hierarchy of nine orders of angels. But besides these, we read of evil angels, the ministers of God's wrath; as the destroying angel, the angel of death, the angel of Satan, the angel of the bottomless pit, and the fallen angels, or those who kept not their first estate, but fell from their obedience into sin, and were expelled the regions of light. In general, good and bad angels are distinguished by the opposite terms of angels of light, and angels of darkness.ANGEL, the name of an ancient gold coin in England, so called from the figure of an angel upon it. It weighed four pennyweights.

ANGELICA, in botany, a genus of the digynia order, and pentandria class of plants. All the parts of angelica, especially the root, have a fragrant aromatic smell, and a pleasant bitterish taste. It is highly valuable in medicine.ANGELICA, in Grecian antiquity, a celebrated dance performed at their feasts; so called, because the dancers were dressed in the habit of messengers.

AN'GINA, the quinsy; an inflammatory disease of the throat.ANGINA GANGRENOSA, or AQUOSA, the ulcerated, malignant, putrid sore throat.

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AN'GLER, in ichthyology, the Lophius Piscatorius of Linnæus; a singular fish, which is also known by the name of the fishing-frog, from the resemblance it bears to that animal in the tadpole state. Its head is much bigger than its whole body, and its mouth is prodigiously wide. AN'GLICISM, an idiom of speech, or manner peculiar to the English. ANGLING, the art of ensnaring fish with a hook, which has been previously baited with a small fish, a worm, or a fly, &c. The best season for angling is from April to Oc. tober: the cooler the weather, in the hottest months, the better; but in winter, on the contrary, the warmest day is the most promising. A cloudy day, after a moonlight night, is always favourable; as the fish avoid feeding by moonlight, and are therefore hungry. Warm, lowering days are always coveted by anglers.

ANGLO-SAX'ON, the name of the people called Angles, who with the Saxons and some other German tribes, flourished in England after it was abandoned by the Romans, about the year 400; and who introduced their language, government, and customs.ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE. After the conquest of England by the Angles and Saxons, the Saxon became the prevalent tongue of that country; and after the Norman conquest, the English language exhibits the peculiar case, where languages of two different stocks are blended into one idiom, which by the cultivation of a free and active nation and highly-gifted minds, has grown to a powerful, organized whole. ANGUINEAL, denotes something belonging to or resembling a snake, anguis. Hence we say, anguineal curve, hyperbola, verse, &c.

AN'GUIS, or SNAKE, in zoology, a genus belonging to the class amphibia, order serpentes.

ANGUSTURA CORTEX, a bark, which comes from the Spanish main, and is a powerful bitter.

ANGIOSPERMIA, a term for such plants of the class didynamia as have their seeds enclosed in a capsule or seed-vessel. AN'GLE, in geometry, the opening, or mutual inclination, of two lines, or of two or more planes, meeting in a point called the vertex, or angular point. Angles are of great use in almost every branch of matheinatics. They make one half the subject of trigonometry, and have much to do in geography, astronomy, &c. When they meet perpendicularly, it is called a right angle, and is 90 degrees; when less than a right angle, it is called an acute angle; and when larger than a right angle, an obtuse AN'HIMA, in ornithology, a Brazilian angle; when two circles cross each other, bird, resembling in some degree a crane; it is called a spherical angle; or two curves, from which, however, as well as from all a curvilinear angle; and the angles made other birds, it is distinguished by a slender by solids, are called solid angles.-AN- horn, inserted a little above the origin of GLES IN MECHANICS. 1. Angle of direction, its beak; its wings too have each a horn is that comprehended between the lines of of this kind, growing out of the fore-part direction of two conspiring forces. 2. Angle of the bone. of elevation, is that which is comprehended ANHIN'GA, in ornithology, an extremebetween the line of direction, and any plane ly beautiful water-fowl of the Brazils, about upon which the projection is made, whether the size of a common duck. It feeds on horizontal or oblique.-ANGLE OF INCI-fish, and is a species of the plotus. DENCE, in optics, the angle which a ray of AN'IMA, among divines and naturalists, light makes with a perpendicular to that denotes the soul, or principle of life in point of the surface of any medium on animals.-ANIMA MUNDI, a phrase forwhich it falls.-ANGLE OF LONGITUDE, merly used to denote a certain pure ethein astronomy, the angle which a circle of a real substance or spirit which is diffused star's longitude makes with the meridian through the mass of the world, organizing at the pole of the ecliptic.-ANGLE OF and actuating the whole and the different PARALLAX, the angle made by two lines parts.-ANIMA, among chemists, denotes supposed to be drawn from the centre of a the volatile or spirituous part of bodies.planet to the surface of the earth.--AN-ANIMA is also used for the principle of veGLES, IN FORTIFICATION, are understood getation in plants. of those formed by the several lines used in fortifying, or making a place defensible.

ANIMAL, a living body endued with sensation and spontaneous motion. In its

34 ANIMAL APPETITES, ARE THE APPETITES OF THE BODY, AS HUNGER AND THIRST.

BY "ANIMAL ECONOMY," IS UNDERSTOOD THE SYSTEM OF LAWS BY WHICH THE BODIES OF ANIMALS ARE GOVERNED.

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