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bishop of London, proposed to Burghley for cut off the Scottish queen's head, who, he said infirm part in the foundation of the existin things. The queen still shrunk from the publicly imbruing her hands in her rival's 1 she thought that it might be possible to get safely done in Scotland. Killigrew was sen Edinburgh to arrange the matter, being charg commit his sovereign's honour by any too ceeding. He was, in short, to keep himself in the settling of a treaty of pacification between th and Mary's adherents in Edinburgh Castle where; but, in private, he was to propose th of Mary into the hands of her enemies, that "receive that she had deserved there by justice."*


But this negotiation fell to the ground th unusual honour of the regent Marr, who wa employed in arranging a very different p He was labouring to effect a general uni several rival factions into which the Scottish was divided, an object for the accomplishmen he seems to have been prepared to share his Maitland, Kirkaldy, Morton, and the other p had hitherto opposed his administration. In of these patriotic negotiations, the Earl of vited the regent to his house at Dalkeith, a him very nobly; but the regent took a sickness, which caused him to ride away t where he died on the 28th of October of th

*Elizabeth wished to guard against "that fu which might ensue by Mary's escaping, or be again." Killigrew was commanded to make th the late horrible universal murder in France," an the Scots to have good regard that the like be no He was also commanded to use all among them. with the most secrecy that he can, and yet so to the matter (Mary's death) might rather be oper by the Scots than seem to be proposed by him Burgh!cy Papers.


year, 1572. Some of his friends and the common people suspected he had "gotten wrong" at Morton's banquet.* On the 24th of November Morton, who was indisputably the greatest villain in Scotland, was chosen regent under the auspices of Elizabeth, whom he had already served in many particulars. His power had always been great, and now that it was supreme in Scotland, he devoted it to the two great objects of enriching himself by forfeitures and doing the will of the English queen. (A.D. 1573.) Killigrew remained with the new regent, and assisted him in arranging a separate treaty with the Earl of Huntley and the Hamiltons, by which Kirkaldy of Grange, Maitland of Lethington, and the others in Edinburgh Castle, were left to themselves to prolong a now hopeless struggle for Queen Mary. Maitland proposed an honourable capitulation: Morton insisted on an unconditional surrender. At this crisis Elizabeth sent an army from Berwick, under Drury the marshal, who was furnished with heavy artillery, and with instructions to lay the castle in ruins. Though starving and destitute, the garrison under the brave and skilful Kirkaldy held out for thirty-four days, when they surrendered, expressly to Drury and the Queen of England, upon a general promise of favourable terms. But Elizabeth ordered that Maitland and Kirkaldy should be delivered up to Morton. At last all Maitland's undermining and countermining were at an end, and his subtle genius stood rebuked and helpless: he ended his days on the 9th of June, a few weeks after the surrender of the castle. According to one account he took poison, and "died a Roman death;" according to another the poison was administered to him by Morton.† On the 3rd of August following the gallant Kirkaldy was hanged *Melville.

forthwith to said, was the sting state of he odium of s blood; but get the thing sent down to arged not to po open proFin public to the regency le and elsethe delivery at she might by order of through the was actively pacification. nion of the h aristocracy ent of which power with parties who the midst Morton inand treated vehement to Stirling, this present urther peril eing set up he most "of nd to move ot attempted 1 good speed deal as that ned to him to them.

+ Killigrew himself says that Maitland died not without suspicion of poison. Melville and Spottiswood agree in saying that, being surrendered by Elizabeth, he died "after the Roman manner." Mary, in a letter addressed to her in her own hand, accused Elizabeth of the poisoning of Maitland and the most cruel hanging of Kirkaldy.


and quartered as a traitor, and thus perish remnant of Mary's party in Scotland.

A.D. 1574.-In the month of May the Charles IX. died a death of horror at Vince He was succeeded by 26th year of his age. the Duke of Anjou, a former suitor of Elizal new king, Henry III., was detested by the for the part he had taken in the massacre; not been a year on the throne when he dete spiracy to murder him, in which his own Duke of Alençon, Elizabeth's present suitor, implicated. Alençon escaped from the court to levy troops for another war in conjunction Henry, the then Protestant King of Nava both applied to Elizabeth for assistance; b ferred the office of inediator, and, on the 14 1576, a treaty was concluded by which the were to have permission to worship God in way in public churches, and Alençon of honours, titles, and appanage which had been his elder brother Henry previous to his acces this time Alençon was styled Duke of A this pacification was scarcely achieved when placed himself at the head of a Catholic lea by the majority of his subjects, and in th February, 1577, he annulled at a blow th granted to the Huguenots, who thereupon fle

At this moment the minds of Elizabe ministers were rather occupied by the af Netherlands than by those of France. Th Orange, after a tremendous struggle, had establishing the independence of Holland a and the Duke of Alva had been recalled to die under the frowns and ingratitude of Philip, for whom he had waded in blood. been succeeded by Zuniga, commendator of who, by policy and gentle measures, detach the partisans of the Prince of Orange. Th his increasing difficulties, offered the sovere protectorship of Holland and Zealand to Eli

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