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their functions, without altering the order of the proceedings already established or which may hereafter be established by the laws.

18. To propose to the general Government all the measures it may think conducive to the prosperity of the State.

19. To suspend from their employments, and even to deprive of the half of their salary, for three months, those employés of the Government and of the revenue of the State who violate their orders; or to remove them after they shall have been heard in their defence in a preliminary examination, giving immediately, in both cases, an account of the proceedings to the Supreme Government. If the Governors of the States should think that there are grounds for prosecution, or that it would be advisable to suspend them for the third time, they shall deliver them over, with the documents connected with the case, to the respective judge.

20. To see that justice is properly administered in the State, urging on the judges when necessary, and asking from them judicial information upon such points as are required for insuring the due responsibility of offenders.

21. To employ the police force for the objects of its institution. 22. To grant permission, in the form prescribed by the law, for the establishment of public associations, whether literary or charitable, and to revise the regulations of the same, reforming in them whatever may be contrary to the laws or prejudicial to public order.

23. To inspect, in the manner prescribed by the law, the tribunals and courts of justice, whenever it is known that they exercise undue severity, or that irregularities are committed in them which are prejudicial to the administration of justice; to require them to give preference to such causes, the immediate decision of which is required by the public interests; and to require information respecting the state of such tribunals as often as they think it necessary so to do.

24. To impose fines, not exceeding 500 dollars, upon those who disobey their orders or fail in the respect due to them, proceeding always in such case according as the law prescribes.

25. To watch over the proper administration and employment of the funds of the corporations and of the town lands and revenues, directing for that object all the necessary means and giving an account of them to the Supreme Government.

26. To watch over and inspect all the branches of the administration included in the territory under their government, as well as the establishments connected with those branches.

27. To approve the contracts entered into by the corporations and by any public establishment, without which requisite they will

be null and of no value, and to authorize legally the extraordinary expenses voted by those corporations, and which are employed upon works of public utility.

28. To issue a written warrant, when public tranquillity requires such a measure, for entering certain houses and for arresting any person, and within three days placing the parties so arrested at the disposal of the competent judge.

29. To apply administratively the correctional punishments provided by the police laws, as also the provisions and regulations of good government.

30. To send vagrants, the vicious, and the unemployed, for the time necessary for their correction, to the establishments designed for that object, or to the workshops, or the farms, where they would be willingly received, leaving the person so sent the liberty of choosing between the labours of the field or those of the manufactory.

31. To appoint and remove, at pleasure, the secretary of their office.

CXVIII. The Governors will, upon exercising the powers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 27, and 28, inform the general Government of their so doing, which will then provide the necessary


CXIX. The Governors will be assisted by the armed force, when such aid is necessary for the preservation of order in their States. CXX. The powers and duties of the Political Chiefs shall be the same as those assigned to the Governors.

CXXI. In the States and territories there shall be a Council composed of five persons nominated by the Governor and the Political Chief with the approval of the Supreme Government, and whose duty shall be to consult the local Government upon all the points which may be necessary for the improvement of the public administration.

CXXII. The absence of the Governors or Political Chiefs, if not exceeding one month, shall be supplied by the oldest voting member (vocal) of the Council, provided he be not an ecclesiastic. When the absence exceeds that term, the President of the Republic shall appoint a Governor ad interim.

CXXIII. The Governors of the States and of the district and the Political Chiefs of the territories shall be tried for their official and common crimes by the Supreme Court of Justice, the authorization of the Supreme Government having been previously given.

CXXIV. The Governors and the Political Chiefs are responsible for their acts to the general Government.

CXXV. All Ordinances of the States which are contrary to the present one are abrogated.

I therefore order that this Ordinance be printed, published, circulated, and fully executed.

Given at the National Palace of Mexico, this 15th day of May, 1856.


PRELIMINARY CONVENTION of Commerce between the Netherlands and Japan.-Signed at Nagasaki, November 9, 1855.


CONVENTION between Mr. Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius, Netherlands Commissioner in Japan, Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, and Plenipotentiary Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, and Arawo Iwamino Kami, and Kawa Moera Tsoesimano Kami, Governors of Nagasaki, and Asano Ihkakf, Imperial Superintendent at Nagasaki, entered into at the Government House in that town on the 9th of November, 1855.

ART. I. From the 1st December, 1855, the Netherlanders shall enjoy full personal freedom, and may therefore leave Desima at all times without an escort, just as they are allowed to do now, upon leave, with an escort.

II. If a Netherlander should at any time transgress any Japanese law, information thereof shall be given to the highest Netherlands officer stationed at Desima, and through his interposition the transgressor shall be punished by the Netherlands Government according to the Netherlands laws.

III. In case any Netherlander should be improperly treated by a Japanese, the matter shall, on complaint by the Netherlands Commissioner in Japan, be enquired into by the Japanese magistrates, and the Japanese shall be punished according to the Japanese law.

IV. In case one or more other ports of the Japanese empire may be opened now or hereafter to one or more other nations, exactly the same privileges shall be immediately granted to the Netherlands.

V. Whenever an officer or other seaman belonging to one of the ships-of-war of His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, or any person belonging to the Netherlands land forces, may die in Japan, his funeral shall take place with the military ceremonies used by the Netherlands land and sea forces, and hitherto observed. Volleys may also be fired from small arms at the burial-place, as well as on board the Netherlands ships-of-war, even with great guns.

VI. The Netherlands merchant-ships coming to the port of Nagasaki shall, upon nearing the coast, show a private signal flag,

in addition to the national flag, as has been the custom hitherto. The ships-of-war have no private signal flag.

VII. When the two flags are seen by the watch on the Island of Iwo Sima, the Netherlands flag shall be exhibited from the flag-staff there, in token of recognition, just as is usual now also for the shipsof-war.

VIII. The Netherlands ships-of-war and merchant vessels shall come to anchor behind the Papenberg, as has been the custom hitherto.

IX. So soon as the Governor of Nagasaki shall have satisfied himself of the nationality of the vessels, by sending off for that purpose an officer of the guard accompanied by one of the officers from the Netherlands factory at Desima, the ships shall be at liberty to sail or steam into the harbour, or to have themselves towed therein by Japanese vessels, as has been the custom hitherto, but without giving hostages.

X. The crews of the ships shall be at liberty to use the ships' boats for communication with the other Netherlands ships and with the Island of Desima, or in rowing round the bay for their health, with this understanding, that the sailors of the Netherlands merchant ships may only enjoy this privilege when a captain or mate is with them in the boat or boats. They shall, of course, land nowhere else than at the water-gate of Desima, and they must have no intercourse with the crews of Japanese vessels. The boats shall bear the Netherlands flag for the purpose of recognition.

XI. There shall be no landing from the boats at any other place than the water-gate of Desima.

XII. Except the outer wall, the guard-houses, and public buildings of Desima, all the dwellings and warehouses shall be sold, through the intervention of the Governors of Nagasaki, to the Netherlands factory, and the ground of Desima let. They shall be under the direction of the highest Netherlands officer dwelling there, and be maintained at the cost of the Netherlands factory.

XIII. For the performance of the necessary repairs, the building or pulling down of warehouses or dwellings, or for making alterations and improvements therein, the Netherlands factory shall be at liberty to employ Japanese tradesmen and to buy Japanese materials, for which payment shall be made in "kambang" money. Previous notice of these operations shall be given to the Governor of Nagasaki.

XIV. The Netherlanders residing at Desima are at liberty to go round the bay in Netherlands or Japanese vessels, but without landing anywhere. They may fish from these vessels in the bay for their health. These vessels shall bear the Netherlands flag for the purpose of recognition.

XV. The keys of the water-gate are in the exclusive keeping of the highest Netherlands officer at Desima.

XVI. The keys of the land-gate are in the keeping of the Japanese officer on guard there.

XVII. But the sailors belonging to the Netherlands merchant ships are, except the commanders, subject to personal search, as has been the custom hitherto, when they go by the land-gate of Desima to Nagasaki and when they return from thence. At the water-gate and on board the Netherlands ships no search takes place.

XVIII. The examination of goods only takes place when they are introduced into Japan from Desima, or when they are brought from Japan to Desima, as has been the custom hitherto, and not at the delivery from the ships into Desima, or at the delivery from Desima on board the ships. The strongest precautions shall be taken against smuggling.

XIX. During the presence of Netherlands merchant-ships in the port of Nagasaki, while works are going on there, a Japanese officer shall be stationed at Desima to keep order amongst the Japanese coolies in general who are then to be found there, as has been the custom hitherto.

XX. The management of mercantile affairs remains for the rest on the present footing. The keys of the warehouses are always in the keeping of the highest Netherlands officer residing at Desima, whenever Netherlands goods are deposited therein. No Japanese seals are placed upon the warehouses.

XXI. All Japanese who have the necessary permission according to the Japanese laws, are to be admitted into Desima.

XXII. At all meetings that take place at Nagasaki, the compliments and the reception by the Japanese are to be according to the Japanese forms, and by the Netherlanders according to the Netherlands forms.

XXIII. Whenever opportunities may occur, the Netherlanders residing at Desima shall be at liberty to send letters by the Chinese junks as well as by the ships of other nations.

XXIV. The Netherlanders shall be at liberty to have free correspondence by letters with the commanders of ships or squadrons of foreign nations at peace with Japan, who are stopping in the bay of Nagasaki.

XXV. Musterings are to take place only on board the Netherlands merchant ships, on their arrival and departure, and not at Desima.

XXVI. The Netherlands merchant-ships shall retain their gunpowder and arms, including their great guns.

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