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unless it be proved that such property was embarked previous to the declaration of war, or within the space of two months after, without their having had notice of it.

An exception to this general rule is made when the Power at war. with one of the Contracting Parties does not recognize the principle that the flag covers the property; in such case the property of the other Contracting Party and of its citizens, found on board the enemy's vessels, shall be free.

XIX. Neither of the Contracting Parties shall afford assistance of any kind to the enemies of the other, for the purpose of facilitating or aiding the operations of war; nor shall either of them permit within its territory and with the object of hostilities or of fomenting disturbances, the enlisting or enrolment of men, the organization of troops, or the armament or manning of vessels of war or of privateers.

XX. In order to a clear understanding of the preceding Articles X and XVII, it has been agreed to specify here those things, which are to be considered as contraband of war, and they are as follows:

1st. Pieces of artillery of all classes and calibres, and their mountings, carriages, tools, and projectiles, powder, matches, and flints; firelocks, carbines, muskets, rifles, blunderbusses, pistols, and their respective ammunition; bayonets, pikes, lances, swords, sabres, spears and halberts.

2nd. Bucklers, helmets, breast-plates, coats of mail, morions, accoutrements, belts, and military uniforms.

3rd. And generally all kinds of arms, offensive and defensive, or instruments of whatever material or form expressly constructed for making war by sea or land.

4th. Horses and harness.

5th. The provisions which are on their way to a place besieged or blockaded by a force sufficient to prevent the entrance into it.

XXI. The two Contracting Parties bind themselves to retain in vigour all the laws and regulations now in force in both Republics for the abolition of the slave trade, and to adopt any measures which may be deemed necessary in order to prevent their citizens or inhabitants from engaging or taking part in that trade.

XXII. Each of the Contracting Parties may appoint Consuls or Vice-Consuls in the mercantile ports and places in the territory of the other, in order to promote the progress of its commerce, and to afford the most effectual protection to the interests and rights of its citizens; which Consuls or Vice-Consuls, after having been admitted in the usual form, shall enjoy in the country of their residence the same privileges and immunities which may have been or may be granted in future to the most favoured nation.

XXIII. If either of the Contracting Parties should at any

future time grant to any other nation any particular favour in regard to matters of commerce or navigation, this favour stail immediately be extended to the other party, gratuitously if the concession be gratuitous, or Eable to the same conditions should it be conditional

XXIV. The Contracting Parties desiring to maintain their friendly relations as irmly and durably as human foresight permits, have agreed and do agree that if any of the citizens of either Republe should minge any one or more of the stipulations of the present Treaty, the ofender shall be personally responsible, and the harmony and good understanding between the two Governments shall not be disturbed or interrupted thereby; each Party engaging not in any way to protect the cffender in order to save him from the trui he would be able to undergo before the tribunals of the country to watch the judgment belongs, much less to sanction such infactions.

XXIV. Ki mfortunately, which indeed cannot be expected, one or more of the Articles of the present Treaty should be infringed cr viclated by one of the two Governments, the Contracting Parties agree that the other Articles relating to diferent matters or having no connection therewith, shall be considered as always valid and in force, and shall be reiriously observed by both Bepublies.

XXVI. Can the territorial limits between the two Republics shall have been arranged in the manner which may appear most diting by a special Convention, those which, according to the law of Colombia of 25th June. 1824. separated the ancient departments of Canes and Equator. shall ecntinue to be mutually recognized. They kewise engage themselves mutually to assist each other in upholding the integrity of the territory of the anciens Republic of Colombia which appertains to each of them.

XVII. The duration of the present Treaty, by which those concinded at Pisto. Sth December, 182, are annulled and cancelled shall be for 12 years, reckoning from the day of the exchange of the ratifications, in regard to the Articles relating to commerce and navigation, and perpetual in regard to those relating to the political relations between the two Republies. In respect to the former it is, notwithstanding, stipulated that if neither of the Contracting Parties notify to the other its intention to alter such Articles, totally or in part, one year before the termination of the 12 fixed for their duration, they shall continue in force and vigour until one year after either of the Contracting Parties shall have notified its wish to alter them.

XXVIII. The present Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation shall be ratided by the President or by the person em powered by the Executive Power of the Republic of New Granada

and by the President, or the person empowered by the Executive Power of the Republic of the Equator, with the previous consent of the Congress thereof; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in Bogotá or in Quito within the term of 14 months, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof we, the Plenipotentiaries of the two Republics, have signed the same, and affixed thereto our respective private seals, at Bogotâ, the 9th July, 1856.



TREATY of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, between the Argentine Confederation, Prussia, and the other States of the Zollverein.-Paraná, September 19, 1857.

[Ratifications exchanged at Paraná, June 3, 1859.]


His Excellency the President of the Argentine Confederation, on the one part, and on the other part His Majesty the King of Prussia, for himself and in the name, and as representing the Sovereign States and parts of Sovereign States united in the same system of Customs; that is to say :-The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the territories of Mecklenburgh Rossou, Netzeband, and Schonberg, the Principality of Oldenburg-Birkenfeld, the Duchies of Anhalt-Dessau-Koethen, and Anhalt-Bernberg, the Principalities of Waldeck and Pyrmont; the Principality of Lippe, and the Upper Bailiwick of Meisenheim, a dependency of the Langraviat of Hesse; and also in the name of the other members of the German Zollverein and Handelsverein, that is to say:-The Crown of Bavaria, the Crown of Saxony, the Crown of Hanover, and the Crown of Wurtemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and the Bailiwick of Homburg, a dependency of the Landgraviat of Homburg represented by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, in the name of the States which form the Zollverein and Handelsverein of Thuringia, that is to say :-The Grand Duchy of Saxony, the Duchies of Saxe-Meiningen, SaxeAltenburg, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; the Principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudoldstadt, and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss of the elder branch, and Reuss of the younger branch, the Duchy of Brunswick, the Duchy of Oldenburg, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfort,-being desirous of extending and confirming the relations of friendship, commerce, and navigation, between the Argentine Confedration and the States of the Zollverein, have considered it right and fitting to negotiate and conclude a Treaty for

the fulfilment of this object; and to that end have named as their Plenipotentiaires; that is to say:

His Excellency the President of the Argentine Confederation; Sr. Dr. Don Bernabé Lopez, his Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; and

His Majesty the King of Prussia; Herr Hermann Herbort Friedrich von Gülich, his Chargé d'Affaires and Consul-General; who, having communicated their respective full powers, which were found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

ART. I. There shall be perpetual friendship between the Argentine Confederation and its citizens on the one part, and the States of the Zollverein and their subjects on the other part.

II. There shall be reciprocal freedom of commerce between the territories of the Argentine Confederation and the States of the Zollverein. The citizens and subjects of the two Contracting Parties may freely and securely go, with their ships and cargoes, to all such places, ports, and rivers of either party, to which other foreigners, or the ships and cargoes of any other nation or State are or may be permitted to go; they may enter into the same, and remain and reside in any part of them; they may hire and occupy houses and warehouses for their residence and commerce; they may trade in all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandize of every sort, subject to the laws of the country, and generally they shall enjoy in all their affairs the most complete protection and security, subject always to the laws and ordinances of the country.

In the same manner the ships of war, merchant-vessels, mailboats, and packets of the contracting parties may freely and securely go to all the ports, rivers, and places into which the ships of war and packets of any other nation are or may hereafter be permitted to enter; they may enter, anchor, remain, and repair, always subject to the laws and customs of the country.

III. The two Contracting Parties agree, that whatever favour, exemption, privilege, or immunity one of them may have conceded, or may hereafter concede, in respect of commerce or navigation to the citizens or subjects of any other Government, nation, or State, shall be extended in identity of circumstances to the citizens and subjects of the other Contracting Party, gratuitously, if the concession in favour of that other Government, nation, or State has been gratuitous, or for an equivalent consideration if the conces sion has been conditional.

IV. No other or higher duties shall be imposed in the territories of either of the two Contracting Parties on the importation of articles of natural produce or of industrial or manufacturing produce of the territories of the other Contracting Party than those which

* See also Separate Article, page 1282.

are paid or shall be paid on the same articles of any other foreign country; nor shall other or higher duties be imposed in the territories of either of the Contracting Parties, on the exportation of any articles to the territories of the other than those which are paid or shall be paid on the exportation of the same articles to any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the importation or exportation of any articles of natural production or of industrial or of manufacturing production of the territories of one of the Contracting Parties, to or from the territories of the other, which shall not also extend to the same articles of any other foreign country.

V. No other or higher duties shall be imposed for tonnage, light, or harbour dues, pilotage, salvage in case of damage or shipwreck, or any other local charges in any of the ports of either of the two Contracting Parties, on the ships of the other, than those which are paid in the same ports by their own ships.

VI. The same duties shall be paid, and the same allowances and privileges conceded, on the importation or exportation of every article to or from the territory of the Argentine Confederation, or to or from the territory of the States of the Zollverein, whether the said importation or exportation be made in vessels of the Argentine Confederation or in vessels of the States of the Zollverein.

VII. Both the Contracting Parties agree to consider as vessels of the Argentine Confederation and as those of one of the States of the Zollverein, all those which, being furnished by the competent authorities with a patent or register drawn up in due form, may, according to the laws and statutes then existing, be fully and bond fide recognized as national vessels by the country to which they respectively belong.

VIII. All merchants, commanders, and captains of vessels, and other persons of the Argentine Confederation shall have full liberty in all the States of the Zollverein to manage their business for themselves, or to confide them to whomsoever they may choose, as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter, and they shall not be obliged to employ for the said purposes, other persons than those employed by the subjects of the States of the Zollverein, nor to pay them other fee or salary than that which is paid in the same circumstances by the subjects of the States of the Zollverein. Absolute freedom is conceded in all cases to buyer and seller to treat and fix the price of any article as they may please, as well as of any merchandize or goods imported into or exported from the States of the Zollverein, according to the observance and custom of the laws established in the country. The same rights and privileges in all respects are conceded in the Argentine Confederation to the subjects of the States of the Zollverein. The citizens and subjects of the two

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