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God, and contrary thereunto, doth, in its own nature, bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God," and curse of the law, and so made subject to death,' with all miseries spiritual, temporal,* and eternal.1
OF GOD'S COVENANT WITH MAN.
THE distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures
e 1 John iii. 4. Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law, for sin is the transgression of the law.
Rom. iii. 19. Now we know, that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
8 Eph. ii. 3.and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others
h Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
For the wages of sin is death.
i Rom. vi. 23.
J Eph. iv. 18. Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart.
Lam. iii. 39. Wherefore doth a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins?
1 Matt. xxv. 41. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. 2 Thess. i. 9. Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.
do owe obedience unto him as their Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of him, as their blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescension on God's part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of
II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works," wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity," upon condition of perfect and personal obedience.P
m Job ix. 32, 33. For he is not a man as I am, that I should answer him, and we should come together in judgment. Neither is their any days-man betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both. Psa. cxiii. 5, 6. Who is like unto the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high; who humbleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven, and in the earth. Acts xvii. 24, 25. God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; neither is worshipped with men's hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things. See also Job xxxv. 7, 8, and Luke xvii. 10.
Gal. iii. 12. And the law is not of faith: but the man that doeth them shall live in them. Hosea vi. 7. Gen. ii. 16, 17.
• Rom. x. 5. For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, that the man which doeth those things shall live by them.
P Gen. ii. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
III. Man, by his fall, having made himself incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly called the covenant of grace wherein he freely offered unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.
4 Gal. iii. 21.-For if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. Rom. viii. 3. For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh. Isa. xlii. 6. I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. Gen. iii. 15.
r Mark xvi. 15. 16. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. John iii. 16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life.
Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the sto heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. John vi. 37, 44. All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out. No man can come to me, except the Father, which hath sent me, draw him; and I will raise him up at the last day.
IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in the Scripture by the name of a testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ, the testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed.*
V. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel" under the law it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all fore-signifying Christ to come," which
Heb. ix. 15, 16, 17. And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead; otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth. Heb. vii. 22. By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament. Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. See also 1 Cor. xi. 25.
2 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 8, 9. Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit; for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. But if the ministration of death written and engraved in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away, how shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious? For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. ▾ Heb. viii. ix. x. chapters. Rom. iv. 11. And he
were for that time sufficient and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit to instruct and build up the elect in faith, in the promised Messiah," by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation; and is called the Old Testament.*
received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also. Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ. Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him, through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. 1 Cor. v. 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. Col. ii. 17. Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
w1 Cor. x. 1, 2, 3, 4. Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea. And did all eat the same spiritual meat; and did all drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them; and that Rock was Christ. Heb. xi. 13. These all died in faith, not having received the promises; but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. John viii. 56. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day; and he saw it and was glad.
Gal. iii. 7, 8, 9, 14. Know ye, therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith preached before the gospel unto