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teenth Century, 98, 99; awakening of France to slave-trade, during the famine, 144, 145; morpublic life, 99, 100; Cousin's patriotic passion, tality resulting, 145; progress of education in 100; his loss deeply felt at the Académie, ib.; 1866, 146; the lesson of the scarcity, 147. Cousin among his friends, 100, 101 ; his place in the future, 102.

Java, island of, 171; its population, and govern

ment, 172; Dutch residents and native regents, Irwin's theory examined, 149, et seq.

ib. ; forced and free labour, 172, 173; M. Dou. atch Political Novel, 171; Dutch colonies in In- wes Dekker, ex-Assistant Resident of Lebak, dia, ib. ; their government, 172; sensation caused and his novel, ‘Max Havelaar,' 173, 174; posiby the appearance of Max Havelaar in the tion of the Javanese in respect to the motherNetherlands, 173; its author, 173, 174; Mr. Stub- country, 175; incomes of native princes, 176; bles and Multatuli, 174, 175; Dutch rule in Java, official reports to the home government, 177; ib.; the hero of the book, 176; his account of the the colonial question, 180, 181; M. Thorbecke, getting up of official reports, 177; Havelaar sets an eminent Dutch statesman, 181; appointment about reform, 178; the story of Saïdjah, 178– of M, Myer to be Governor-General of the Col. 180; the novel suppressed, 181; see Java.

onies, ib.; difficulties in the government of

Dutch colonies, 182; scarcity of European setducation in Scotland—Report of Royal Commis

tlers, ib. sion, 268 ; constitution of Commission, 269 ; Journalism in France ; see Prévost-Paradol. mode of conducting the inquiry, and results, 269, 270; religious denominations of scholars, 270; Leibnitz, 95, 97. conscience clause in Scotland, 271; quality of school-buildings and teaching, 271, 272; school Northern Poetry (Old), character of the, 58; its system of Scotland and its defects, 273, 274;

present interest, ib. ; its relation to Christianity, defects of Privy Council system, 274; problem

59; has little in common with classical literato be solved, ib. ; chief objects to be attained in ture, 60; passion, ib.; points of resemblance be. a National system of education, 275; new Board

tween the Northern and the Oriental poetry, 60, of Education and its duties, 276, 277; jurisdic

61; Indian mythology, and Persian and Arabian tion of Board and of Committee of Council

, 277 ;

poetry, 61, 62; classical myths, 62; the twilight various classes of National Schools, 277, 278;

of the gods, 63;—the Eddas: the mythic-relignon-parochial schools, 278; Episcopalian and ious songs, 64-68; the mythic-heroic songs, 68– Roman Catholic schools, 279; Adopted schools

73;—the Sagas:, the Drapas or Skaldic songs, and effect of Adoption, 279, 280; presbyterial

73; (the heathen skalds, 74-82; the Christian examinations, 280; Bible and Catechism, 281;

skalds, 82-84;) the sagas


conversion of Adopted into National Schools,
281, 282,

Origin of Species, 149; argument for the Darwin

ian theory, 149, 150; the reasoning examined, 'acetiæ: connexion between reason and ridicule, 150;-extent of variability required by it, ib.; 204; laughable failures, 204, 205; the Irish bull, natural selection, and man's selection, 150, 151; 205; stories from the so-called Hierocles, 205, illustrations showing that there is a limit to the 206; specimens from a French collection of Bê. variation of species for all cases of man's eelection, tises, 206; Dundrearyism, 207; use of fine or 151, 152; is the law of variation different when peculiar words by the ignorant,the anti- the variation occurs slowly? 152; the tendency climax, 208; exaggeration, ib. ; examples of the to revert, 152–154, the efficiency of natural seludicrous in retort, evasion, etc.

, 209-211; the lection examined, 154; common variation : imMinister and the Cuddie, 211; absurdities of provement of existing organs versus creation of weaklings and fools, 211, 212; wit not necessa- new organs, 154, 155; sports considered, 155, rily comic, 212.

156 ; offspring of sports, 156, 157; summary of famine in Bengal in 1866: failure of the harvest arguments as to the efficiency of natural selec

of December 1865, 129; measures adopted to tion, 157, 158;-lapse of time, 158; geological meet the coming trial, 130; the poor Bengali evidence, ib. ; perpetual motion, 159; doctrine in seasons of plenty, ib.; rise in price of rice of conservation of energy, 160-162; the age of early in 1866, 131 ; estimate of the number of the inhabited world proved to have been limitpersons whose earnings were insufficient to carry ed to a period quite inconsistent with Darwin's them through the fumine, ib.; the demand for views, 163, 164; -difficulty of classification, 164; labour, 132; efforts of capitalists to mitigate the transmutation of species, ib. ; analogous difficul. famine, ib.; the Princes of Burdwan, of Bishen- ties of classification, 164, 165; what expectapore, and of Beerbhoom, 132, 133 ; railway en- tions we might naturally form, a priori, as to terprise in India conducted with English capital, the probable ease or difficulty in classifying 133, 134; efforts of the Government 134 ; ultim- plants and animals, 165, 166 ; difficulties in ate failure of the scheme for increasing the wage- classifying man's contrivances, 166, 167; sumfund, 134, 135; and consequent necessity for a mary of argument on this head, 167, 168; obsystem of public charity, 135 ; efforts of private served facts supposed to support Darwin's views, charity, 136; the different stand-points from which 168; peculiarities of distribution, ib.; correlathe Hindu and the Englishman view charity, 137; tion of growth, 169; peculiarities of geographiGovernment relief operations, 138, 139; the three cal distribution, 170; conclusions, 170, 171. classes requiring relief, 139; anxiety among the Oxford University extension : the inquiry into the people in June-speculations of tbe devout Hin- Universities in 1852 and its results, 119; desire dus, 140 ; the rains at last, 141; revival of the de- for University extension, 120; cost of an Oxford mand for agricultural labour, ib.; analogy be- education, 121 ; desirableness of a change in the tween former fumines and that of 1866, 141, 142; present system, ib. ; recent movement to considoutbreak of fever and cholera, 143; difficulties in er the question of extension, and what led to it, the administration of relief, 143, 144; conspicuous 122 ; Oxford expenses, 122, 123 ; undesirableness effects of the scarcity on the people at large, of endowments for the poor, 123, 124; proposi144 ; increase of crime, and development of a tion to relax the statute which requires


residence within the gates, 124; Oxford dis- Engagement' and 'Act of Classes,' 221, 222 ; cipline, 125, 126; necessity for experiment, dissensions among the Covenanters, 222; Reso126; the Balliol scheme, and its reception by lutioners and Protesters, 223, 224; defends Res. the Council, ib.; necessity of reform in the con- olutioners before Cromwell, 225, 226; success of stitution of the University, 127; benefits of ex- his mission, 226; letter to Drummond, 226, 227; tension, 127, 128; Parliament and Academical his mission to London in 1660, 227; characterreform, 129.

istics of his letters to Douglas, 227, 228; the Oyster-Fisheries of the United Kingdom, 102; Royal letter of August, 1660, 228, 229; Sharp's oyster-shells in the shell-mounds of Denmark, letters to Drummond in that year, 229-233; and in geological strata, 103 ; oysters among

Restoration Parliament in Scotland, 234; Sharp's the Greeks and Romans, 103, 104, natural his- sermons before Parliament, 235; further letters tory, 105; culture among the French, 105, 106; to Drummond, 236-242; concluding estimate, results of the Hayling Island experiments, 107; 243. oyster-beds on the west coast of Ireland, ib.; failure of the spat, 108; laws regulating oyster. Trades-Unions, the policy of, 1 ; early attempts to fisheries, 108; results of their operation, 109– adjust the relation between workmen and their 112; account of the fishery of the Whitstable employers, – legislative measures, 1, 2; the Company, 112, 113; beds on the south coast of Combination Lawe, 2; progress of trades-socieEngland, 113, and in Scotland, 114; arguments ties since their repeal, 3 ; expansion of tradee for and against a close-time in the open grounds, unions, 3, 4; extent of debateable ground, 4 114, 115; formation of private beds encouraged trade combinations a great fact, 5; their avower by the Royal Commission, 115, 116; result of object, ib.; an inevitable result of the polic the Commissioners' inquiry, 116; enemies of the their object suggests, 6; conditions of labou oyster, 117, 118; flavour, 118; American oys- contended for, ib. ;-I. Artificial restrictions on tere

, ib. ; the London costermongers, 119; the the labour market versus free trade in labous Pandore oyster, ib.

7:—II. Examination of these restrictions, -are

they justifiable i do they tend to secure the end Prévost-Paradol, M., 260; journalism in France,

for which they are designed ? 8; the claim for ib . ; reception-day at the Academy, 261; he

standard rates of wages, ib., and for limiting the becomes a political writer, ib.; contrast between

hours of labour, 8, 9; alleged diminution of

demand for manual labour, 9; the argument the Eaglish and the French press, 262; the art of flexibility,' ib.; the English love of full and

against piece-work, 10; the number of appren.

tices, 11; coercion of non-unionists, 12; opposiaccurate news, 263; Frenchmen's opinions on

tion to the introduction of new machinery, 13; foreign politics, 263, 264; party and national feeling in our newspapers, 264; anonymous

an artificial scarcity of labour supposed to be writing, 265; the French law of signatures, ib. ;

maintained by these restrictions: this an interan election scene described by Prévost-Paradol,

ference with the natural order of things, 14; 266; dialogue on the Roman question, 267;

impolicy of this, 14, 15; the profits of capitalists, death of the Courrier du Dimanche, ib.; his

15; difficulties of employers, 16; effect of an rank as a literary and philosophical critic, 267,

increase of prices, 16, 17, industry and enter268.

prise paralysed by the policy of stinting labour artificially in order to enhance its market

value, 17 ;—III. The bearing of trades-unions Report of Royal Commission on Education in

on the position of employers

, 18; the question Scotland, 268-282.

of authority, ib. ; independence of workmen

ib. ; tyrannical conduct on the part of masters, Sharp, Archbishop,—various views of his char- 19; feeling prevalent among employers as to

acter, 213; contemporary estimate of him, the proceedings of trades-unions, 20; bearing of 213, 214; authorities as to bis character, 214, the recent policy of trades-unions on the stabil215; charged with designing against Presby. ity of our industry, 21, and on the higher interterianism in Scotland, 215–217; the Lauderdale ests of workmen, 22; legitimate function of Papers, 217; Sharp's birth and education, ib.; trades-unions, 23; Sheffield conference of tradechosen Regent in St. Leonard's College, St. An- delegates, ib. ; remedies for prevailing evils : drews, 218; fracas with Sinclair, 219 ; scandal- courts of conciliation, co-operation, 24; importous story, 219, 220; appointment to Crail, ib.; ance of promoting á spirit of sympathy and Factions in the Church of Scotland, 221; the mutual regard, 24, 25.


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till 1813, had gone into disuse long be- the apprehension of their leaders, and by a fore.

criminal prosecution. Most of the masters Meanwhile the industry of Great Britain combined against the men, and the bookwas beginning to assume another form. The sellers backed the masters; but other masters bodies of workmen working together were were more favourable, including King often becoming much larger, and the oppor- George III., who had a bookbinder's shop in tunities of combination to defeat the law and the then Buckingham Palace, for keeping in advance their interests increased in a cor- repair the royal library at St. James's, and responding ratio. The Legislature, ever who was the first to grant the hour. About ready to apply its specific, passed Act upon the same time, the Sheffield cutlers had a Act, prohibiting all agreements or asso- strike against the 'extortionate practice of ciations of workmen for the purpose of ad- making thirteen knives to the dozen. An vancing wages, or controlling their masters employer who had made himself obnoxious in the management and regulation of their by enforcing this vexatious violation of business; and empowered the magistrate to Cocker, was lampooned in doggrel, characconvict summarily, and punish with imprison- terized by the usual combination of bad ment for two or three months, any workman rhyme, rough humour, and bitter feeling, who should take part in them.'

especially as regarded the use to be made of It cannot be denied that in the whole the thirteenth knife :course of this legislation against combinations' the sympathies of the Legislature

'Then may the odd knife his great carcass

dissect, were for the most part with employers; and

Lay open his vitals for men to inspect; the fact must be borne in mind, when atten

A heart full as black as the infernal gulf, tion is turned to the excesses and follies

In that greedy, blood-sucking, bonethat have accompanied the assertion of their

scraping wolf. rights by workmen in these recent years of new-found freedom. As Adam Smith At the commencement of the century shrewdly remarks: 'Whenever the Legis- strikes were common in almost every trade, lature attempted to regulate the differences and the Legislature made a vehement effort between masters and workmen, its counsel- in 1800 to extinguish them completely by lors were always the masters. Combina- one other stringent enactment.

The attempt tions on the part of masters, the same writer was not only a complete failure, but its remarks, were authorized, or at least not results showed that such enactments only prohibited by law; it was the combinations stimulated the evil they were meant to of workmen only that fell under its lash. At last, a Committee of the House Against workmen convictions of breaking of Commons, of which Mr. Hume was chairthe law were taking place constantly; but man, having reported, in 1824, against the there is no record of any conviction against Combination Laws, measures were passed an employer. We know how difficult it is repealing them in that and the subsequent to get rid of traditional feelings, even when year. The immediate effect of the repeal the occasion for them has disappeared. For was to give a great impulse to strikes, and

a nearly five hundred years, with but little the policy of re-enacting the exploded law interruption, a traditional sense of hard was seriously considered in 1825. But usage, in respect of their relation to their milder counsels prevailed. In 1838, when employers, had been working into the soul an inquiry into the effects of the repeal was of the labouring class. To eradicate that made by a committee of the House of feeling it would be reasonable, we apprehend, Commons, it was reported that its bearing to allot a period not less than the three on the conduct of strikes had been on the generations said to be required for purifying whole beneficial. There was not so much the blood.

violence as formerly, and the union men No law can have much effect which is not were pronounced by the majority of masters backed by the general conscience of the to be the most highly skilled of the opercommunity; and for want of such backing atives, and the most respectable in the trade. the “Combination Laws' were often dis. Since that time there is a very general conregarded. And it must be confessed the currence of testimony, to the effect that temptation to do so was sometimes very strikes have been conducted with less of great. In the year 1786, for example, the barbarous violence, with an increasing meabookbinders of London, whose day of work sure of outward self-restraint. No doubt was from six in the morning to eight at cases of violence do still occur, and the night, applied to four of the masters for a brutal endeavour to blow up the house of diminution of one hour; the application was the knife-grinder Fearnyhough, at Sheffield, followed by the discharge of the men and | a few months ago, looks as if matters were

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