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pitched cloth, about two inches diameter, in order to fire a bombchest.

Bailey. SAUCISSON. n. s. [Fr.] In military architecture, faggots or fascines made of large boughs of trees bound together. 'They are commonly used to cover men, to make epaulment, traverses, or breastworks in ditches full of water, to render the way firm for carriages. Bailey. SAUCY. adj. [I know not how this word can be easily deduced from sauce: it may come more properly from salsus, Lat.] Pert; petulant; contemptuous of superiours; insolent; impudent; impertinent.

You are more saucy with lords than the heraldry of your birth and virtue gives you commission. Shakspeare.


Study is like the heav'ns glorious sun,
That will not be deep search'd with saucy looks;
Small have continual plodders ever won;
Save base authority from others' books.
And if thou hast the mettle of a king,
Being wrong'd-as we are by this peevish town,
Turn thou the mouth of thy artillery,
As we will ours against these saucy walls. Shak.
Power's first pedigree from force derives,
And calls to mind the old prerogatives
Of free-born man; and with a saucy eye
Searches the heart and soul of majesty. Denham,
I lose my patience, when with saucy pride
By untun'd ears I hear his numbers try'd. Rose.
No saucy citizen shall dare

To strike a soldier, nor, when struck, resent
The wrong.

Dryden. Homer, to express a man both timorous and saucy, makes use of a kind of point, namely, that he had the eyes of a dog, but the heart of Spectator. a deer.

To SAVE. v. a. [sauver, saulver, Fr. salvo, Latin.]

1. To preserve from danger or destruction. Let me die ere men can say God save the queen.


Shakspeare. Isaiah.

One shall cry, yet cannot he answer, nor save him out of his trouble.

A wond'rous ark,

To save himself and houshold from amidst A world devote to universal wreck.


The circling streams, once thought but pools of blood,

From dark oblivion Harvey's name shall save.

Dryden. Will no superiour genius snatch the quill, And save me on the brink from writing ill?


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otherwise we can get nothing by repining, nor
save any thing by resisting.

With your cost you terminate the cause,
And save th' expence of long litigious laws,
Where suits are travers'd, and so little won,
That he who conquers is but last undone. Dryd.
To reserve or lay by.

He shall not feel quietness, he shall not save
of that which he desired.
They meanly pilfer, as they bravely fought,
Now save a nation, and now save a groat. Pope.
When Hopkins dies, an hundred lights attend
The wretch, who living sav'd a candle's end.

5. To spare; to excuse.



Will you not speak to save a lady's blush?

Dryden. Our author saves me the comparison with tra gedy. Dryden.

These sinews are not so much unstrung,
To fail me when my master should be serv'd;
And when they are, then will I steal to death,
Silent and unobserv'd, to save his tears. Dryd.
To salve; to reconcile.

How build, unbuild, contrive
To save appearances: how gird the sphere
With centrick and eccentrick.


7. To take or embrace opportunely, so as not to lose.

The same persons, who were chief confidents to Cromwell, foreseeing a restoration, seized the castles in Ireland, just saving the tide, and putting in a stock of merit sufficient. Swift.

To SAVE. v. n. To be cheap.

Brass ordnance saveth in the quantity of the material, and in the charge of mounting and carriage.


SAVE. adv. [This word, adverbially used, is, like except, originally the imperative of the verb.] Except; not including. It is now little used.

But being all defeated, save a few, Rather than fly, or be captiv'd, herself she slew. Spensera

All the conspirators, save only he, Did that they did in envy of great Cæsar. Shak. He never put down a near servant, save only Stanley, the ford chamberlain. Bacon!

How have I then with whom to hold converse, Save with the creatures which I made? Milton. SA'VEALL. n. s. [save and all.] A small pan inserted into a candlestick to savę the ends of candles. SA'VER. n. s. [from save.) 1. Preserver: rescuer.

They were manifoldly acknowledged the savers of that country. Sidney 2. One who escapes loss, though without gain.

Laws of arms permit each injur'd man To make himself a saver where he can. Dryd, Who dares affirm this is no pious age, When charity begins to tread the stage? When actors, who at best are hardly savers, Will give a night of benefit to weavers? Swift, 3. A good husband.

4. One who lays up and grows rich.

By nature far from profusion, and yet a greater sparer than a saver; for though he had such means to accumulate, yet his garrisons and his feastings soaked his exchequer. Wotton. SA'VIN. n. s. [sabina, Lat. savin, sabin, Fr.] A plant.

SA'VING. adj. [from save.]

1. Frugal; parsimonious; not lavish.

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She loved money; for she was saping, and applied her fortune to pay John's clamorous debis. Arbuthnot.

Be saving of your candle. Swift. 2. Not turg to loss, though not gainful. Silvio, finding his application unsuccessful, was resolved to make a saving bargain; and since he could not get the widow's estate, to recover what he had laid out of his own. Addison

SAVING.adv. [This is nothing more than a participle of the verb save adverbially used. With exception in favour of. All this world's glory seemeth vain, And all their shows but shadows, saving she. Spenser. Such laws cannot be abrogated, saving only by whom they were made; because the intent of them being known unto none but the author, he alone can judge how long it is requisite they should endure. Hooker.

Saving the reverence due to so great a man, I doubt not but they did all creep out of their holes.

G. n. s. [from save.]


1. Escape of expence; somewhat preserv ed from being spent.

It is a great saving it all such lights, if they can be made as fair and right as others, and yet last longer. Bacon.

By reducing interest to four per cent. there was a considerable saving to the nation; but this year they give six. Addison.

2. Exception in favour.

Contend not with those that are too strong for us, but still with a saving to honesty; for integrity must be supported against all violence.

L'Estrange. SA'VINGLY, adv. [from saving.] With parsimony.

SA'VINGNESS. n. s. [from saving.] 1. Parsimony; frugality.

2. Tendency to promote eternal salvą tion.

SA'VIOUR. n. s. [sauveur, Fr.] Redeemer; he that has graciously saved mankind from eternal death.

So judg'd he man, both judge and Saviour sent.

However consonant to reason his precepts appeared, nothing could have tempted men to acknowledge him as their God and Saviour, but their being firmly persuaded of the miracles he wrought. Addison.

To SA'UNTER. v.n. [aller à la sainte terre, from idle people who roved about the country, and asked charity under pretence of going à la sainte terre, to the holy land; or sans terre, as having no settled home.]

1. To wander about idly.

The cormorant is still sauntering by the seaside, to see if he can find any of his brass cast up. L'Estrange. Tell me why, saunt'ring thus from place to place,

I meet thee; Nævolus, with clouded face? Dryd.
So the young 'squire, when first he comes
From country school to Will's or Tom's,
Without one notion of his own,
He saunters wildly up and down.


Here saunt ring 'prentices o'er Otway weep.


Led by my hand, he saunter'd Europe round, And gather'd ev'ry vice in ev'ry ground, Dunciad, 2. To loiter; to linger.

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The savour of death from all things. Milton. A directer influence from the sun gives fruit a better savour and a greater worth. To SA'VOUR. v. n. [savourer, French; from the noun.]

1. To have any particular smell or taste. 2. To betoken; to have an appearance or intellectual taste of something.

This ripping of ancestors is very pleasing, and savoureth of good conceit and some reading. Spenser.

The duke's answers to his appeachments are very diligently and civilly couched; and though his heart was big, yet they all savour of an humble spirit. Wotton.

That savours only of rancour and pride. Milt. If 't were a secret that concern'd my life, This boldness might become thee; But such unnecessary rudeness savours Of some design.



I have rejected every thing that savours of party.

To SA'VOUR. v. a.

1. To like; to taste or smell with delight. Wisdom and goodness to the vile seem vile; Filths savour but themselves. Shakspeare.

2. To exhibit taste of.

Thou savourest not the things that be of God.

SA'VOURILY. adv. [from savoury.]
1. With gust; with appetite.

The collation he fell to very savourily. L'Estr. This mufti is some English renegado, he talks So savourily of toaping. Dryden.

2. With a pleasing relish.

There's a dearth of wit in this dull town, When silly plays so savourily go down. Dryden. SAVOURINESS n. s. froin savoury.]

1. Taste pleasing and picquant. 2. Pleasing smell.

SAVOURY. adj. [savoureux, French; from savour.]

1. Pleasing to the smell.

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Sight more detestable. SAW. n. s. [sawe, Danish; raga, or rige, Saxon; scie, French.] 1. A dentated instrument, by the attrition of which wood or metal is cut.

The teeth are filed to an angle, pointing towards the end of the saru, and not towards the handle of the saw, or straight between the handleand end; because the saw is designed to act only in its progress forwards, a man having in that more strength than he can have in drawing back his sare, and therefore when he draws it back, he hears it lightly off the unsawn stuff, which enables him the longer to continue his several progressions of the saw. Moxon.

The roach is a leather-mouth'd fish, and has sar-like teeth in his throat. Walton.

Then saws were tooth'd, and sounding axes made. Dryden.

If they cannot cut,

His saws are toothless, and his hatchets lead.Pope. 2. [raga, Saxon; saeghe, Dutch.] A saying; a maxim; a sentence; an axiom; a proverb.

Good king, that must approve the common


Thou out of Heaven's benediction com'st To the warm sun!

From the table of my memory I'll wipe away all sarus of books.



His weapons, holy saws of sacred writ, Shak.
Strict age and sour severity,

With their grave sates, in slumber lie. Milton. To SAW. v. a. part. sawed and saavn. [scier, French; from the noun.] To cut timber or other matter with a saw.

They were stoned, they were sawn asunder.

A carpenter, after he hath sarun down a tree, and wrought it handsomely, sets it in a wall.

Wisdom. Master-workmen,when they direct any of their underlings to saw a piece of stuff, have several phrases for the sawing of it: they seldom say, saw the piece of stuff; but, draw the saw through it; give the picce of stuff a kerf. Moxon.

If the membrane be fouled by the sawdust of the bone, wipe it off with a sponge. Wiseman. Rotten sarudust, mixed with earth, enriches it Mortimer. very much. SA'WFISH. n. s. [saw and fish.] A sort of fish with a kind of dentated horn. SA'WPIT. n. s. [saw and pit.] Pit over which timber is laid to be sawn by two


Let them from forth a sawpit rush at once With some diffused song. Shakspeare.

They colour it by laying it in a sarupit that hath oak saw-dust therein. Mortimer. SAW-WORT. n. s. [serratula, Latin.] A plant like the greater centaury, from which this differs in having smaller heads, and from the knapweed, in having the borders of the leaves cut into small sharp segments, resembling the teeth of a saw. Miller. SAW-WREST. 7. s. [saw and wrest.] A sort of tool.

With the sare-rest they set the teeth of the saw; that is, they put one of the notches of the wrest between the first two teeth on the blade of the saw, and then turn the handle horizontally a little about upon the notch towards the end of the saw; and that at once turns the first tooth somewhat towards you, and the second tooth Me.con from you.

SA'WER. n. s. [scieur, French; from SA'WYER.) saw. One whose trade is to saw timber into boards or beams.

The pit-saw is used by joiners, when what they have to do may be as soon done at home as send it to the sawyers. , Moxon. SAXIFRAGE. n. s. [saxifrage, French; saxifraga, Latin.] A plant.

Saxifrage, quasi saxum frangere, to break the stone, is applicable to any thing having this property; but is a term most commonly given to a plant, from an opinion of its medicinal virtues to this effect. Quincy. SA'XIFRAGE, Meadow. n. s. [silanum, Latin.] A plant. SA'XIFRAGOUS. adj. [saxum and frango, Latin.] Dissolvent of the stone.

Because goat's blood was found an excellent medicine for the stone, it might be conceived to be able to break a diamond; and so it came to be ordered that the goats should be fed on saxifragous herbs, and such as are conceived of power to break the stone. Brown.

To SAY. v. a. pret. said. [reczan, Sax. seggen, Dutch.]

1. To speak; to utter in words; to tell. Say it out, Diggon, whatever it hight. Spenser. In this slumbry agitation what have you heard Shakspeare.

her say? Speak unto Solomon; for he will not say thee 1 Kings. Say nothing to any man, but go thy way. Mark. 2. To allege by way of argument.


After all can be said against a thing, this will still be true, that many things possibly are, which we know not of. Tillotson.

In vain shall we attempt to justify ourselves, as the rich young man in the gospel did, by appealing to the great duties of the law; unless we can say somewhat more, even that we have been li beral in our distributions to the poor. Atterbury. 3. To tell in any manner. Collier.

It is an incalescency, from a swift motion, such as that of running, threshing, or sawing. Ray. If I cut my finger, I shall as certainly feel pain as if my soul was co-extended with the limb, and had a piece of it sarun through. SA'W DUST. n. s. [saru and dust.] Dust made by the attrition of the saw.

With flying speed, and secming great pretence, Came messenger with letters which his message said. Fairy Queen.

4. To repeat; to rehearse: as, to say a part; to say a lesson.

5. To pronounce without singing. Then shall be said or sung as follows. Common Prayer.

TO SAY. v. n.

1. To speak; to pronounce; to utter; to relate.

He said, moreover, I have somewhat to say unto thee; and she said, say on. 1 Kings. The council-table and star-chamber hold, as Thucydides said of the Athenians, for honourable that which pleased, and for just that which profited. Clarendon.

The lion here has taken his right measures; that is to say, he has made a true judgment. L'Estrange. Of some propositions it may be difficult to say whether they affirm or deny; as when we say, Plato was no fool. Watts.

2. In poetry, say is often used before a question; tell.

Say first what cause

Mov'd our grand parents to fall off? Say, Stella, feel you no content, Reflecting on a life well spent?



And who more blest, who chain'd his country; say,

Or he whose virtue sigh'd to lose a day? Pope. SAY. n. s. [from the verb.]

1. A speech; what one has to say.

He no sooner said out his say, but up rises a cunning snap. L'Estrange.

2. [for assay.] Sample.

So good a say invites the eye,

A little downward to espy

The lively clusters of her breasts.


Since thy outside looks so fair and warlike, And that thy tongue some 'say of breeding breathes,

By rule of knighthood I disdain. 3. Trial by a sample.


This gentleman having brought that earth to the publick 'say masters, and upon their being unable to bring it to fusion, or make it fly away, he had procured a little of it, and with a peculiar flux separated a third part of pure gold." Boyle. 4. [soie, French.] Silk. Obsolete. 5. A kind of woollen stuff. SA'YING. n. s. [from say.] Expression; words; opinion sententiously delivered.

I thank thee, Brutus, That thou hast prov'd Lucilius' saying true.Shak. Moses fled at this saying, and was a stranger in Midian. Acts. Many are the sayings of the wise, Extolling patience as the truest fortitude. Milt. Others try to divert the troubles of other men by pretty and plausible sayings, such as this, that if evils are long, they are but light. Tillotson.

We poetick folks, who must restrain
Our measur'd sayings in an equal chain,
Have troubles utterly unknown to those,
Who let their fancy loose in rambling prose.


The sacred function can never be hurt by their sayings, if not first reproached by our doings. Atterbury. SCAB. n. s. [rcæb, Saxon; scabbia, Ital. schabbe, Dutch; scabies, Latin.] 1. An incrustation formed over a sore by

dried matter.

What's the matter, you dissentious rogues, That rubbing the poor itch of your opinion, Make yourselves scabs? Shakspeare.

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Enter fortune's gate,

Nor in thy scabbard sheath that famous blade, "Till settled be thy kingdom and estate. Fairfax. What eyes! how keen their glances! you do well to keep 'em veil'd; they are too sharp to be trusted out o' th' scabbard. Dryden. SCA'BBED. adj. [from scab.]

1. Covered or diseased with scabs. The briar fruit makes those that eat them scabbed. Bacon.

2. Paltry; sorry; vile; worthless.

To you such scabb'd harsh fruit is giv'n, as raw Young soldiers at their exercisings gnaw. Dryd. SCA'BBEDNESS. n. s. [from scabbed.] The state of being scabbed. SCA'BBINESS. n. s. [from scabby.] The quality of being scabby. SCA'BBY. adj. [from scab.] Diseased with


Her writhled skin, as rough as mapple rind, So scabby was, that would have loath'd all woman-kind. Fairy Queen. A scabby tetter on their pelts will stick, When the raw rain has pierc'd them to the quick. Dryden.

If the grazier should bring me one wether, fat and well fleeced, and expect the same price for a whole hundred, without giving me security to restore my money for those that were lean, shorn, or scabby, I would be none of his cus


Swift. SCA'BIOUS. adj. [scabiosus, Lat.] Itchy; leprous.

In the spring, scabious eruptions upon the skin were epidemical, from the acidity of the blood. Arbuthnot. SCA'BIOUS. n. s. [scabieuse, French; sca

biosa, Latin.] A plant.

SCA BROUS. adj. [scabreux, French; scober, Latin.]

1. Rough; rugged; pointed on the surface.

Urine, black and bloody, is occasioned by something sharp or scabrous wounding the small blood-vessels: if the stone is smooth and well bedded, this may not happen. Arbuthnot.

2. Harsh; unmusical.

Lucretius is scabrous and rough in these: he seeks them, as some do Chaucerisms, which were better expunged. Ben Jonson. SCA BROUSNESS. n. s. [from scabrous.] SCA'BWORT. n. s. [belenium.] A plant. Roughness; ruggedness.

Ainsworth. SCAD. n. 5. A kind of fish. Probably the same with shad.

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3. Frames of timber erected on the side of a building for the workmen.

These outward beauties are but the props and scaffolds

On which we built our love, which, now made perfect,

Stands without those supports.


Sylla added three hundred commons to the senate; then abolished the office of tribune, as being only a scaffold to tyranny, whereof he had no further use.

Savift. To SCAFFOLD. v. a. [from the noun.] To furnish with frames of timber.] SCAFFOLDAGE. n. s. [from scaffold.] Gallery; hollow floor.

A strutting player doth think it rich To hear the wooden dialogue and sound, Twixt his stretch'd footing and the scaffoldage. Shakspeare. SCAFFOLDING. n. s. [from scaffold.] 1. Temporary frames or stages.

What are riches, empire, power, But steps by which we climb to rise, and reach Our wish? and, that obtain'd, down with the scaffolding

Of sceptres and of thrones.


Sickness, contributing no less than old age to the shaking down this scaffolding of the body, may discover the inward structure.

2. Buildings slightly erected.

Send forth your lab'ring thought;

Let it return with empty notions fraught,
Of airy columns every moment broke,


Of circling whirlpools, and of spheres of smoke:
Yet this solution but once more affords
New change of terms and scaffolding of words.

SCALA DE. n. s. [French; scalada, SpaSCALA DO. nish, from scala, Latin, a ladder.] A storm given to a place by raising ladders against the walls.

What can be more strange than that we should within two months have won one town of impottance by scalado, battered and assaulted another, and overthrown great forces in the field? Bacon.

Thou raisedst thy voice to record the stratagems, the arduous exploits, and the nocturnal scalade of needy heroes, the terror of your peaceful citizens. Arbuthnot. SCA'LARY. adj. [from scala, Latin.] Proceeding by steps like those of a ladder.

He made at nearer distances certain elevated places and scalary ascents, that they might better ascend or mount their horses. Brown.

To SCALD. v. a. [scaldare, Italian; çalidus, Latin.]

1. To burn with hot liquor.


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Her head, altogether bald,

Was overgrown with scurff and filthy scald. Speng, SCALD. adj. Paltry; sorry; scurvy. Saucy lictors

Will catch at us like strumpets, and scald rhymers Ballad us out o' tune. Shakspeare. SCA'LDHEAD. n. s. [skalladur, bald, Islandick. Hicks.] A loathsome disease; a kind of local leprosy in which the head is covered with a continuous scab.

The serum is corrupted by the infection of the touch of a salt humour, to which the scab, pox, and scaldhead, are referable. Floyer. SCALE. n. s. [rcale, Saxon; schael, Dutch; skal, Islandick.}

1. A balance; a yessel suspended by a beam against another vessel; the dish of a balance.

If thou tak'st more

Or less than just a pound, if the scale turn
But in the estimation of a hair,
Thou diest.


Your vows to her and me, put in two scales, Will even weigh, and both as light as tales. Shakspeare.

Here's an equivocator, that could swear, in both the scales, against either scale. Shakspeare. Long time in even scale The battle hung.


The world's scales are even; what the main In one place gets, another quits again. Cleaveland. The scales are turn'd, her kindness weighs no

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