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A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE:

IN WHICH

THE WORDS ARe deduced frOM THEIR ORIGINALS,

AND

ILLUSTRATED IN THEIR DIFFERENT SIGNIFICATIONS BY EXAMPLES FROM
THE BEST WRITERS.

TO WHICH ARE PREFIXED;

A HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE,

AND

AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

By SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL. D.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

THE NINTH EDITION; CORRECTED AND REVISED. .

.1

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PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, AND ORME, PATERNOSTER-ROW;

JJO DES; AND J. ROBINSON; SCATCHERD AND LETTERMAN; T. EGERTON; P. WYNNE; J. STOCK
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MATHAND

E MATHEWS AND WILSON AND SPENCE, YORK.

1805.

ASTI

WY 3 1877

NEW YORK

A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

NEW YORK

S.

SAB

Sassi Englanguages, and unhappily

HAS in English the same hissing sound

prevails in so many of our words that it produces in the ear of a foreigner a continued sibilation. In the beginning of words it has invariably its natural and genuine sound: in the middle it is sometimes uttered with a stronger appulse of the tongue to the palate, like z ; as rose, roseate, rosy, osier, nosel, resident, busy, business. It sometimes keeps its natural sound; as loose, designation; for which I know not whether any rules can be given. In the end of monosyllables it is sometimes s, as in this; and sometimes z, as in as, bas; and generally where es stands in verbs for eth, as gives. It seems to be established as a rule, that no noun singular should end with s single: therefore in words written with diphthongs, and naturally long, an e is nevertheless added at the end, as goose, bouse; and where the syllable is short the s is doubled, and was once sse, as ass, anciently asse; wilderness, anciently wildernesse; distress, anciently distresse. SABAʼOTH. n. s. [Hebrew.] Signifying

an army.

SAB

I purpose,

And by our holy sabbeth have I sworn,
To have the due and forfeit of my bond. Shak.
Glad we return'd up to the coasts of light,
Ere sabbath ev'ning.

Milton.

Here ev'ry day was sabbath: only free From hours of pray'r, for hours of charity, Such as the Jews from servile toil releast, Where works of mercy were a part of rest: Such as blest angels exercise above,

Vary'd with sacred hymns and acts of love;
Such sabbaths as that one she now enjoys,
Ev'n that perpetual one, which she employs:
For such vicissitudes in heav'n there are,
In praise alternate, and alternate pray'r. Dryd.
2. Intermission of pain or sorrow; time
of rest.

Never any sabbath of release
Could free his travels and afflictions deep. Dan.
Nor can his blessed soul look down from

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Peaceful sleep out the sabbath of the tomb, SABBATA'RIAN. n. s. [from sabbath.] And wake to raptures in a life to come. Pope. One who observes the sabbath with unreasonable rigour; one who observes the seventh day of the week in opposi tion to the first.

SA'BBATH BREAKER. n. s. [sabbath and break.] Violator of the sabbath by labour or wickedness.

Bater

Holy Lord God of sabaoth; that is, Lord of bosts. Common Prayer. The usurer is the greatest sabbathbreaker, deSABBATH. n. s. cause his plough goeth every Sunday. [An Hebrew word, signifying rest; sabbat, Fr. sabbatum, SABBATICAL. adj. sabbaticus, Lat. subLatin.] batique, Fr. from sabbath.] Resembling the sabbath; enjoying or bringing intermission of labour.

1. A day appointed by God among the Jews, and from them established among Christians for publick worship; the seventh day set apart from works of labour to be employed in piety.

VOL. IV.

The appointment and observance of the sab. batical year, and after the seventh salbatical year a year of jubilee, is a circumstance of great Farbis.

moment,

SABBATISM. 1. n. s. [from sabbatum, Lat.] Observance of the sabbath superstitiously rigid.

SABINE. . s. [sabine, Fr. sabina, Lat.] A plant.

Sabine or savin will make fine hedges, and may be brought into any form by clipping, much be yond trees. Mortimer.

SABLE. n. s. [zibella, Lat.] Fur.

Sable is worn of great personages, and brought out of Russia, being the fur of a little beast of that name, esteemed for the perfectness of the colour of the hairs, which are very black. Hence sable, in heraldry, signifies the black colour in gentlemen's arms. Peacham.

Furiously running in upon him, with tumultuous speech, he violently raught from his head Knolis. his rich cap of sables,

The peacock's plumes thy tackle must not fail, Nor the dear purchase of the gabe's taide Gay SABLE. adj. [Fr.] Black. A word used by heralds and poets.

By this the drooping daylight 'gan to fader
And yield his room to sad succeeding night,
Who with her sable mantle ganto shade. ·
The face of earth, and ways of wing wight.
Fairy Queen.
With him inthron'd

Sat sable vested night, eldest of things,
The consort of his reign.

Milton.

They soon begin that tragick play, And with their smoaky cammens banish day: Night, horrour, slaughter, with confusion meet, And in their salle armis embrace the fleet.

Waller.

Adoring first the genius of the place, And night, and all the stars that giid her sable

throne.

SA'BLIERE. n. s. [Fr.] 1. A sand pit.

Dryden.

Bailey.

2. [In carpentry.] A piece of timber as long, but not so thick, as a beam. SA'BRE. n.'s. [sabre, Fr. I suppose, of Turkish original.] A cimeter; a short sword with a convex edge; a falchion.

To me the cries of fighting fields are charms; Keen be my sabre, and of proof my arms; I ask no other blessing of my stars, No prize but fame, no mistress but the wars.

Dryden. 'Seam'd o'er with wounds, which his own sabre gave,

In the vile habit of a village slave,

The foe deceiv'd.

Pope.

SABULO'SITY. n. s. [from sabulous.] Grittiness; sandiness.

SA'BULOUS. adj. [sabulum, Lat.] Gritty; sandy.

SACCADE. n. s. [Fr.] A violent check the rider gives his horse, by drawing both the reins very suddenly: a correction used when the horse bears heavy on the hand. Bailey. SACCHARINE. adj. [saccharum, Latin.] Having the taste, or any other of the chief qualities, of sugar.

Manna is an essential saccharine salt, sweating Arbuthnot. from the leaves of most plants. SACERDOTAL. adj. [sacerdotalis, Latin.] Priestly; belonging to the priesthood. They have several offices and prayers, especially for the dead, in which functions they use sacerdotal garments. Stilling fleet.

He fell violently upon me, without respect to Dryden. my sacerdotal orders.

If ample powers, granted by the rulers of this world, add dignity to the persons intrusted with these powers, behold the importance and extent of the sacerdotal commission. Atterbury. SA'CHEL. n. s. [sacculus, Lat.] A small sack or bag.

SACK.n.s. [pw Hebrew; oánnos; saccus, Lat. ræc, Sax. It is observable of this word, that it is found in all languages, and it is therefore conceived to be antediluvian.]

1. A bag; a pouch; commonly a large bag.

Our sacks shall be a mean to sack the city, And we be lords and rulers over Roan. Shaks. Vastius caused the authors of that mutiny to be thrust into sacks, and in the sight of the fleet Cast into the sea. Knolles.

The measure of three bushels. 3. A woman's loose robe. To SACK. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To put in bags.

Now the great work is done, the corn is ground, The grist is sack'd, and every'sack well bound. Betterton.

2. [from sacar, Spanish.] To take by storm; to pillage; to plunder.

Edward Bruce spoiled all the old English pale inhabitants, and sacked and rased all cities and corporate towns. Spenser.

I'll make thee stoop and bend thy knee,
Or sack this country with a mutiny. Shakspeare.
What armies conquer'd, perish'd with thy
sword?
What cities sack'd?
Fairfax.

Who sees these dismal heaps, but would de

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South.

The great magazine for all kinds of treasure is the bed of the Tiber: when the Romans lay under the apprehensions of seeing their city sacked by a barbarous enemy, they would take care to bestow such of their riches this way as could best Addison. bear the water.

SACK. n. s. [from the verb.]
1. Storm of a town; pillage; plunder.
If Saturn's son bestows

The sack of Troy, which he by promise owes, Then shall the conqu'ring Greeks thy loss restore. Dryden. 2. A kind of sweet wine, now brought chiefly from the Canaries. [Sec, Fr. of uncertain etymology; but derived by Skinner, after Mandesto, from Xeque, a city of Morocco. The sack of Shakspeare is believed to be what is now called sherry.]

Please you drink a cup of sack. Shakspeare. The butler hath great advantage to allure the Swift. maids with a glass of sack. SA'CKBUT. n. s. [sacabuche, Spanish; sambuca, Lat. sambuque, Fr.] A kind of pipe.

The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries and fife, Shakspeare. Make the sun dance. SA'CKCLOTH. n. š. [sack and cloth.] Cloth of which sacks are made; coarse cloth sometimes worn in mortification. Coarse stuff made of goats hair, of a dark colour, worn by soldiers and mariners; and used as a habit among the Hebrews in times of mourning. Called sackcloth, either because sacks were

made of this sort of stuff, or because hair-cloths

were strait and close like a sack.

Calmet.

To augment her painful penance more,
Thrice every week in ashes she did sit,
And next her wrinkled skin rough sackcloth wore.
Spenser.

Thus with sackcloth I invest my woe,
And dust upon my clouded forehead throw.

Sandys.
Being clad in sackcloth, he was to lie on the
ground, and constantly day and night to implore
God's mercy for the sin he had committed.

Ayliffe. SA'CKER. n. s. [from sack.] One that takes a town. SA'CKFUL. n. s. [sack and full.] A full bag.

Wood goes about with sackfuls of dross, odiously misrepresenting his prince's countenance. Swift. SA'CK POSSET. n. s. [sack and posset.] A posset made of milk, sack, and some other ingredients.

Snuff the candles at supper on the table, because the burning snuff may fall into a dish of soup or sackposset. Swift. SACRAMENT. n. s. [sacrement, Fr. satramentum, Lat.]

1. An oath; any ceremony producing an `obligation.

2. An outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace.

As often as we mention a sacrament, it is improperly understood; for in the writings of the ancient fathers all articles which are peculiar to christian faith, all duties of religion containing that which sense or natural reason cannot of itself discern, are most commonly named sacraments; our restraint of the word to some few principal divine ceremonies, importeth in every such ceremony two things, the substance of the ceremony itself, which is visible; and besides that, somewhat else more secret, in reference whereunto we conceive that ceremony to be a Hooker.

sacrament,

3. The eucharist; the holy communion.
Ten thousand French have ta'en the sacrament
To rive their dangerous artillery
Upon no christian soul but English Talbot.

Shakspeare.

As we have ta'en the sacrament,
We will unite the white rose with the red.

Shakspeare.

Before the famous battle of Cressy, he spent the greatest part of the night in prayer; and in the morning received the sacrament, with his son, and the chief of his officers. Addison. SACRAMENTAL. adj. [sacramental, Fr. from sacrament.] Constituting a sacrament; pertaining to a sacrament.

To make complete the outward substance of a sacrament, there is required an outward form, which form sacramental elements receive from sacramental words. Hooker.

The words of St. Paul are plain; and whatever interpretation can be put upon them, it can only vary the way of the sacramental efficacy, but it cannot evacuate the blessing. Taylor. SACKAMENTALLY. adv. [from sacramental.] After the manner of a sacra

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The honour's sacred, which he talks on now,
Supposing that I lackt it.
How hast thou yielded to transgress
The strict forbiddance? how to violate
The sacred fruit?

Milton.

Secrets of marriage still are sacred held; There sweet and bitter by the wise conceal'd. SA'CREDLY. adv. [from sacred.] InviolaDryden. bly; religiously.

When God had manifested himself in the flesh, how sacredly did he preserve this privi lege? South. SA CREDNESS. n. s. [from sacred.] The state of being sacred; state of being consecrated to religious uses; holiness; sanctity.

In the sanctuary the cloud, and the oracular answers, were prerogatives peculiar to the sacredness of the place. South.

This insinuates the sacredness of power, let the administration of it be what it will. L'Estrange SACRIFICK, adj. [sacrificus, Lat.] EmSACRIFICABLE. adj. [from sacrificor, ployed in sacrifice. Latin.] Capable of being offered in sacrifice.

Although Jephtha's vow run generally for the words, whatsoever shall come forth; yet might it be restrained in the sense, to whatsoever was sacrificable, and justly subject to lawful immolation, and so would not have sacrificed either horse or dog. Brown. SACRIFICATOR. n. s. [sacrificateur, Fr. from sacrificor, Lat.] Sacrificer; offerer of sacrifice.

Not only the subject of sacrifice is questionable, but also the sacrificator, which the picture makes to be Jephtha. Brown.

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