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1. To rub hard with any thing rough, in 3. To be purged or lax; to be diseased order to clean the surface.


I were better to be eaten to death with a rust, than to be scour'd to nothing with perpetual Shakspeare. By dint of sword his crown he shall increase, And scour his armour from the rust of peace. Dryden.

Part scour the rusty shields with seam, and part New grind the blunted ax, and point the dart. Dryden. Some blamed Mrs. Bull for grudging a quarter of a pound of soap and sand to scour the rooms. Arbuthnot.

Poor Vadius,long with learned spleen devour'd, Can taste no pleasure since his shield was scour'd. Pope.

2. To purge violently. 3. To cleanse; to bleach; to whiten; to blanche.

In some lakes the water is so nitrous, as if foul clothes be put into it, it scoureth them of itself; and, if they stay, they moulder away. Bacon. A garden-worm should be well scoured eight days in moss, before you fish with him. Walten. Beneath the lamp her tawdry ribbons glare, The new scour'd manteau, and the slattern air.

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with looseness.

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The enemy's drum is heard, and fearful scour Shakspeare. To run with great eagerness and swiftness; to scamper.

Doth choak the air with dust.

She from him fled with all her pow'r, Who after her as hastily 'gan scour. Fairy Qu. I saw men sesur so on their way: I ev'd them Even to their ships. Shakspeare. Word was brought him, in the middle of his schemes, that his house was robbed; and so away he scours to learn the truth. L'Estrange. If they be men of fraud, they'll scour off themselves, and leave those that trust them to pay the reckoning. L'Estrange.

So four fierce coursers, starting to the race, Scour through the plain, and lengthen ev'ry pace; Nor reins, nor curbs, nor threat'ning cries, they fear,

But force along the trembling charioteer. Dryd.

As soon as any foreign object presses upon the sense, those spirits, which are posted upon the out-guards, immediately take the alarm, and scour off to the brain, which is the head quarters.


Swift at her call her husband scour'd away, To wreak his hunger on the destin'd prey. Pope. SCOURER. 7. S. [from scour.] 1. One that cleans by rubbing. 2. A purge, rough and quick. 3. One who runs swiftly.

SCOURGE. 2. 5. [escourgée, Fr. scoreggia, Italian; corrigia, Latin.]

1. A whip; a lash; an instrument of discipline.

When he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple. The scourge,



Inexorable, and the torturing hour, Call us to penance. 2. A punishment; a vindictive affiction. What scourge for perjury Can this dark monarchy afford false Clarence? Shakspeare. See what a scourge is laid upon your hate, That Heav'n finds means to kill your joys with love. Shakspeare. Famine and plague are sent as scourges for amendment. 2 Esdras. One that afflicts, harasses, or destroys. Thus Attila was called flagellum Dei. Is this the scourge of France?


Is this the Talbot so much fear'd abroad,
That with his name the mothers still their babes!
Such conquerors are not the favourites but
scourges of God, the instruments of that venge-


In all these trials I have borne a part; I was myself the scourge that caus'd the smart. Poper

Immortal Jove!

Let kings no more with gentle mercy sway, Or bless a people willing to obey; But crush the nations with an iron rod, And every monarch be the scourge of God. Pope. 4. A whip for a top.

If they had a top, the scourge stick and leather strap should be left to their own making. Locke. To SCOURGE. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To lash with a whip; to whip.

The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices Make instruments to scourge us. Shakspeare. Is it lawful for you to scourge a Roman? Acts. He scourg'd with many a stroke th' indignant Milton.


When a professor of any religion is set up to be laughed at, this cannot help us to judge of the truth of his faith, any better than if he were scourged. Watts.

2. To punish; to chastise; to chasten; to castigate with any punishment or affliction.

Seeing that thou hast been scourged from heaven, declare the mighty power of God. 2 Maccabees. He will scourge us for our iniquities, and will have mercy again. Tobit.


Sco'URGER, n. s. [from scourge.] that scourges; a punisher or chastiser. To SCOURSE. v. a. To exchange one thing for another; to swap. Ainsworth. It seems a corruption of scorsa, Italian, exchange; and hence a horse scourser. SCOUT. n. s. [escout, Fr. from escouter; auscultare, Lat. to listen; scolta, Ital.] One who is sent privily to observe the motions of the enemy.

Are not the speedy scouts return'd again, That dogg'd the mighty army of the dauphin? Shakspeare.

As when a scout,

Through dark and desert ways with peril gone All night, at last, by break of cheerful dawn, Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill. Milton.

This great vessel may have lesser cabins, wherein scouts may be lodged for the taking of observations. Wilkins.

The scouts to sev'ral parts divide their way, To learn the natives names, their towns, explore The coasts.


To SCOUT. v. n. [from the noun.] 1. To go out, in order to observe the motions of an enemy privately.

Oft on the bordering deep

Encamp their legions; or with obscure wing
Scout far and wide into the realm of night,
Scorning surprize.


As a hunted panther casts about Her glaring eyes, and pricks her list'ning ears to


So she, to shun his toils, her cares employ'd.


Command a party out, With a strict charge not to engage, but scout. Dryden. 2. To ridicule; to sneer. This is a sense unauthorized, and vulgar.

To Scow L. v. n. [rcylian, to squint, Sax.

skeela sig, to look sour, Islandick.] To frown; to pout; to look angry, sour, or sullen.

Miso, her authority increased, came with scoruling eyes to deliver a slavering good-morrow to the two ladios. Sidney.

With bent louring brows, as she would threat,

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Although they wear their faces to the bent
Of the king's look, but hath a heart that is
Glad at the thing they scorul at. Shakspeare.
The dusky clouds o'erspread

Heav'n's cheerful face; the low'ring element
Scorels o'er the darken'd landscape snow or

Fly, fly, prophane fogs! far hence fly away,
With your dull influence; it is for you
To sit and scowl upon night's heavy brow.
In rueful gaze


The cattle stand, and on the scowling heavens Cast a deploring eye. Thomson. Scow L. n. s. [from the verb.] Look of sullenness or discontent; gloom.

I've seen the morning's lovely ray Hover o'er the new-born day, With rosy wings so richly bright, As if he scorn'd to think of night; When a ruddy storm, whose score! Made heaven's radiant face look foul, Call'd for an untimely night, To blot the newly-blossom'd light. Sco'wLINGLY. adv. [from scowl.] With a frowning and sullen look. To SCRABBLE. v. n. [krabbelen, scraffelen, to scrape or scratch, Dutch.] To paw with the hands.


He feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate. 1 Samuel. SCRAGG. n. 5. (scraghe, Dutch.] Any thing thin or lean. SCRAGGED. adj. [This seems rupted from cragged.] Rough; uneven; full of protuberances or asperities.


Is there then any physical deformity in the fabrick of a human body, because our imagination can strip it of its muscles and skin, and shew SCRA'GGEDNESS. us the scragged and knotty back-boue? Bentley. [from scragged.] SCRA'GGINESS. [from scraggy.]


1. Leanness; marcour.
2. Unevenness; roughness; ruggedness.
SCRAʼGGY. adj. [from scragg.]
1. Lean; marcid; thin.

Such a constitution is easily known, by the body being lean, warm, hairy, scraggy, and dry, without a disease. Arbuthnot.

2. [corrupted from craggy.] Rough; rugged, uneven.

From a scraggy rock, whose prominence Haif overshades the ocean, hardy men, Fearless of rending winds and dashing waves, Cut sampire.

Philips. To SCRAMBLE. v. n. [the same with scrabble; scraffelen, Dutch.]

1. To catch at any thing eagerly and tumultuously with the hands; to catch with haste preventive of another; to contend tumultuously which shall catch any thing.

England now is left

To tug and scramble, and to part by th' teeth The unow'd interest of proud swelling state. Shakspeare.

Of other care they little reck'ning make, Than how to scramble at the shearer's feast, And chove away the worthy bidden guest. Mt. it is not to be supposed, that, which such a tree

was shaking, there would be no scrambling for the fruit. Stilling fleet.

They must have scrambled with the wild beasts for crabs and nuts. Ray. 2. To climb by the help of the hands: as, he scrambled up that rock. SCRAMBLE. n. s. [from the verb.] 1. Eager contest for something, in which one endeavours to get it before another. As they were in the middle of their gambols, somebody threw a handful of apples among them, that set them presently together by the cars upon the scramble. L'Estrange.

Because the desire of money is constantly almost every where the same, its vent varies very little, but as its greater scarcity enhances its price and increases the scramble. Locke.

2. Act of climbing by the help of the hands.

SCRAMBLER. n. s. [from scramble.] 1. One that scrambles.

All the little scramblers after fame fall upon him. Addison.

2. One that climbs by help of the hands. To SCRANCH. v. a. [schrantzer, Dutch.] To grind somewhat crackling between the teeth. The Scots retain it. SCRA'NNEL. adj. [Of this word I know not the etymology, nor any other example.] Vile; worthless. Perhaps grating by the sound.

When they list, their lean and flashy songs Crate on their scrannel pipes of wretched straw. Milton.

SCRAP. n. s. [from scrape, a thing scraped or rubbed off.]

1. A small particle; a little piece; a frag


It is an unaccountable vanity to spend all our time raking into the scraps and imperfect remains of former ages, and neglecting the clearer notices of our own. Glanville.

Trencher esquires spend their time in hopring from one great man's table to another's, only to pick up scraps and intelligence. L'Estr.

Languagues are to be learned only by reading and talking, and not by scraps of authors got by heart. Locke.

No rag, no scrap, of all the beau, or wit, That once so flutter'd, and that once so writ.



I can never have too many of your letters: am angry at every scrap of paper lost. 2. Crumb; small particles of meat left at the table.

The contract you pretend with that base wretch,

One bred of alms, and foster'd with cold dishes, With scraps o' th' court, is no contract. Shaks. The attendants puff a court up beyond her bounds, for their own scraps and advantage.


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1. To deprive of the surface by the light action of a sharp instrument, used with the edge almost perpendicular.

These hard woods are more properly scraped than planed. Moxon,

2. To take away by scraping; to erase. They shall destroy the walls, and I will scrape her dust, and make her like the top of a rock. Ezekiel.

Bread for a toast lay on the coals; and, if toasted quite through, scrape off the burnt side, and serve it up. Savift. 3. To act upon any surface with a harsh noise.

The chiming clocks to dinner call;
A hundred footsteps scrape the marble hall.

Pope. 4. To gather by great efforts, or penurious or trifling diligence.

Let the government be ruined by his avarice, if, by avarice, he can scrape together so much as to make his peace. South.

Unhappy those who hunt for a party, and scrape together out of every author all those things only which favour their own tenets. Watts. To SCRAPE. V. N.

Ainsav. A low

1. To make a harsh noise. 2. To play ill on a fiddle. 3. To make an awkward bow. 4. To SCRAPE Acquaintance. phrase. To curry favour, or insinuate into one's familiarity: probably from the scrapes or bows of a flatterer. SCRAPE. n. s. [skrap, Swedish.] 1. Difficulty; perplexity; distress. This is a low word.

2. The sound of the foot drawn over the


3. A bow.

SCRAPER. n. 5. [from scrape.] 1. Instrument with which any thing is scraped.

Never clean your shoes on the scraper, but in the entry, and the scraper will last the longer. Swift.

2. A miser; a man intent on getting money; a scrape-penny.

Be thrifty, but not covetous; therefore give Thy need, thine honour, and thy friend his due: Never was scraper brave man. Get to live; Then live, and use it; else it is not true That thou hast gotten: surely, use alone Makes money not a contemptible stone. Herbert, 3. A vile fiddler.


Out! ye sempiternal scrapers. Have wild boars or dolphins the least emotion at the most elaborate strains of your modern scrapers, all which have been tamed and humanized by ancient musicians? Arbuthnot. SCRAT. n. s. [reritta, Saxon.] An hermaphrodite. Skinner. Junius. To SCRATCH. v. a. [kratzen, Dutch.] 1. To tear or mark with slight incisions ragged and uneven.

The lab'ring swain

Scratch'd with a rake a furrow for his grain, And cover'd with his hand the shallow seed again. Dryden

A sort of small sand-coloured stones, so hard as to scratch glass.

2. To tear with the nails.


How can I tell but that his talons may Yet scratch my son, or rend his tender hand? Fairy Queen.

I should have scratch'd out your unseeing eyes, To make my master out of love with thee.


I had rather hear my dog bark at a crow, than a man swear he loves me.

-Keep your ladyship still in that mind; so some gentleman or other shall 'scape a predestinate scratcht face.

Scratching could not make it worse, an 't were such a face as yours were. Shakspeare. Scots are like witches: do but whet your pen, Scratch 'till the blood come, they 'll not hurt you then. Cleaveland.

To wish that there were nothing but such dull tame things in the world, that will neither bite nor scratch, is as childish as to wish there were ne fire in nature. More.

Unhand me, or I'll scratch your face; Let go, for shame.

3. To wound slightly.


4. To hurt slightly with any thing pointed or keen.

Daphne, roaming through a thorny wood, Scratching her legs, that one shall swear she bleeds. Shakspeare.

5. To rub with the nails.

Francis Cornfield did scratch his elbow, when he had sweetly invented to signify his name St. Francis, with a friary cowl in a corn field.


Other mechanical helps Aretaus uses to procure sleep, particularly the scratching of the temples and the ears. Arbuthnot.

Be mindful, when invention fails, To scratch your head, and bite your nails. Swift. 6. To write or draw awkwardly.

If any of their labourers can scratch out a pamphlet, they desire no wit, style, or argument. Swift.

SCRATCH. n. s. [from the verb.] 1. An incision ragged and shallow.

The coarse file cuts deep, and makes deep scratches in the work; and before you can take out those deep scratches with your finer cut files, those places where the risings were when your work was forged, may become dents to your hammer dents. Moxon.

The smaller the particles of those substances are, the smaller will be the scratches, by which they continually fret and wear away the glass until it be polished; but be they never so small, they can wear away the glass no otherwise than by grating and scratching it, and breaking the protuberances; and therefore polish it no otherwise than by bringing its roughness to a very fine grain, so that the scratches and frettings of the surface become too small to be visible. Newton. 2. Laceration with the nails.

These nails with scratches shall deform my

Lest by my look or colour be express'd
The mark of aught high-born, or ever better

3. A slight wound.


The valiant beast turning on her with open jaws, she gave him such a thrust through his breast, that all the lion could do was with his

open paw to tear off the mantle and sleeve of

Zelmane, with a little scratch rather than a wound. Sidney.

Heav'n forbid a shallow scratch should drive The prince of Wales from such a field as this. Shakspeare. SCRATCHER. n. s. [from scratch.] He that scratches.

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or scurf.

Neither should that odious custom be allowed, of cutting scraws, which is flaying off the green surface of the ground to cover their cabins, or make up their ditches. Swift.

To SCRAWL. v. a. [I suppose to be corrupted from scrabble.] To draw or mark irregularly or clumsily.

Peruse my leaves through ev'ry part, And think thou seest its owner's heart, Scrawl'd o'er with trifles thus, and quite As hard, as senseless, and as light.

To SCRAWL. v. n.


1. To write unskilfully and inelegantly. Think not your verses sterling, Though with a golden pen you scrawl,

And scribble in a berlin.

Swift. 2. [from crawl.] To creep like a reptile. Ainsworth. SCRAWL. n. s. [from the verb.] Unskilful and inelegant writing.

The left hand will make such a scrarul, that it will not be legible. Arbuthnot. Mr. Wycherly, hearing from me how welcome his letters would be, writ to you, in which I inserted my scrawl. Pope. SCRAWLER. n. s. [from scrawl.] A clumsy and inelegant writer. SCRAY. n. s. [birundo marina.] A bird called a sea-swallow. Ainsw. Bailey. SCRE'ABLE. adj. [screabilis, Lat.] That which may be spit out. Bailey.

To SCREAK. v. n. [properly creak, or shriek, from skrige, Danish.] To make a shrill or loud noise. Bailey.

To SCREAM. v. n. [hɲeman, Saxon.] 1. To cry out shrilly, as in terrour or agony.

Soon a whirlwind rose around, And from afar he heard a screaming sound, As of a dame distress'd, who cry'd for aid, And fill'd with loud laments the secret shade. Dryden.

The fearful matrons raise a screaming cry,
Old feeble men with fainter groans reply;
A jarring sound results, and mingles in the sky.

If chance a mouse creeps in her sight,
Can finely counterfeit a fright;
So sweetly screams, if it comes near her,
She ravishes all hearts to hear her.
2. To cry shrilly."



I heard the owl scream, and the crickets cry. Shakspeare. SCREAM. n. s. [from the verb.] A shrill, quick, loud cry of terror or pain. Our chimnies were blown down; and, as they say,

Lamentings heard i' th' air, strange screams of Shakspeare.

death. Then flash'd the livid lightning from her eyes, And screams of horror rend th' affrighted skies. Pope.

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To SCREEN. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To shelter; to conceal; to hide.

Back'd with a ridge of hills,

the first half spit, from just under the turf of the best pasture-ground, mixed with one part of very mellow soil screened. Evelyn. SCREW. n. s. [scroeve, Dut. escrou, Fr.] One of the mechanical powers, which is defined a right cylinder cut into a furrowed spiral: of this there are two kinds, the male and female; the former being cut convex, so that its threads rise outwards; but the latter channelled on its concave side, so as to receive the former. Quincy.

The screw is a kind of wedge, that is multiplied or continued by a helical revolution about a cylinder, receiving its motion not from any stroke, but from a vectis at one end of it. Wilkins.

After your apples are ground, commit them to the screw press, which is the best. Mortimer. To SCREW. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To turn or move by a screw.

Some, when the press, by utmost vigour screw'd,

Has drain'd the pulpous mass, regale their swine With the dry refuse. Philips.

2. To fasten with a screw. We fail!

But screw your courage to the sticking place, And we 'll not fail. Shakspeare.

To screw your lock on the door, make wide holes, big enough to receive the shank of the Moxon.


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No discourse can be, but they will try to turn the tide, and draw it all into their own channel; or they will screw in here and there some intimations of what they said or did.

Government of the Tongue. The rents of land in Ireland, since they have been so enormously raised and screwed up, may be computed to be about two millions. Swift. 5. To squeeze; to press. 6. To oppress by extortion.

Our country landlords, by unmeasurable screwing and racking their tenants, have already reduced the miserable people to a worse condition than the peasants in France. Swift.

That screen'd the fruits of th' earth, and seats of SCREW Tree. n. s. [isora, Lat.] A plant

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of the East and West Indies.

To SCRIBBLE. v. a. [scribo, scribillo, Latin.]

1. To fill with artless or worthless writing. How gird the sphere

With centrick and eccentrick, scribbled o'er Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb. Milton. 2. To write without use or elegance: as, he scribbled a pamphlet.

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