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gerian expedition as explained to the European ib.; negro market in Spain and Portugal, 4;
and American powers, ib.

early years of Las Casas, 5; his first royage to
French poetry, 154, 155 ; see De Musset.

America, ib.; condition of the Indians in the first

period of the Conquest, 6; different phases of the
Greek Gnomic poets,-the period represented by repartimiento system, ib. ; Columbus, 7; Las Ca-

them in Greek literature, 27; changes in the dis- sas at first a slaveholder, S ; his sudden change
tribution of the race, and in the government of of sentiment, and its results, ib. ; his departure
the States, 27, 28 ; early elegiac poetry: three pe- from Cuba and arrival in Spain, 9; ludicrous oc-
riods in its development, 28; Callinus, 29; Mim- currence among the Indians, ib. ; interview with
nermus, 29, 30; Solon, 30-33; Phocylides, 33 ; the Bishop of Burgos, and conflict with_him, 9,
Simonides the elder, ib.; Xenophanes, founder 10 ; death of Ferdinand, 10 ; Cardinal Ximenes
of the Eleatic school of philosopy, ib.; Theogais, and his colleague Adrian hear Las Casas's state-
his elegies and personal history, 31-39.

ment of the wrongs of the Indians, ib. ; project-

ed reform of Ximenes, 11 ; intrusted to the
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 93 ; his characteristics as a Hieronymite commissaries, ib. ; mutual distrust

literary artist, 94; his style, 95; his treatment between them and Las Casas, 12 ; return of the
of moral and psychological problems, ib.; love latter to Spain in consequence, 13; consultation
of the simple and natural, 96; his delicate treat- with the Grand Chancellor Jean Salvage, ib. ; Las
ment of delicate themes, ib. ; views on the question Casas substitutes negro for Indian labour, 14;
of slavery, 97; fatalism and transcendentalism, 97, his plan for enrolling cmigrant labourers, 15 ; op-
98; his small dependence on the interest of out- position of the Indian council, 16 ; their memorial
ward circumstance, 98, 99; “The Spectre of the against the Clerigo, 17; his parable, ib.; sailing
Catacomb,” 99; the highly ideal character of his of the expedition, 18; reception by the author-
Romances, 100; America unfavorable to Romance, ities of St. Domingo, ib. ; breaking up of his col-
ib, ; his introduction of occult and supernatural ony, 19; becomes a Dominican, ib.; re-entranco
powers, 101; these agencies exemplified, 101, 102; into active life, ib.; cruel treatment of Indians
his peculiar vein of humour, 103 ; his exercise of described, 20; province of Tuzulutlan—the "Land
the critical rather than the constructive faculty, of War,” 21; its conversion, 22; papal bull
103, 104; a piece of self-criticism, 104; criticism condemning Indian slavery, 23; Las Casas again
on Ancient Art in Italy, 104, 105; his early at- visits Spain, ib.; his work on “The Destruction of
tempts at authorship, 105; larger works: “The the Indice," and the Nuevas Leyes, ib. ; is offered,
Scarlet Letter," 105, 107;
“ The House of the but declines, the bishopric of Cuzco, ib.;

is con-
Seven Gables, 107, 108; "The Blithedale Ro- secrated at Seville as Bishop of Chiapa, 24; hos-
mance," 108, 109; "Transformation,” 109-111; tile reception, and subsequent contest, ib.; is-
remarks on the mental constituents of the author, suing in his resignation of the bishopric, 25; on
111; conclusion-opposing views, 112, 113. his return to Spain, lie engages in a controversy

with Sepulveda, ib. ; his literary labours during
Imbecilc, Education of the, 40; complex nature his last years, ib.; estimate of his character, and

of man, ib.; connection between the soul and of the labours of his life, 26.
the body, 11; influence of narcotics, 42; the
idiot an alien from his kind, ib.; the distinctive Mill, John Stuart, and Positivism, 123, 124 ; 134-
difference between the animal and man, 43 ; edu- 136.
cability of the imbecile not a question of mere Mirabeau, 149.
philanthropy, ib.; its great importance in our Musset ; see De Musset.
own country, ib.; writings and efforts of Séguin,

the Royal Albert Institution and its claims, Positivism, or the Positive Philosophy of Auguste
44; apatby on the subject of educating the im- Comte, 113; final purpose of Comte, 114; his
becile, ib. ; the wild man Aveyron, ib.; Pinel

negative atheism, 115; the three different theo-
and Itard, 45; Foderé's efforts to ameliorate the retic states through which our knowledge passes,
condition of the Cretins of the Alpine Valleys, 115, 116; the law of the three states, 116; clas-
46; M. Esquirol, 46, 47; Dr. Guggenbühl's school sification of the sciences, 117; the hierarchy of
on the Abendberg, 46; progress in Britain and the sciences, 118; Biology and Sociology, 118,
America, ib.; and France, 47; labours of Voisin, 119; main features of the Religion of Humanity,
ib.; Lavater's illustration of human liberty, 48; 119 seq.; the Positive Providence, 121; dogma
Voisin's theory of instruction, 49; Séguin on the of the Positive Religion, 122; prayer the chief
artifices necessary for the quickening of the dor- instrument of its Worship, ib.; its nine sacra-
mant intellect of the idiot, 50; results of educa- ments, 123; régime of Positivism, ib.; connexion
tion—cases of restoration, 50, 51; theory on of the Religion with the Philosophy, 124 ; Madame
which the education of the imbecile rests, 51; Clotilde de Vaux and Comte, 125; origin of the
uses of their likes and dislikes, 52 ; their delight Positive Society, ib.; the sacerdotal subsidy, 126,
in colour, music, etc., 53 ; how a regard to author- 127 ; the Religion of Humanity instituted, 127 :
ity, command, and influence, may be brought to death of Comtc, ib.; the sequel, 128 ; his widow,
bear on them, ib. ; the great importance of this ib. ; his successor as High Priest of the new faith.
whole subject, 54; its claims too great to be left M. Lafitte, 128, 129 ; complete and incompleto
to individual charity, ib.; sympathy with the im- Positivists, 129; the Positive Philosophy in Eng
becile, and with those connected with them, land, 130; progress of the Society, ib. ; thie
claimed by our brotherhood in the great “ Positive Circulars, 131 ; influence of Positive
gregation of humanity,” 54, 55.

principles on the political and social concep
Indian railways; see Railways.

tions of many eminent writers, 132 ; the quan

titative stage of Positive Pbilosophy, 133
Las Casas, “the Apostle of the Indies," 1; his tendencies of the Positive School in France, 134

connexion with the New World, 1, 2; relations and in England, 134, 135; sceptical results of it:
between colonists and aborigines, 2; conquests and principles, 135; consusion of objective and sub
colonizations, 3; first importations of Africap jective methods, 135, 136; Comte's return to
slaves, ib.; development of the slave system, the theological standpoint, 138.


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Railways in India : recent conditions of travelling 86, 87; table illustrative of the Keltic terminol-

there, 167, 168; difficulties to be encountered ogy of places, 88 ; septs opposed to the Picts,
in railway enterprise, 168; how viewed by the 87,89; dates of the Welsh poems, 89; their literary
East India Company, 169, and by Lord Dalhou- merit, and poetical character, 89-91 ; light
sie, ib. ; Indian railways, 169, 170; the Govern- thrown by them on the religious state of Wales
ment and the railway companies, 170; engineer- during the dark ages, 91 ; Kelticism of Welsh
ing difficulties, 171; preliminaries to the process church, ib. ; the sufferings of Christ described in
of construction, 172; question of land and irriga- these poems, 92; Latin quotations, 93 ; remarks
tion accommodations, ib.; ground for terminal on the religious history of Wales, ib.
stations, 173; difficulties with native princes, ib.; | Wishart, George,-examination of the grounds
the Political Agent, ib. ; methods of construction: on which he is accused of being privy to a con-
under contractors, and the departmental system, spiracy against the life of Cardinal Beaton, 218
174; drawbacks of contractors, ib. ; labourers on seq. ; battle of Solway Moss: death of James v.
the works, 175; cost of labour, 175, 176; natu- shortly afterwards, ib.; Henry VIII.'s project of
ral obstacles: rivers, the Ghaut range, 176; the uniting the kingdoms by the marriage of his son
inclines over the line of Ghauts, 177 ; interruptions Edward, and Mary, at first entertained in Scot-
during construction-cholera, the Mutiny, 177, land--change of the Scottish policy--Beaton in
178; progress of railway enterprise, 178 ; in- prison-Sir Ralph Sadler recalled, 218, 219; the
fluence of railway travelling on the Laird of Brunston, 219; his

correspondence with
tives, 178, 179; fares, arrangements; and accom- Sadler, ib.; the letter from the Earl of Hertford
modation, 179 ; courtyards at stations, ib. ; car- to King Henry, containing the charge against
riages, luggage, etc., 180; scenes at the despatch Wishart, and the king's reply, 220; evidence on
of trains, 180, 181 ; question of the success of In- which the “Wishart” of these letters has been
dian railways as commercial undertakings, 181; identified with the martyr--(1.) as to the name,
railway cmployés, 181, 182; working expenses, 221, 222; (2.) as to the alleged intimacy of the
rolling stock, fuel, 182 ; system of Government martyr with Brunston and his associates, 222;
management, 183, and its results, 184 ; transport Tytler's conflicting statements regarding Wishart,
of troops, ib. ; Government becoming more lib- ib.; statements of Dr. Cunningbam and of Mr.
cral, 185 ; necessity for branch railways, and Hill Burton, 222, 223; evidence on the other
good approaches to railway stations, ib. ; the ben- side-(1.) as to his devout and saintly character,
efits of railways to India, present and prospec- 223, 224; (2.) as to his movements after return-
tive, 186; the railroad a social leveller, 186, 187; ing to Scotland, 224, 225; (3.) the date of his re-
its importance to Europeans in ill health, 187; turn, 225; statements as to this point, by Emery
is it desirable that the State should retain in its Tylney and John Knox, 225-227; conclusion, 227.
own hands the construction of lines necessary to
complete the present railway system ? ib. ; our Zwingli the Reformer,--his birthplace, 55 ; recent
soldiers in India, 188 ; lines necessary to com-

memoirs of him, ib.; his character misunderstood
plete our strategic communications, ib. ; the both by Lutherans and Calvinists, 66 ; his
want of these, one of the chief incentives to the tionalism,” ib. ; his position in the matter of
great rebellion, ib.

Church and State politics, 57; contemporary

condition of Switzerland, ib.; called to Zürich--
Saint Simon, influence of, on Comte, 119.

subjects to which he devoted himself there, 57,

58; his views of Church and State, 58; obstacles
Tennyson, Alfred, 217.

to the realization of his principle as to their iden-

tity, 59; Civitas Christiana, ib.; his relation to
Wales, The Four Ancient Books of, 80; Mr. W. F. the period of the Renaissance, 60; love of cul-

Skene's scholarly introduction to them, 81; their ture, 61; Erasmus and Zwingli, ib. ; Luther's
literary history ib.; previous knowledge regard- contempt for Zwingli, 61, 62; different structure
ing them, ib. ; sources of the early history of of Zwingli's theology from that of Luther, 62;
Wales, 82 ; supposed localities of Arthur's bat- personal aspects of his career, 62, 63; his minis-
tles, 83 ; sketch of Welsh history, ib. ; situation


try at Glarus, 63; personal characteristics, 64;
of Manau or Manann, 83, 84 ; the Picts, 84, 85; his wife, Anna, Reinhardt, ib.; his reforms at Zü-
their place in history, 85 ; sources whence con- rich, 65; interview with Luther at Marburg, ib. ;
clusions may be drawn: foreign contemporaneous political complications, 66; death of Zwingli, 67;
writers, relics of the Pictish language, 85, 86 ; strictures of D’Aubigné, ib.: verdict of Dr. Spör-
the etymology of districts occupied by them,


ri, ib.


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Art. I.-1. The Life of Las Casas, The perfection which was the soul of mediæval

Apostle of the Indies." By ARTHUR HELPs, monasticism; even the less sacred spirit of Author of "The Spanish Conquest of scientific research or of commercial or ter

America.” 8vo. London, 1868. ritorial enterprise, which sent out, to every 2. Vidas de Españoles Celebres. Por Don point of the compass, adventurous explo

MANUEL JOSEF QUINTANA. 8vo. Paris, rers, from Marco Polo to Ca da Mosto or 1845.

Vasco di Gama,-Dames which will not suf3. Der Cardinal Ximenes und die kirchliche fer by comparison even with Zustände Spaniens am Ende des XV. und

" The glorious roll Anfange des XVI. Jahrhunderts. Von Dr. Of those who search the storm-surrounded

KARL HEFELE. 8vo. Tubingen, 1859. pole; 4. A Ne History of the Conquest of Mexico, -all these characteristics, in various dein which Las Casas's Denunciation of the

grees, are found in that episode of the hisPopular Historians of that Event are fully | tory of the discovery and conquest of Amevindicated. By ROBERT ANDERSON WIL- rica with which the name of Las Casas is SON. 8vo. London, 1859.

associated. And in Las Casas the various

characteristics of these representative men THERE is a mixture of religion and romance of their several ages are found united to a in the story of Bartolomeo de Las Casas, simple, though at times unregulated, carnestwhich, even apart from its high moral inte

ness peculiarly his own; to a boldness of rest, must always make it an attractive thought and speech—a "rough and ready," study. All that stirs the fancy or engages eloquence -- which few adversaries could the religious sympathies in those great withstand; a dauntless purpose which no events which form the charm of mediæval resistance could check and 'no failure dishistory,—the half-sacred, half-martial en

hearten; a power of self-assertion in the thusiasm of the Crusades; the mingled cause of right which rose superior to all piety and adventure of Rubruquis' or Carpini's mission to Prester John, or of Pedro against the frown of authority, the arts of pini's mission to Prester John, or of Pedro respect of persons, maintaining itself alike Covilham's search for the supposed Chris- secret intrigue, and the warfare of open contian kingdom of Abyssinia; the large-hearted flict; above all, to a large-hearted philanphilanthropy of John de Matha's Brothers thropy, as warm as it was comprehensive : hood of the Redemption of Captives; the union of proselytism and chivalry which

Wide and more wide, the o'erflowings of his

mind impelled Francis of Assisi to court martyr

Took every creature in, and every kind." dom among the infidels; the eager self-sac- . rifice which spread all over Europe, in cowl It is true that the problem to the solution and scapular, his brethren, and those of his of which the life of this remarkable man fellow-apostle Dominic, renouncing fortune was devoted—the relations, and especial

, and friends, home with its tenderest ties, ly the social relations, between the victolife with its most courted pleasures

, in rious occupants of a new country and the the pursuit of that lofty vision of gospel conquered aborigines whom they displaceTOL, XLIX.


is a problem which is as old as the history the result must have been in most cases of conquest, and one whose fitting resolu. that the existing population was dispos. tion most probably can only be hoped for sessed of their lands or hunting-grounds, and as the latest triumph of Christian civilisa- either compelled to retire to a distant settion: but to Las Casas, in the New World, tlement, or reduced into servitude, more or this problem presented itself in circumstan- less complete, under the new comer. The ces peculiarly painful, and we think the only most ancient records of colonization are drawback upon the almost unqualified pane- found among maritime peoples; because for gyric of his friends and the reluctant admi- them, besides the growth of population, an ration of his angriest adversaries—that sus- additional motive for the formation of new picion of an over-fervent temperament to settlements was supplied by the necessities which we alluded above will find its ex- of trade. In this way were formed the planation, if not its defence, in these cir- Phoenician settlements on the northern cumstances. Not even the coldest could coasts of Africa, Septis Magna, Hippo, contemplate them without emotion. “If it Hadrumetum, Tunis, Carthage, and the can be proved,” says Mr. Helps in his gene- Pelasgian settlements of Greece and Asia ral History of the Spanish Conquest of Ame- Minor, as well as the similar colonies of rica,* “ that Las Casas was on occasions too the islands of the Mediterranean. In many impetuous in word or deed, it was in a cause of these the aboriginal population seems to that might have driven any man charged have in great part disappeared. In others, with it beyond all bounds of prudence like the Helots of Sparta, they remained in the expression of his indignation.” He in a state of servitude more or less com. carries the feelings with him, even when the plete. In others, again, where the object judgment may refuse to follow. His impe- was the carrying on of mining operations tuosity, even taking the most extreme pic or similar works, the natives were probably ture of it which his enemies have drawn, is held in a condition of enforced service, of free from the slightest tinge of the vulgar which that of the Israelites under their vice of excitable and uncontrolled irritabi- Egyptian taskmasters is no exaggerated lity. Throughout his career in America the type. Most of the Greek colonies in Asia, moral nature of the man appears in a state in the Islands, and in Southern Italy, in of preternatural tension, the result of a like manner, were maritime.

The greater solemn consciousness of ever-present re- number of them were even restricted within sponsibility. But his ardour is never fitful limits immediately adjoining the coast; and or intermittent, as is found in weaker tem- although several of the migrations which led peraments or under lower motives and less to their formation had their origin in some generous impulses. It is as unvarying as it political revolution of the mother city, yet is fervent and impetuous.

the colonies were in almost every instance

mainly commercial, and their relations with Although the oldest traditions of the the peoples among whom they fixed themancient world are those which regard the selves arose principally out of that character. migrations of peoples and the successive But it was not so with the colonies of displacement or interchange of races, yet Carthage in Spain and on the Mediterranean, neither from these traditions, nor from the or with those of Rome outside of Italy, narratives or speculations of the earliest especially in the days of her later develophistories founded upon them, is it possible ment. The settlements formed by both to glean precise information as to the con- these remarkable peoples were, generally dition of the native races under the various speaking, purely military positions, occupied early colonizations; but it can hardly be for the purpose of conquest. In the colo. doubted that in direct proportion to the nies of the Carthaginians, especially in Spain, rudeness of the age was the oppression and the native population seems to have been degradation of the weaker race. And as treated with extreme severity. The Romans, the earliest migrations most probably had generally speaking, were content with aptheir origin in the natural growth of popu- propriating a portion, commonly a third, of lation, which made it necessary for the ad- | the land, which was assigned to the Roman venturer to leave an over-crowded home colonists; and the population, with the exand seek for new settlements

ception of the captives of the lance and bow BASA "exire, locosque

in the first conquest (who were ordinarily Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras

reduced to slavery), remained in possessior Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne of the rest of the land, the chief hardship of ferune,"

their condition being in the abnormal pro

portion of the burden of taxes and other im * Vol. i. p. 240. dois getting it positions which they were compelled to bear

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