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gerian expedition as explained to the European ib.; negro market in Spain and Portugal, 4;
early years of Las Casas, 5; his first royage to
America, ib.; condition of the Indians in the first
period of the Conquest, 6; different phases of the
them in Greek literature, 27; changes in the dis- sas at first a slaveholder, S ; his sudden change
ment of the wrongs of the Indians, ib. ; project-
ed reform of Ximenes, 11 ; intrusted to the
literary artist, 94; his style, 95; his treatment between them and Las Casas, 12 ; return of the
with Sepulveda, ib. ; his literary labours during
of man, ib.; connection between the soul and of the labours of his life, 26.
the Royal Albert Institution and its claims, Positivism, or the Positive Philosophy of Auguste
negative atheism, 115; the three different theo-
principles on the political and social concep
tions of many eminent writers, 132 ; the quan
titative stage of Positive Pbilosophy, 133
connexion with the New World, 1, 2; relations and in England, 134, 135; sceptical results of it:
Railways in India : recent conditions of travelling 86, 87; table illustrative of the Keltic terminol-
there, 167, 168; difficulties to be encountered ogy of places, 88 ; septs opposed to the Picts,
memoirs of him, ib.; his character misunderstood
Church and State politics, 57; contemporary
condition of Switzerland, ib.; called to Zürich--
subjects to which he devoted himself there, 57,
58; his views of Church and State, 58; obstacles
to the realization of his principle as to their iden-
tity, 59; Civitas Christiana, ib.; his relation to
Skene's scholarly introduction to them, 81; their ture, 61; Erasmus and Zwingli, ib. ; Luther's
try at Glarus, 63; personal characteristics, 64;
NORTH BRITISH REVIEW.
FOR SEPTEMBER, 1868.
Art. I.-1. The Life of Las Casas, “The perfection which was the soul of mediæval
Apostle of the Indies." By ARTHUR HELPs, monasticism; even the less sacred spirit of Author of "The Spanish Conquest of scientific research or of commercial or ter
America.” 8vo. London, 1868. ritorial enterprise, which sent out, to every 2. Vidas de Españoles Celebres. Por Don point of the compass, adventurous explo
MANUEL JOSEF QUINTANA. 8vo. Paris, rers, from Marco Polo to Ca da Mosto or 1845.
Vasco di Gama,-Dames which will not suf3. Der Cardinal Ximenes und die kirchliche fer by comparison even with Zustände Spaniens am Ende des XV. und
" The glorious roll Anfange des XVI. Jahrhunderts. Von Dr. Of those who search the storm-surrounded
KARL HEFELE. 8vo. Tubingen, 1859. pole; 4. A Ne History of the Conquest of Mexico, -all these characteristics, in various dein which Las Casas's Denunciation of the
grees, are found in that episode of the hisPopular Historians of that Event are fully | tory of the discovery and conquest of Amevindicated. By ROBERT ANDERSON WIL- rica with which the name of Las Casas is SON. 8vo. London, 1859.
associated. And in Las Casas the various
characteristics of these representative men THERE is a mixture of religion and romance of their several ages are found united to a in the story of Bartolomeo de Las Casas, simple, though at times unregulated, carnestwhich, even apart from its high moral inte
ness peculiarly his own; to a boldness of rest, must always make it an attractive thought and speech—a "rough and ready," study. All that stirs the fancy or engages eloquence -- which few adversaries could the religious sympathies in those great withstand; a dauntless purpose which no events which form the charm of mediæval resistance could check and 'no failure dishistory,—the half-sacred, half-martial en
hearten; a power of self-assertion in the thusiasm of the Crusades; the mingled cause of right which rose superior to all piety and adventure of Rubruquis' or Carpini's mission to Prester John, or of Pedro against the frown of authority, the arts of pini's mission to Prester John, or of Pedro respect of persons, maintaining itself alike Covilham's search for the supposed Chris- secret intrigue, and the warfare of open contian kingdom of Abyssinia; the large-hearted flict; above all, to a large-hearted philanphilanthropy of John de Matha's Brothers thropy, as warm as it was comprehensive : hood of the Redemption of Captives; the union of proselytism and chivalry which
Wide and more wide, the o'erflowings of his
mind impelled Francis of Assisi to court martyr
Took every creature in, and every kind." dom among the infidels; the eager self-sac- . rifice which spread all over Europe, in cowl It is true that the problem to the solution and scapular, his brethren, and those of his of which the life of this remarkable man fellow-apostle Dominic, renouncing fortune was devoted—the relations, and especial
, and friends, home with its tenderest ties, ly the social relations, between the victolife with its most courted pleasures
, in rious occupants of a new country and the the pursuit of that lofty vision of gospel conquered aborigines whom they displaceTOL, XLIX.
is a problem which is as old as the history the result must have been in most cases of conquest, and one whose fitting resolu. that the existing population was dispos. tion most probably can only be hoped for sessed of their lands or hunting-grounds, and as the latest triumph of Christian civilisa- either compelled to retire to a distant settion: but to Las Casas, in the New World, tlement, or reduced into servitude, more or this problem presented itself in circumstan- less complete, under the new comer. The ces peculiarly painful, and we think the only most ancient records of colonization are drawback upon the almost unqualified pane- found among maritime peoples; because for gyric of his friends and the reluctant admi- them, besides the growth of population, an ration of his angriest adversaries—that sus- additional motive for the formation of new picion of an over-fervent temperament to settlements was supplied by the necessities which we alluded above will find its ex- of trade. In this way were formed the planation, if not its defence, in these cir- Phoenician settlements on the northern cumstances. Not even the coldest could coasts of Africa, Septis Magna, Hippo, contemplate them without emotion. “If it Hadrumetum, Tunis, Carthage, and the can be proved,” says Mr. Helps in his gene- Pelasgian settlements of Greece and Asia ral History of the Spanish Conquest of Ame- Minor, as well as the similar colonies of rica,* “ that Las Casas was on occasions too the islands of the Mediterranean. In many impetuous in word or deed, it was in a cause of these the aboriginal population seems to that might have driven any man charged have in great part disappeared. In others, with it beyond all bounds of prudence like the Helots of Sparta, they remained in the expression of his indignation.” He in a state of servitude more or less com. carries the feelings with him, even when the plete. In others, again, where the object judgment may refuse to follow. His impe- was the carrying on of mining operations tuosity, even taking the most extreme pic or similar works, the natives were probably ture of it which his enemies have drawn, is held in a condition of enforced service, of free from the slightest tinge of the vulgar which that of the Israelites under their vice of excitable and uncontrolled irritabi- Egyptian taskmasters is no exaggerated lity. Throughout his career in America the type. Most of the Greek colonies in Asia, moral nature of the man appears in a state in the Islands, and in Southern Italy, in of preternatural tension, the result of a like manner, were maritime.
The greater solemn consciousness of ever-present re- number of them were even restricted within sponsibility. But his ardour is never fitful limits immediately adjoining the coast; and or intermittent, as is found in weaker tem- although several of the migrations which led peraments or under lower motives and less to their formation had their origin in some generous impulses. It is as unvarying as it political revolution of the mother city, yet is fervent and impetuous.
the colonies were in almost every instance
mainly commercial, and their relations with Although the oldest traditions of the the peoples among whom they fixed themancient world are those which regard the selves arose principally out of that character. migrations of peoples and the successive But it was not so with the colonies of displacement or interchange of races, yet Carthage in Spain and on the Mediterranean, neither from these traditions, nor from the or with those of Rome outside of Italy, narratives or speculations of the earliest especially in the days of her later develophistories founded upon them, is it possible ment. The settlements formed by both to glean precise information as to the con- these remarkable peoples were, generally dition of the native races under the various speaking, purely military positions, occupied early colonizations; but it can hardly be for the purpose of conquest. In the colo. doubted that in direct proportion to the nies of the Carthaginians, especially in Spain, rudeness of the age was the oppression and the native population seems to have been degradation of the weaker race. And as treated with extreme severity. The Romans, the earliest migrations most probably had generally speaking, were content with aptheir origin in the natural growth of popu- propriating a portion, commonly a third, of lation, which made it necessary for the ad- | the land, which was assigned to the Roman venturer to leave an over-crowded home colonists; and the population, with the exand seek for new settlements
ception of the captives of the lance and bow BASA "exire, locosque
in the first conquest (who were ordinarily Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras
reduced to slavery), remained in possessior Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne of the rest of the land, the chief hardship of ferune,"
their condition being in the abnormal pro
portion of the burden of taxes and other im * Vol. i. p. 240. dois getting it positions which they were compelled to bear