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of the massacres and devastations which have been in the world, have taken their rise from a furious pretended zeal.

I love to see a man zealous in a good matter, and especially when his zeal shows itself for advancing morality, and promoting the happiness of mankind. But when I find the instruments he works with are racks and gibbets, galleys and dungeons: when he imprisons men's persons, confiscates their estates, ruins their families, and burns the body to save the soul, I cannot stick to pronounce of such a one, that (whatever he may think of his faith and religion) his faith is vain, and his religion unprofitable.

particulars, were laid together and formed into a kind of creed, according to the opinions of the most celebrated atheists; I say, supposing such a creed as this were formed and imposed upon any one people in the world, whether it would not require an infinitely greater measure of faith, than any set of articles which they so violently oppose. Let me therefore advise this generation of wranglers, for their own and for the public good, to act at least so consistently with themselves, as not to burn with zeal for irreligion, and with bigotry for nonsense.


Cœlum ipsum petimus stultitia


Hor. Lib. 3. Od. i. 38. High Heaven itself our impious rage assails.-P. UPON my return to my lodgings last night, found a letter from my worthy friend the clergyman, whom I have given some account of in my former papers. He tells me in it that he was particularly pleased with the latter part of my yesterday's speculation; and at the same time inclosed the following essay, which he desires me to publish as the sequel of that discourse. It consists partly of uncommon reflections, and partly of such as have been already used, but now set in a stronger light.

'A believer may be excused by the most hardened atheist for endeavouring to make him a convert, because he does it with an eye to both their interests. The atheist is inexcusable who tries to gain over a believer, because he does not propose the doing himself or the believer any good by such a conversion.

After having treated of these false zea- No. 186.] Wednesday, October 3, 1711. lots in religion, I cannot forbear mentioning a monstrous species of men, who one would not think had any existence in nature, were they not to be met with in ordinary conversation, I mean the zealots in atheism. One would fancy that these men, though they fall short, in every other respect, of those who make a profession of religion, would at least outshine them in this particular, and be exempt from that single fault which seems to grow out of the imprudent fervours of religion. But so it is, that infidelity is propagated with as much fierceness and contention, wrath and indignation, as if the safety of mankind depended upon it. There is something so ridiculous and perverse in this kind of zealots, that one does not know how to set them out in their proper colours. They are a sort of gamesters who are eternally upon the fret, though they play for nothing. They are perpetually teazing their friends to come over to them, though at the same time they allow that neither of them shall get any thing by the bargain. 'The prospect of a future state is the seIn short, the zeal of spreading atheism is, cret comfort and refreshment of my soul; it if possible, more absurd than atheism itself. is that which makes nature look gay about Since I have mentioned this unaccount- me; it doubles all my pleasures, and supable zeal which appears in atheists, and ports me under all my afflictions; I can look infidels, I must farther observe, that they at disappointments and misfortunes, pain are likewise in a most particular manner and sickness, death itself, and what is worse possessed with the spirit of bigotry. They than death, the loss of those who are dearare wedded to opinions full of contradic-est to me, with indifference, so long as I tions and impossibility, and at the same keep in view the pleasures of eternity, and time look upon the smallest difficulty in an the state of being in which there will be no article of faith as a sufficient reason for re-fears nor apprehensions, pains nor sorrows, jecting it. Notions that fall in with the common reason of mankind, that are conformable to the sense of all ages, and all nations, not to mention their tendency for promoting the happiness of societies, or of particular persons, are exploded as errors and prejudices; and schemes erected in their stead that are altogether monstrous and irrational, and require the most extravagant credulity to embrace them. I would fain ask one of these bigoted infidels, supposing all the great points of atheism, as the casual or eternal formation of the world, the materiality of a thinking substance, the mortality of the soul, the fortuitous organization of the body, the motions and gravitation of matter, with the like

sickness nor separation. Why will any man be so impertinently officious as to tell me all this is only fancy and delusion? Is there any merit in being the messenger of ill news? If it is a dream, let me enjoy it, since it makes me both the happier and better man.

'I must confess I do not know how to trust a man who believes neither heaven nor hell, or in other words, a future state of rewards and punishments. Not only natural self-love, but reason directs us to promote our own interests above all things. It can never be for the interest of a believer to do me a mischief, because he is sure upon the balance of accounts to find himself a loser by it. On the contrary, if he con

siders his own welfare in his behaviour to- | mankind more than the thought that Christ wards me, it will lead him to do me all the died for him? Or what dispose us to set a good he can, and at the same time restrain stricter guard upon the purity of our own him from doing me any injury. An unbe- hearts, than our being members of Christ, liever does not act like a reasonable crea- and a part of the society of which that imture, if he favours me contrary to his pre-maculate person is the head? But these sent interest, or does not distress me when are only a specimen of those admirable init turns to his present advantage. Honour forcements of morality, which the apostle and good-nature may indeed tie up his has drawn from the history of cur blessed hands; but as these would be very much Saviour. strengthened by reason and principle, so without them they are only instincts, or wavering, unsettled notions, which rest on no foundation.

'Infidelity has been attacked with so good success of late years, that it is driven out of all its out-works. The atheist has not found his post tenable, and is therefore retired into deism, and a disbelief of revealed religion only.

"But the truth of it is, the greatest number of this set of men are those who, for want of a virtuous education or examining the grounds of religion, know so very little of the matter in question, that their infidelity is but another term for their ignorance. As folly and inconsiderateness are the foundations of infidelity, the great pillars and supports of it are either a vanity of appearing wiser than the rest of mankind, or an ostentation of courage in despising the terrors of another world, which have so great an influence on what they call weaker minds; or an aversion to a belief that must cut them off from many of those pleasures they propose to themselves, and fill them with remorse for many of those they have already tasted.

'The great received articles of the Christian religion have been so clearly proved, from the authority of that divine revelation in which they are delivered, that it is impossible for those who have ears to hear, and eyes to see, not to be convinced of them. But were it possible for any thing in the Christian faith to be erroneous, I can find no ill consequences in adhering to it. The great points of the incarnation and suffering of our Saviour, produce naturally such habits of virtue in the mind of man, that, I say, supposing it were possible for us to be mistaken in them, the infidel himself must at least allow that no other system of religion could so effectually contribute to the heightening of morality. They give us great ideas of the dignity of human nature, and of the love which the Supreme Being bears to his creatures, and consequently engage us in the highest acts of duty towards our Creator, our neighbour, and ourselves. How many noble arguments has St. Paul raised from the chief articles of our religion, for the advancing of morality in its three great branches!-To give a single example in each kind. What can be a stronger motive to a firm trust and reliance on the mercies of our Maker, than the giving his Son to suffer for us? What can make us love and esteem even the most inconsiderable of

'If our modern infidels considered these matters with that candour and seriousness which they deserve, we should not see them act with such a spirit of bitterness, arrogance, and malice. They would not be raising such insignificant cavils, doubts, and scruples, as may be started against every thing that is not capable of mathematical demonstration; in order to unsettle the mind of the ignorant, disturb the public peace, subvert morality, and throw all things into confusion and disorder. If none of these reflections can have any influence on them, there is one that perhaps may, because it is adapted to their vanity, by which they seem to be guided much more than their reason. I would therefore have them consider that the wisest and best of men in all ages of the world, have been those who lived up to the religion of their country, when they saw nothing in it opposite to morality, and to the best lights they had of the divine nature. Pythagoras's first rule directs us to worship the gods "as it is ordained by law," for that is the most natural interpretation of the precept. Socrates, who was the most renowned among the heathens both for wisdom and virtue, in his last moments desires his friends to offer a cock to Esculapius: doubtless out of a submissive deference to the established worship of his country. Xenophon tells us, that his prince (whom he sets forth as a pattern of perfection) when he found his death approaching, offered sacrifices on the mountains to the Persian Jupiter, and the Sun, "according to the custom of the Persians;" for those are the words of the historian.* Nay, the Epicureans and atomical philosophers showed a very remarkable modesty in this particular; for though the being of a God was entirely repugnant to their schemes of natural philosophy, they contented themselves with the denial of a providence, asserting at the same time the existence of gods in general; because they would not shock the common belief of mankind, and the religion of their country.'—L.

No. 187.] Thursday, October 4, 1711.

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to avoid the persons he speaks of, that I been very much towards intrigue and hav→ shall insert his letter at length.

the reflection that I had the keeping of so much beauty in a woman, who, as she was too heedless to please me, was also too unattentive to form a design to wrong me. Long did I divert every hour that hung heavy upon me in the company of this crea

ing intelligence with women of wit, my whole life has passed away in a series of 'MR. SPECTATOR,-I do not know that impositions. shall, for the benefit of the you have ever touched upon a certain spe- present race of young men give some accies of women, whom we ordinarily call count of my loves. I know not whether jilts. You cannot possibly go upon a more you have ever heard of the famous girl useful work, than the consideration of these about town, called Kitty. This creature dangerous animals. The coquette is indeed (for I must take shame upon myself) was one degree towards the jilt; but the heart my mistress in the days when keeping was of the former is bent upon admiring herself, in fashion. Kitty, under the appearance and giving false hopes to her lovers; but of being wild, thoughtless, and irregular in the latter is not contented to be extremely all her words and actions, concealed the amiable, but she must add to that advantage most accomplished jilt of her time. Her a certain delight in being a torment to negligence had to me a charm in it like that others. Thus when her lover is in the full of chastity, and want of desires seemed as expectation of success, the jilt shall meet great a merit as the conquest of them. The him with a sudden indifference, and admi-air she gave herself was that of a romping ration in her face at his being surprised that girl, and whenever I talked to her with any he is received like a stranger, and a cast of turn of fondness, she would immediately her head another way with a pleasant scorn snatch off my periwig, try it upon herself in of the fellow's insolence. It is very proba- the glass, clap her arms a-kimbow, draw ble the lover goes home utterly astonished my sword, and make passes on the wall, take and dejected, sits down to his 'scrutoire, off my cravat, and seize it to make some sends her word in the most abject terms other use of the lace, or run into some other that he knows not what he has done, that unaccountable rompishness, until the time all which was desirable in this life is so sud-I had appointed to pass away with her was denly vanished from him, that the charmer over. I went from her full of pleasure at of his soul should withdraw the vital heat from the heart which pants for her. He continues a mournful absence for some time, pining in secret, and out of humour with all things which he meets with. At length he takes a resolution to try his fate, and explain with her resolutely upon her unac-ture, whom I looked upon as neither guilty countable carriage. He walks up to her apartment, with a thousand inquietudes, and doubts in what manner he shall meet the first cast of her eye; when, upon his first appearance, she flies towards him, wonders where he has been, accuses him of his absence, and treats him with a familiarity as surprising as her former coldness. This good correspondence continues until the lady observes the lover grows happy in it, and then she interrupts it with some new inconsistency of behaviour. For (as I just now said) the happiness of a jilt consists only in the power of making others uneasy. But such is the folly of this sect of women, that they carry on this pretty, skittish behaviour, until they have no charms left to render it supportable. Corinna, that used to torment all who conversed with her with false glances, and little heedless unguarded motions, that were to betray some inclination towards the man she would insnare, finds at present all she attempts that way unregarded; and is obliged to indulge the jilt in her constitution, by laying artificial plots, writing perplexing letters from unknown hands, and making all the young fellows in love with her until they find out who she is. Thus, as before she gave torment by disguising her inclination, she now is obliged to do it by hiding her person.

'As for my own part, Mr. Spectator, it has been my unhappy fate to be jilted from my youth upward; and as my taste has

nor innocent, but could laugh at myself for my unaccountable pleasure in an expense upon her, until in the end it appeared my pretty insensible was with child by my footman.

"This accident roused me into a disdain against all libertine women, under what appearance soever they hid their insincerity, and I resolved after that time to converse with none but those who lived within the rules of decency and honour. To this end I formed myself into a more regular turn of behaviour, and began to make visits, frequent assemblies, and lead out ladies from the theatres, with all the other insignificant duties which the professed servants of the fair place themselves in constant readiness to perform. In a very little time, (having a plentiful fortune,) fathers and mothers began to regard me as a good match, and I found easy admittance into the best families in town to observe their daughters; but I, who was born to follow the fair to no purpose, have by the force of my ill stars made my application to three jilts successively.

'Hyæna is one of those who form themselves into a melancholy and indolent air, and endeavour to gain admirers from their inattention to all around them. Hyæna can loll in her coach, with something so fixed in her countenance, that it is impossible to conceive her meditation is employed only on her dress and her charms in that pos

ture. If it were not too coarse a smile, I should say, Hyæna, in the figure she affects to appear in, is a spider in the midst of a cobweb, that is sure to destroy every fly that approaches it. The net Hyæna throws is so fine, that you are taken in it before you can observe any part of her work. I attempted her for a long and weary season, but I found her passion went no farther than to be admired; and she is of that unreasonable temper, as not to value the inconstancy of her lovers, provided she can boast she once had their addresses.

Biblis was the second I aimed at, and her vanity lay in purchasing the adorers of others, and not rejoicing in their love itself. Biblis is no man's mistress, but every woman's rival. As soon as I found this, I fell in love with Chloe, who is my present pleasure and torment. I have writ to her, danced with her, and fought for her, and have been her man in the sight and expectation of the whole town these three years, and thought myself near the end of my wishes; when the other day she called me into her closet, and told me, with a very grave face, that she was a woman of honour, and scorned to deceive a man who loved her with so much sincerity as she saw I did, and therefore she must inform me that she was by nature the most inconstant creature breathing, and begged of me not to marry her: If I insisted upon it, I should; but that she was lately fallen in love with another. What to do or say I know not, Dut desire you to inform me, and you will nfinitely oblige, sir, your humble servant,

is a good neighbour in society, and not as a good judge of your actions in point of fame and reputation. The satirist said very well of popular praise and acclamations, "Give the tinkers and cobblers their presents again, and learn to live of yourself.”* It is an argument of a loose and ungoverned mind to be affected with the promiscuous approbation of the generality of mankind; and a man of virtue should be too delicate for so coarse an appetite of fame. Men of honour should endeavour only to please the worthy, and the man of merit should desire to be tried only by his peers. I thought it a noble sentiment which I heard yesterday uttered in conversation: 'I know,' said a gentleman, a way to be greater than any man. If he has worth in him, I can rejoice in his superiority to me; and that satisfaction is a greater act of the soul in me, than any in him which can possibly appear to me.' This thought could not proceed but from a candid and generous spirit; and the approbation of such minds is what may be esteemed true praise: for with the common race of men there is nothing commendable but what they themselves may hope to be partakers of, and arrive at; but the motive truly glorious is, when the mind is set rather to do things laudable, than to purchase reputation.— Where there is that sincerity as the foundation of a good name, the kind opinion of virtuous men will be an unsought, but a necessary consequence. The Lacedæmonians, though a plain people, and no pretenders to politeness, had a certain delicacy in their sense of glory, and sacrificed to the Muses when they entered upon any great enterprise. They would have the commemoration of their actions be transmitted by the purest and most untainted memorialists. The din which attends victories and public triumphs, is by far less eligible than the recital of the actions of great men by honest and wise historians. It is a frivolous pleasure to be the admiration of gaping crowds; but to have the approbation of a good man in the cool reflections of his closet, is a gratification worthy an heroic spirit. The applause of the crowd makes the head giddy, It gives me pleasure to be praised by you whom all but the attestation of a reasonable man makes the heart glad.



Mr. Sly, haberdasher of hats, at the corner of Devereux-court, in the Strand, gives notice, that he has prepared very neat hats, rubbers, and brushes for the use of young tradesmen in the last year of their apprenticeship, at reasonable rates.

No. 188.] Friday, October 5, 1711.

Lætus sum laudari a te laudato viro.-Tull.

men praise.


What makes the love of popular or geneHe is a very unhappy man who sets his ral praise still more ridiculous, is, that it is heart upon being admired by the multitude, usually given for circumstances which are or affects a general and undistinguishing ap- foreign to the persons admired. Thus they plause among men. What pious men call the testimony of a good conscience, should are the ordinary attendants on power and be the measure of our ambition in this kind; hands, and put into another's. The appliriches, which may be taken out of one man's that is to say, a man of spirit should con- cation only, and not the possession, makes temn the praise of the ignorant, and like being applauded for nothing but what_he those outward things honourable. knows in his own heart he deserves. Be- vulgar and men of sense agree in admiring sides which, the character of the person would rather be possessed of; the wise man men, for having what they themselves who commends you is to be considered, before you set a value upon his esteem. The applauds him whom he thinks most virtupraise of an ignorant man is only good-will, and you should receive his kindness as hel

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-Tollat sua munera cerdo
Tecum habita.-


Pers. Sat. iv. 51.

ous, the rest of the world him who is most wealthy.

When a man is in this way of thinking, I do not know what can occur to one more monstrous, than to see persons of ingenuity address their services and performances to men no way addicted to liberal arts. In these cases, the praise on one hand, and the patronage on the other, are equally the objects of ridicule. Dedications to ignorant men are as absurd as any of the speeches of Bulfinch in the Droll. Such an address one is apt to translate into other words; and when the different parties are thoroughly considered, the panegyric generally implies no more than if the author should say to the patron; 'My very good lord, you and I can never understand one another; therefore I humbly desire we may be intimate friends for the future.'

The rich may as well ask to borrow of the poor, as the man of virtue or merit to nope for addition to his character from any but such as himself. He that commends another engages so much of his own reputation as he gives to that person commended; and he that has nothing laudable in himself is not of ability to be such a surety. The wise Phocion was so sensible how dangerous it was to be touched with what the multitude approved, that upon a general acclamation made when he was making an oration, he turned to an intelligent friend who stood near him, and asked in a surprised manner, 'What slip have I made?'

I shall conclude this paper with a billet which has fallen into my hands, and was written to a lady from a gentleman whom she had highly commended. The author of it had formerly been her lover. When all possibility of commerce between them on the subject of love was cut off, she spoke so handsomely of him, as to give occasion for this letter.

some time since, I shall publish it in this paper, together with the letter that was inclosed in it.

'MR. BUCKLEY,-Mr. Spectator having of late descanted upon the cruelty of parents to their children, I have been induced (at the request of several of Mr. Spectator's admirers,) to inclose this letter, which I assure you is the original from a father to his own son, notwithstanding the latter gave but little or no provocation. It would be wonderfully obliging to the world, if Mr. Spectator would give his opinion of it in some of his speculations, and particularly to (Mr. Buckley,) your humble servant.'

'SIRRAH,-You are a saucy audacious rascal, and both fool and mad, and I care not a farthing whether you comply or no; that does not raze out my impressions of your insolence, going about railing at me, and the next day to solicit my favour. These are inconsistences, such as discover thy reason depraved. To be brief, I never desire to see your face; and, sirrah, if you go to the workhouse, it is no disgrace to me for you to be supported there; and if you starve in the streets, I'll never give any thing underhand in your behalf. If I have any more of your scribbling nonsense, I'll break your head the first time I set sight on you. You are a stubborn beast; is this your gratitude for my giving you money? You rogue, I'll better your judgment, and give you a greater sense of your duty to (I regret to say) your father, &c.

'P. S. It's prudence in you to keep out of my sight; for to reproach me, that Might overcomes Right, on the outside of your letter, I shall give you a great knock on the skull for it.'

Was there ever such an image of pater"MADAM, I should be insensible to anal tenderness! It was usual among some stupidity, if I could forbear making you my of the Greeks to make their slaves drink to acknowledgments for your late mention of excess, and then expose them to their chilme with so much applause. It is, I think, dren, who by that means conceived an early your fate to give me new sentiments: as you aversion to a vice which makes men appear formerly inspired me with the true sense so monstrous and irrational. I have exof love, so do you now with the true sense posed this picture of an unnatural father of glory. As desire had the least part in with the same intention, that its deformity the passion I heretofore professed towards may deter others from its resemblance. If you, so has vanity no share in the glory to the reader has a mind to see a father of the which you have now raised me. Innocence, same stamp represented in the most exknowledge, beauty, virtue, sincerity, and quisite strokes of humour, he may meet discretion, are the constant ornaments of with it in one of the finest comedies that her who has said this of me. Fame is a ever appeared upon the English stage: I babbler, but I have arrived at the highest mean the part of Sir Sampson in Love for glory in this world, the commendation of Love. the most deserving person in it.' T.

No. 189.] Saturday, October 6, 1711.
-Patriæ pietatis imago.
Virg. Æn. x. 824.
An image of paternal tenderness.

THE following letter being written to my bookseller, upon a subject of which I treated

I must not, however, engage myself blindly on the side of the son, to whom the fond letter above written was directed. His father calls him a saucy and audacious rascal,' in the first line, and I am afraid, upon examination, he will prove but an ungracious youth. To go about railing' at his father, and to find no other place but the outside of his letter' to tell him that

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