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593 On Dreams, how to be improved
594 On Calumny

595 On the Abuse of Metaphors

596 Distresses of a very amorous Gentleman
597 The Dreams of various Correspondents
598 On a merry and serious Cast of Temper Addison
599 The Cave of Trophonius, a Dream Unknown
600 Various Opinions of future Happiness Addison
601 On Benevolence-Causes which ob-

struct it

602 Advantages of an Air of Importance
in making Love

Translation of Cato's Soliloquy

629 Absurd Claims of Reward

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the interests of Europe in general; to which

MYSHOULD not act the part of an impartial I must also add, a certain dignity in yourself,

Spectator, if I dedicated the following pa- that (to say the least of it) has been always pers to one who is not of the most consum-equal to those great honours which have mate and most acknowledged merit. been conferred upon you.

None but a person of a finished character can be a proper patron of a work which endeavours to cultivate and polish human life by promoting virtue and knowledge, and by recommending whatsoever may be either useful or ornamental to society.

I know that the homage I now pay you, is offering a kind of violence to one who is as solicitous to shun applause, as he is assiduous to deserve it. But, my lord, this is perhaps the only particular in which your prudence will be always disappointed.

While justice, candour, equanimity, a zeal for the good of your country, and the most persuasive eloquence in bringing over others to it, are valuable distinctions, you are not to expect that the public will so far comply with your inclinations, as to forbear celebrating such extraordinary qualities. It is in vain that you have endeavoured to conceal your share of merit in the many national services which you have effected. Do what you will, the present age will be talking of your virtues, though posterity alone will do them justice.

It is very well known how much the church owed to you in the most dangerous day it ever saw, that of the arraignment of its prelates;* and how far the civil power, in the late and present reign, has been indebted to your counsels and wisdom.

But to enumerate the great advantages which the public has received from your administration, would be a more proper work for a history, than for an address of this nature.

Your lordship appears as great in your private life, as in the most important offices which you have borne. I would, therefore, rather choose to speak of the pleasure you afford all who are admitted to your conversation, of your elegant taste in all the polite arts, of learning, of your great humanity and complacency of manners, and of the surprising influence which is peculiar to you, in making every one who converses with your lordship prefer you to himself, without thinking the less meanly of his own talents. But if I should take notice of all that might be observed in your lordship, I should have nothing new to say upon any other character of distinction. I ain,

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Other men pass through oppositions and contending interests in the ways of ambition; but your great abilities have been invited to power, and importuned to accept of advancement. Nor is it strange that this should happen to your lordship, who could bring into the service of your sovereign the arts and policies of ancient Greece and Rome; as well as the most exact knowledge peached in 1688. of our own constitution in particular, and of

* He was one of the counsel for the seven bishops im

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ledged myself incapable. While I busy | his own; but in the possession of a man of

myself as a stranger upon earth, and can pretend to no other than being a looker-on, you are conspicuous in the busy and polite world; both in the world of men, and that of letters. While I am silent and unobserved in public meetings, you are admired by all that approach you, as the life and genius of the conversation. What a happy conjunction of different talents meets in him whose whole discourse is at once animated by the strength and force of reason, and adorned with all the graces and embellishments of wit! When learning irradiates common life, it is then in its highest use and perfection; and it is to such as your lordship, that the sciences owe the esteem which they have with the active part of mankind. Knowledge of books in recluse men, is like that sort of lantern which hides him who carries it, and serves only to pass through secret and gloomy paths of

business, it is as a torch in the hand of one who is willing and able to show those who were bewildered, the way which leads to their prosperity and welfare. A generous concern for your country, and a passion for every thing which is truly great and noble, are what actuate all your life and actions; and I hope you will forgive me when I have an ambition this book may be placed in the library of so good a judge of what is valuable; in that library where the choice is such, that it will not be a disparagement to be the meanest author in it. Forgive me, my lord, for taking this occasion of telling all the world how ardently I love and honour you; and that I am, with the utmost gratitude for all your favours,


Your Lordship's most obliged, most obedient, and most humble servant, THE SPECTATOR.





As the professed design of this work is to entertain its readers in general, without giving offence to any particular person, it would be difficult to find out so proper a patron for it as yourself, there being none whose merit is more universally acknowledged by all parties, and who has made himself more friends, and fewer enemies. Your great abilities and unquestioned integrity, in those high employments which you have passed through,† would not have been able to have raised you this general approbation, had they not been accompanied with that moderation in a high fortune, and that affability of manners, which are so conspicuous through all parts of your

* Youngest son of Charles Lord Clifford. He was created Baron Charleton, in 1714; but dying, unmarried, in 1725, the title died with him.

He was several years secretary of state during the reign of Queen Anne.

life. Your aversion to any ostentatious arts of setting to show those great services which you have done the public, has not likewise a little contributed to that universal acknowledgment which is paid you by your country.

The consideration of this part of your character, is that which hinders me from enlarging on those extraordinary talents which have given you so great a figure in the British senate, as well as in that elegance and politeness which appear in your more retired conversation. I should be unpardonable if, after what I have said, I should longer detain you with an address of this nature: I cannot, however, conclude it, without acknowledging those great obligations which you have laid upon,

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Marlborough, I question not but it would the most able and fortunate captain before fill the reader with more agreeable images, your time, declared he had lived long enough and give him a more delightful entertain- both to nature and to glory; and your grace ment than what can be found in the follow-may make that reflection with much more ing or any other book.

One cannot indeed without offence to yourself observe, that you excel the rest of mankind in the least, as well as the greatest endowments. Nor were it a circumstance to be mentioned, if the graces and attractions of your person were not the only preeminence you have above others, which is left almost unobserved by greater writers. Yet how pleasing would it be to those who shall read the surprising revolutions in your story, to be made acquainted with your ordinary life and deportment! How pleasing would it be to hear that the same man, who carried fire and sword into the countries of all that had opposed the cause of liberty, and struck a terror into the armies of France, had, in the midst of his high station, a behaviour as gentle as is usual in the first steps towards greatness! And if it were possible to express that easy grandeur, which did at once persuade and command, it would appear as clearly to those to come, as it does to his contemporaries, that all the great events which were brought to pass under the conduct of so well-governed a spirit, were the blessings of heaven upon wisdom and valour; and all which seem adverse, fell out by divine permission, which we are not to search into. You have passed that year of life wherein

justice. He spoke it after he had arrived at empire by an usurpation upon those whom he had enslaved: but the Prince of Nindelheim* may rejoice in a sovereignty which was the gift of him whose dominions he had preserved.

Glory established upon the uninterrupted success of honourable designs and actions, is not subject to diminution; nor can any attempts prevail against it, but in the proportion which the narrow circuit of rumour bears to the unlimited extent of fame.

We may congratulate your grace not only upon your high achievements, but likewise upon the happy expiration of your command, by which your glory put out of the power of fortune: and when your person shall be so too, that the Author and Disposer of all things may place you in that higher mansion of bliss and immortality which is prepared for good princes, lawgivers, and heroes, when he in his due time removes them from the envy of mankind, is the hearty prayer of,


Your Grace's most obedient, most devoted, humble servant,


*This title was conferred upon the Duke by the Emperor, after the battle of Hochstadt.


My Lord,


who enjoys these several talents united, and THE author of the Spectator, having pre- that too in as great perfection as others posfixed before each of his volumes the name sess them singly. Your enemies acknowof some great persons to whom he has par- ledge this great extent in your lordship's ticular obligations, lays his claim to your character, at the same time that they use lordship's patronage upon the same ac- their utmost industry and invention to decount. I must confess, my lord, had not I rogate from it. But it is for your honour already received great instances of your that those who are now your enemies were favour, I should have been afraid of sub- always so. You have acted in so much conmitting a work of this nature to your peru-sistency with yourself, and promoted the sal. You are so thoroughly acquainted with the characters of men, and all the parts of human life, that it is impossible for the least misrepresentation of them to escape your notice. It is your lordship's particular distinction that you are master of the whole compass of business, and have signalized yourself in all the different scenes of it. We admire some for the dignity, others for the popularity of their behaviour; some for their clearness of judgment, others for their happiness of expression; some for the laying of schemes, and others for the putting them in execution. It isyourlordship only

interests of your country in so uniform a manner, that even those who would misrepresent your generous designs for the public good, cannot but approve the steadiness and intrepidity with which you pursue them. It is a most sensible pleasure to me that I have this opportunity of professing myself one of your great admirers, and in a very particular manner,


Your Lordship's most obliged, and most obedient humble servant, THE SPECTATOR.




My Lord,
VERY many favours and civilities (re-
ceived from you in a private capacity)
which I have no other way to acknowledge,
will, I hope, excuse this presumption; but
the justice I, as a Spectator, owe your cha-
racter, places me above the want of an
excuse. Candour and openness of heart,
which shine in all your words and actions,
exact the highest esteem from all who have
the honour to know you; and a winning
condescension to all subordinate to you,
made business a pleasure to those who ex-
ecuted it under you, at the same time that
it heightened her majesty's favour to. all
those who had the happiness of having it
conveyed through your hands. A secretary
of state, in the interest of mankind, joined
with that of his fellow-subjects, accom-
plished with a great facility and elegance
in all the modern as well as ancient lan-
guages, was a happy and proper member
of a ministry, by whose services your sove-
reign is in so high and flourishing a condi-
tion, as makes all other princes and poten-

tates powerful or inconsiderable in Europe,
as they are friends or enemies to Great
Britain. The importance of those great
events which happened during that ad-
ministration in which your lordship bore so
important a charge, will be acknowledged
as long as time shall endure. I shall not
therefore attempt to rehearse those illus-
trious passages, but give this application a
more private and particular turn, in desir-
ing your lordship would continue your fa-
vour and patronage to me, as you are a
gentleman of the most polite literature, and
perfectly accomplished in the knowledge
of books* and men, which makes it neces-
sary to beseech your indulgence to the fol-
lowing leaves, and the author of them, who
is, with the greatest truth and respect,

Your Lordship's obliged, obedient,
and humble servant,


* His lordship was the founder of the splendid and truly valuable library at Althorp.



stand the interest of either nation.

Sir, The great part you had, as British amIt is with great pleasure I take an oppor-bassador, in procuring and cultivating the Lumity of publishing the gratitude I owe you advantageous commerce between the courts for the place you allow me in your friend- of England and Portugal, has purchased ship and familiarity. I will not acknow-you the lasting esteem of all who underledge to you that I have often had you in my thoughts, when I have endeavoured to draw, in some parts of these discourses, the character of a good-natured, honest, and accomplished gentleman. But such representations give my reader an idea of a person blameless only, or only laudable for such perfections as extend no farther than to his own private advantage and reputa


Those personal excellencies which are overrated by the ordinary world, and too much neglected by wise men, you have applied with the justest skill and judgment. The most graceful address in horsemanship, in the use of the sword, and in dancing, has been employed by you as lower arts; and as they have occasionally served to cover or introduce the talents of a skilful minister.

But when I speak of you, I celebrate one who has had the happiness of possessing also But your abilities have not appeared only those qualities which make a man useful to in one nation. When it was your province to society, and of having had opportunities | act as her majesty's minister at the court of of exerting them in the most conspicuous Savoy, at that time encamped, you accom


*Of Bishops-Canings, in the county of Wilts; after wards Sir Paul Methuen, K. B. He was several years

ambassador at the court of Lisbon, where he conducted himself with great ability.

panied that gallant prince through all the vicissitudes of his fortune, and shared by his side the dangers of that glorious day in which he recovered his capital. As far as it regards personal qualities, you attained,

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