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seconded by those Ecclesiastical Commis- in the least contrary to their good-liking; and sioners.-They have also followed the same that no failings of that kind are pardoned in methods with relation to Civil affairs; for any persons whatsoever. A great deal of they have procured orders to examine all lords blood has been shed in many places of the lieutenants, deputy lieutenants, sheriffs, jus- kingdom, by Judges, governed by those evil tices of the peace, and also all others that were Counsellors, against all the rules and forms of in any public employment, if they would con- law; without so much as suffering the persons cur with the king in the repeal of the Test that were accused, to plead in their own deand the Penal Laws and all such whose con- fence. They have also, by putting the Admisciences did not suffer them to comply with nistration of justice in the hands of Papists, their designs, were turned out, and others were brought all the matters of Civil Justice into put in their places, who they believed would be great uncertainties, with how much exactness more compliant to them in their designs of de- and justice soever that these Sentences may feating the intent and execution of those laws have been given: for, since the laws of the which had been made with so much care and land do not only exclude Papists from all places caution for the Security of the Protestant Reli- of judicature, but have put them under an ingion: and in many of these places they have capacity, none are bound to acknowledge or put professed Papists; though the law has disobey their judgments; and all Sentences given by them are null and void of themselves: so that all persons, who have been cast in trials before such Popish Judges, may justly look on their pretended Sentences as having no more force than the sentences of any private and unauthorized person whatsoever so deplorable is the case of the subjects, who are obliged to answer to such Judges, that must in all things stick to the rules, which are set them by those evil Counsellors; who, as they raised them up to those employments, so can turn them out of them at pleasure; and who can never be esteemed lawful Judges: so that all their Sentences are, in the construction of the law, of no force and efficacy. They have likewise disposed of all Military Employments in the same manner; for, though the laws have not only excluded Papists from all such em


abled them, and warranted the subjects not to have any regard to their orders. They have also invaded the Privileges, and seized on the Charters of most of those Towns that have a right to be represented by their burgesses in parliament, and have secured Surrenders to be made of them; by which the magistrates in them have delivered up all their Rights and Privileges to be disposed of at the pleasure of those evil Counsellors; who have thereupon placed new magistrates in those Towns, such as they can most entirely confide in; and in many of them they have put Popish magistrates, notwithstanding the incapacities under which the law has put them.-And whereas no nation whatsoever can subsist without the administration of good and impartial justice, upon which mens lives, liberties, honours and estates do depend; those evil Counsellors have sub-ployments, but have, in particular, provided, jected these to an arbitrary and despotic power. that they should be disarmed; yet they, in In the most important affairs they have studied contempt of those laws, have not only armed to discover beforehand the opinions of the the Papists, but have likewise raised them up Judges, and have turned out such as they found to the greatest military trusts, both by sea and would not conform themselves to their inten- land; and that, strangers as well as natives, tions; and have put others in their places of and Irish as well as English; that so, by whom they were more assured, without having these means, they having rendered themselves any regard to their abilities and they have masters both of the Affairs of the Church, of not stuck to raise even professed Papists to the Government of the Nation, and of the the Courts of Judicature, notwithstanding their Course of Justice, and subjected them all to incapacity by law, and that no regard is due a despotic and arbitrary Power, they might be to any Sentences flowing from them. They in a capacity to maintain and execute their have carried this so far, as to deprive such wicked designs by the assistance of the Army, Judges, who, in the common administration of and thereby to enslave the nation.-The disjustice, shew, that they were governed by their mal effects of this Subversion of the Established consciences, and not by the directions which Religion, Laws and Liberties in England, apthe others gave them: by which it is apparent, pear more evidently to us by what we see that they design to render themselves the ab- done in Ireland; where the whole government solute masters of the lives, honours and estates is put in hands of Papists; and where all of the subjects, of what rank or dignity soever the Protestant inhabitants are under the daily they may be; and that, without having any fears of what may be justly apprehended from regard either to the equity of the cause, or to the arbitrary power which is set up there: the consciences of the judges; whom they will which has made great numbers of them leave have to submit in all things to their own will that kingdom, and abandon their estates in it; and pleasure: hoping by such ways to intimi- remembering well that cruel and bloody Masdate those other judges, who are yet in employ- sacre which fell out in that Island in the year ment; as also such others as they shall think 1641.-Those evil Counsellors have also prefit to put in the rooms of those whom they have vailed with the king to declare in Scotland, turned out; and to make them see, what they that he is cloathed with absolute power, and must look for, if they should at any time act that all the subjects are bound to obey him


without reserve; upon which he has assumed an arbitrary power, both over the Religion and Laws of that kingdom. From all which it is apparent, what is to be looked for in England, as soon as matters are duly prepared for it. Those great and insufferable Oppressions, and the open contempt of all law, together with the apprehensions of the sad consequences that must certainly follow upon it, have put the subjects under great and just Fears, and have made them look after such lawful Remedies as are allowed of in all nations: yet all has been without effect. And those evil Counsellors have endeavoured to make all men to apprehend the loss of their Lives, Liberties, Honours and Estates, if they should go about to preserve themselves from this oppression by Petitions, Representations, or other means authorized by law. Thus did they proceed with the archbishop of Canterbury, and the other bishops; who, having offered a most humble Petition to the king, in terms full of respect, and not ceeding the number limited by law, (in which they set forth, in short, the Reasons for which they could not obey that Order, which by the instigation of those evil Counsellors was sent them, requiring them to appoint their Clergy to read in their Churches the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience) were sent to prison, and afterwards brought to a Trial, as if they had been guilty of some enormous crime. They were not only obliged to defend themselves in that pursuit, but to appear before professed Papists, who had not taken the Test, and by consequence were men whose interest led them to condemn them and the Judges that gave their opinions in their favours were thereupon turned out.-And yet it cannot be pretended, that any kings, how great soever their power has been, and how arbitrary and despotic soever they have been in the exercise of it, have ever reckoned it a crime for their subjects to come, in all submission and respect, and in a due number not exceeding the limits of the law, and represent to them the Reasons that made it impossible for them to obey their orders. Those evil Counsellors have also treated a peer of the realm as a criminal, only because he said that the subjects were not bound to obey the orders of a Popish Justice of Peace; though it is evident, that, they being by law rendered incapable of all such trust, no regard is due to their orders; this being the Security, which the people have by the law, for their Lives, Liberties, Honours and Estates, that they are not to be subjected to the arbitrary proceedings of Papists, that are, contrary to law, put into any employments civil or military.-Both We ourselves, and our dearest and most entirely beloved Consort the Princess, have endeavoured to signify in terms full of respect to the king, the just and deep regret which all these proceedings have given us; and, in compliance with his majesty's Desires, signified to us, we declared, both by word of mouth to his envoy, and in writing, what our thoughts


were, touching the Repealing of the Test and Penal Laws; which we did in such a manner, that we hoped we had proposed an expedient, by which the peace of those kingdoms, and a happy agreement among the subjects of all persuasions, might have been settled; but those evil Counsellors have put such ill constructions on those our good intentions, that they have endeavoured to alienate the king more and more from us, as if we had designed to disturb the happiness and quiet of the kingdom.-The last and great Remedy for all those evils is the calling of a Parliament, for securing the nation against the evil prac tices of those wicked Counsellors; but this could not be yet compassed, nor can it be easily brought about: for those men apprehending, that a lawful Parliament being once assembled, they would be brought to an account for all their open violations of law, and for their Plots and Conspiracies against the Protestant Reliex-gion, and the Lives and Liberties of the Subjects, they have endeavoured, under the specious pretence of Liberty of Conscience, first to sow divisions amongst Protestants, between those of the Church of England and the Dissenters; the design being laid, to engage Protestants that are all equally concerned to preserve themselves from Popish oppression, into mutual quarrellings, that so, by these, some advantages might be given to them to bring about their designs; and that, both in the Election of the Members of Parliament, and afterwards in the Parliament itself: for they see well that if all Protestants could enter into a mutual good understanding one with another, and concur together in the preserving of their Religion, it would not be possible for them to compass their wicked ends. They have also required all the persons in the several counties of England, that either were in any employment, or were in any considerable esteem, to declare beforehand, that they would concur in the Repeal of the Test and Penal Laws; and that they would give their voices in the Elections to Parliament only for such as would concur in it. Such as would not thus preengage themselves were turned out of all employments; and others who entered into those Engagements were put in their places, many of them being Papists. And, contrary to the Charters and Privileges of those Boroughs that have a right to send burgesses to parliament, they have ordered such Regulations to be made, as they thought fit and necessary for assuring themselves of all the members that are to be chosen by those Corporations: and by this means they hope to avoid that punishment which they have deserved; though it is apparent, that all acts made by Popish Magistrates are null and void of themselves: so that no parliament can be lawful, for which the elections and returns are made by Popish sheriffs and mayors of towns: and therefore as long as the authority and magistracy is in such bands, it is not possible to have any lawful parliament. And though, according to

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the constitution of the English government, and immemorial custom, all Elections of parliament-men ought to be made with an entire liberty, without any sort of force, or the requiring the electors to choose such persons as shall be named to them; and the persons thus freely elected ought to give their opinions freely upon all matters that are brought before them, having the good of the nation ever before their eyes, and following in all things the dictates of their conscience; yet now, the people of England cannot expect a Remedy from a free parliament legally called and chosen; but they may perhaps see one called, in which all Elections will be carried on by fraud or force; and which will be composed of such persons of whom those evil Counsellors hold themselves well assured, in which all things will be carried on according to their direction and interest, without any regard to the good or happiness of the nation: which may appear evidently from this, that the same persons tried the members of the last parliament, to gain them to consent to the Repeal of the Test and Penal Laws; and procured that parliament to be dissolved, when they found, that they could not, neither by promises nor threatenings, prevail with the members to comply with their wicked designs. But, to crown all, there are great and violent presumptions inducing us to believe, that those evil Counsellors, in order to the carrying on of their ill designs, and to the gaining to themselves the more time for the effecting of them, for the encouraging of their complices, and for the discouraging of all good subjects, have published, that the Queen hath brought forth a Son; though there hath ap. peared, both during the Queen's pretended bigness, and in the manner in which the Birth was managed, so many just and visible grounds of suspicion, that not only we ourselves, but all the good subjects of those kingdoms, do vehemently suspect, that the pretended Prince of Wales was not horn by the Queen. And it is notoriously known to all the world, that many both doubted of the Queen's bigness, and of the birth of the child; and yet there was not any one thing done to satisfy them, or to put an end to their doubts.-And since our dearest and most entirely beloved Consort the Princess, and likewise ourselves, have so great an interest in this matter, and such a right, as all the world knows, to the Succession to the Crown; since also the English did, in the year 1672, when the States General of the United Provinces were invaded in a most unjust war, use their utmost endeavours to put an end to that war, and that in opposition to those who were then in the government; and by their so doing, they run the hazard of losing both the favour of the court and their employments; and since the English nation has ever testified a most particular affection and esteem, both to our dearest Consort the Princess, and to ourselves; we cannot excuse ourselves from es pousing their interests in a matter of such high consequence; and from contributing all that

lies in us for the maintaining, both of the Protestant Religion, and of the Laws and Liberties of those kingdoms; and for the securing to them the continual enjoyment of all their just Rights: to the doing of which we are most earnestly solicited by a great many lords, both spiritual and temporal, and by many gentlemen, and other subjects of all ranks.-Therefore it is, that we have thought fit to go over to England, and to carry over with us a force sufficient, by the blessing of God, to defend us from the violence of those evil Counsellors; and we, being desirous that our intention in this may be rightly understood, have, for this end, prepared this Declaration, in which we have hitherto given a true account of the Reasons inducing us to it; so we now think fit to declare, that this our Expedition is intended for no other design, but to have a free and lawful Parliament assembled as soon as is possible; and that in order to this, all the late Charters, by which the elections of burgesses are limited contrary to the ancient custom, shall be considered as null and of no force; and likewise, all magistrates, who have been unjustly turned out, shall forthwith resume their former employinents; as well as all the boroughs of England shall return again to their ancient Prescriptions and Charters; and more particularly, that the ancient Charter of the great and famous city of London, shall again be in force; and that the Writs for the members of Parliament shall be addressed to the proper officers, according to law and custom: that also none be suffered to choose or to be chosen members of parliament, but such as are qualified by law; and that the members of parliament being thus lawfully chosen, they shall meet and sit in full freedom, that so the two houses may concur in the preparing of such Laws as they, upon full and free debate, shall judge necessary and convenient, both for the confirming and executing the law concerning the Test, and such other laws as are necessary for the sccurity and maintenance of the Protestant Religion; as likewise for making such Laws as may establish a good agreement between the Church of England and all Protestant Dissenters; as also, for the covering and securing of all such who would live peaceably under the government, as becomes good subjects, from all persecution upon the account of their Religion, even Papists themselves not excepted; and for the doing of all other things, which the two houses of parliament shall find necessary for the peace, honour and safety of the nation, so that they may be in no more danger of the nation's falling at any time hereafter under arbitrary government. To this Parliament we will also refer the inquiry into the Birth of the pretended Prince of Wales, and of all things relating to it, and to the Right of Succession. And we, for our part, will concur in every thing that may procure the peace and happiness of the nation, which a free and lawful Parliament shall determine; since we have

nothing before our eyes, in this our undertak- "After we had prepared and printed this ing, but the preservation of the Protestant Re- our Declaration, we have understood, that the ligion, the covering of all men from Persecution Subverters of the Religion and Laws of those for their Consciences, and the securing to the kingdoms, hearing of our Preparations to assist whole nation the free enjoyment of their Laws, the people against them, have begun to retract Rights and Liberties, under a just and legal some of the arbitrary and despotic powers government. This is the Design that we have that they had assumed, and to vacate some purposed to ourselves in appearing upon this of their unjust Judgments and Decrees. The occasion in arms; in the conduct of which, we sense of their guilt, and the distrust of their will keep the Forces under our command under force, have induced them to offer to the city all strictness of martial discipline, and take a of London, some seeming relief from their special care, that the people of the countries great oppressions; hoping thereby to quiet the through which we must march shall not suffer people, and to divert them from demanding a by their means; and, as soon as the state of secure re-establishment of their Religion and the nation will admit of it, we promise, that Laws under the shelter of our arms. They do we will send back all those foreign forces that also give out, that we intend to conquer and we have brought along with us.-We do there- enslave the nation: and therefore it is, that fore hope, that all people will judge rightly of we have thought fit to add a few words to our us, and approve of these our proceedings: but Declaration. We are confident, that no perwe chiefly rely on the blessing of God, for the sons can have such hard thoughts of us, as to success of this our undertaking, in which we imagine that we have any other design in this place our whole and only confidence. We do, undertaking, than to procure a Settlement of in the last place, invite and require all persons the Religion, and of the Liberties and Properwhatsoever, all the peers of the realm, both ties of the subjects upon so sure a foundation, spiritual and temporal, all lords lieutenants, that there may be no danger of the nation's redeputy lieutenants, and all gentlemen, citizens, lapsing into the like miscries at any time hereand other commons of all ranks, to come and after. And as the Forces that we have brought assist us, in order to the executing of this our along with us, are utterly disproportioned to Design, against all such as shall endeavour to that wicked design of conquering the nation, if oppose us, that so we may prevent all those we were capable of intending it, so the great miseries which must needs follow upon the numbers of the principal nobility and gentry, nation's being kept under arbitrary government that are men of eminent quality and estates, and slavery, and that all the violences and and persons of known integrity and zeal, both disorders, which may have overturned the for the Religion and Government of England; whole Constitution of the English government, many of them being also distinguished by their may be fully redressed, in a free and legal Par- constant fidelity to the crown, who do both acliament. And we do likewise resolve, as soon company us in this Expedition, and have earnas the nations are brought to a state of quiet, estly solicited us to it, will cover us from all we will take care that a Parliament shall be such malicious insinuations. For it is not to called in Scotland, for the restoring the anci- be imagined, that either those who have inent constitution of that kingdom; and for vited us, or those who are already come to bringing the Matters of Religion to such a Set- assist us, can join in a wicked attempt of contlement, that the people may live easy and quest, to make void their own lawful titles to happy; and for putting an end to all the un- their honours, estates and interests. We are just violences that have been in a course of so also confident, that all men see how little many years committed there.-We will also weight there is to be laid on all promises and study to bring the kingdom of Ireland to such engagements that can be now made; since a state, that the Settlement there may be reli- there has been so little regard had in time past giously observed; and that the Protestant and to the most solemn promises. And as that British interest there may be secured. And imperfect redress that is now offered, is a plain we will endeavour, by all possible means, to confession of those violations of the governprocure such an Establishment in all the three ment that we have set forth, so the defectivekingdoms, that they may all live in a happyness of it is no less apparent; for they lay down union and correspond together; and that the nothing which they may not take up at pleaProtestant Religion, and the Peace, honour, sure; and they reserve entire, and not so much and happiness of these nations may be estab- as mentioned, their claims and pretences to an lished upon lasting foundations.-Given under arbitrary and despotic power; which has been our hand and seal, at our court in the Hague, the root of all their oppression, and of the total the 10th day of October, in the year 1688. subversion of the government. And it is plain, WILLIAM HENRY, Prince of ORANGE." that there can be no Redress nor Remedy offered but in parliament; by a Declaration of the Rights of the subjects that have been invaded; and not by any pretended Acts of Grace, to which the extremity of their affairs has driven them. Therefore it is that we have thought fit to declare, that we will refer all to a free Assembly of the nation, in a lawful Par

The Prince of Orange's Additional Declaration.] The above Declaration was printed and ready to be sent over to England, together with another to the same effect for Scotland; when his highness being informed that king James had taken measures to render it inef fectual, caused the following Addition to be made to it:

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liament. Given under our hand and seal, at follow this example, as soon as we shall apour court in the Hague, the 24th day of Oct.proach near enough to receive them without

in the year 1688. WILLIAM HENRY, Prince of ORANGE."

hazard of being prevented or betrayed.--To which end, and that we may the sooner execute this just and necessary Design we are engaged in for the public safety and deliverance of these nations, we are resolved with all possible diligence to advance forwards, that a free Parliament may be forthwith called, and such preliminaries adjusted with the king, and all things settled upon such a foot, according to law, as may give us and the whole nation just reason to believe, the king is disposed to make such necessary condescensions on his part, as will give entire satisfaction and security to all, and make both king and people once more happy. And that we may effect all this, in the way most agreeable to our desires, if it be possible, without the effusion of blood, except of those execrable criminals who have justly forfeited their lives for betraying the Religion, and subverting the laws of their native country, we do think fit to declare, that as we will offer no violence to any, but in our own necessary defence, so we will not suffer any injury to be done to the person, even of any Papist, provided he be found in such place, and condition, and circumstances as the law requires. So we are resolved, and do declare, that all Papists who shall be found in open arms, or with arms in their houses, or about their persons, or in any office civil or military, upon any pretence whatsoever, contrary to the known laws of the land, shall be treated by us and our forces, not as soldiers and gentlemen, but as robbers, free-booters and banditti; they shall be incapable of quarter, and entirely delivered up to the discretion of our soldiers. We do farther declare, that all persons who shall be found any ways aiding or assisting to them, or shall march under their command, or shall join with, or submit to them in the discharge or execution of their illegal commissions or authority, shall be looked upon as partakers of their crimes, enemies to the laws, and to their country.— And whereas we are certainly informed, that great numbers of armed Papists have of late resorted to London and Westminster, and parts adjacent, where they remain, as we have reason to suspect, not so much for their own security, as out of a wicked and barbarous design, to make some desperate attempt upon the said cities, and their inhabitants, by fire, or sudden massacre, or both; or else to be more ready to join themselves to a body of French troops designed, if it be possible, to land in England, procured of the French king, by the interest and power of the Jesuits, in pursuance of the engagements, which, at the instigation of that pestilent society, his most Christian majesty, with one of his neighbouring princes of the same communion, has entered into for the utter extirpation of the Protestant Religion out of Europe. Though we hope we have taken such effectual care to prevent the one, and secure the other, that, by God's assistance, we

A counterfeit Declaration published in the Prince's Name.] Besides the above, a spurious Declaration was published in the Prince's name, which is said to have produced a considerable effect. It was as follows:

"We have in the whole course of our life, and more particularly by the apparent hazards both by sea and land, to which we have so lately exposed our person, given to the world so high and undoubted proofs of our fervent zeal to the Protestant Religion, that we are fully confident no true Englishman and good Protestant can entertain the least suspicion of our firm resolution, rather to spend our dearest blood, and perish in the attempt, than not to carry on the blessed and glorious design, which, by the favour of Heaven, we have so successfully begun, to rescue England, Scotland and Ireland from Popery and Slavery, and in a free parliament to establish the Religion, the Laws and Liberties of these kingdoms on such a sure and lasting foundation, that it shall not be in the power of any prince for the future to introduce Popery and Tyranny.—Towards the more easy compassing this great design, we have not been hitherto deceived in the just expectation we had of the concurrence of the nobility, gentry, and people of England with us, for the security of their Religion, and the establishment of their Liberties and Properties. Great numbers of all ranks and qualities have joined themselves to us; and others, at great distances from us, have taken up arms and declared for us: and, which we cannot but particularly mention, in that Army which was raised to be the instrument of Slavery and Popery, many, by the special providence of God, both officers and common soldiers, have been touched with such a feeling sense of religion and honour, and of true affection to their native country, that they have already deserted the illegal service they were engaged in, and have come over to us, and have given us full assurance from the rest of the army, that they will certainly

"This was the boldest attempt that ever was made by a private person; and was supposed to have been done by Ferguson or Johnson; but of late Mr. Hugh Speke has assumed the honour of it to himself: a thing which we know not how fully to believe, or wholly to contradict. But, whoever was the author of this Declaration, which the prince of Orange totally disowned, it did his highness no small service at this nice juncture: the Roman Catholics were dreadfully alarmed at it; and several justices of the peace caused it to be published. A certain captain likewise boldly delivered a copy of it to the lord mayor of London, charging him, before witnesses, to see it exactly put in execution; and the inferior officers of justice desired his lordship's assistance, that they might better obey his highness's orders." Echard.

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