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periodical publications prior to that time were almost wholly confined to political transactions, and to foreign and domestic affairs ; but the monthly Magazines opened a way for every kind of inquiry and information. The intelligence and discussions contained in them became extensive and various, and the means of exciting to a general habit of reading among the masses, thereby enlarging the sphere of useful knowledge. Moreover, many young authors, who afterwards rose to eminence in the literary world, here made their first attempts at composition. Here, too, were preserved a multitude of useful hints, curious facts, and valuable observations, which might never have been registered, or registered in a form destined soon to perish. But however important Magazines are to the general public, still more essential are such periodicals to the activity and religious life of a Christian Denomination. Hence, eighteen years after the issue of “The Gentleman's Magazine” (that is, in 1778), Mr. Wesley started a periodical for the use of the nultiplying numbers of the people gathered into church fellowship by his heart-searching ministry; and Mr. Wesley, who knew full well the value of an appropriate name, called his new periodical by the same general title, with a doctrinal prefix-namely, “THE ARMINIAN MAGAZINE.” Within fifteen years after this period (1793), the Independents started a miscellaneous periodical, and they called it by the euphonious title of "The Evangelical Magazine." From that period downwards miscellaneous periodicals flooded the land; but, however diversified their character and specific their aim, they have, .for the most part, especially the monthly serials, assumed the old Arabic cognomen of Magazine.

Our own periodical, besides the general name, has the additional title of Evangelical Repository.” This is just what we have desired to make it, a treasury of truth—a storehouse of spiritual provisions-a repository of evangelical doctrine and religious facts, and an impregnable Magazine, full of effective ammunition for the defence of the faith once delivered to the saints. If, in closing the sixty-fourth year, it has realized this character in the past, we hope it will prove itself to be still more worthy of the same in the future.

With fervent thanks to both contributors and subscribers for their valuable aid, we now address ourselves to the future. The Conference has promised us more effective help in our work, and granted more means to secure it; and we now promise our readers more matter for the same price, to consist of the best articles we can procure for their edification. Commending our labours to your enlightened candour and your earnest prayers,

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I remain, yours in Christ Jesus,


4, Crescent, Albany Road, London.

November, 1861

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JANUARY, 1861.

Essays, &c., on Theology and General Literature.



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It was on a foggy August morning, which gradually passed into a lovely day, that I and two companions found ourselves, with a large company of passengers, gliding down the Humber in the fine screw steamer,“ Scandinavian," on our way to Norway. The previous evening had been showery and unpromising, and probably this prepared us all the more to enjoy the pleasant sail on the river, and the prospect of an agreeable voyage across the German Ocean. On passing Spurn Head, a fine southerly breeze sprang up, and, under the combined influence of steam, wind, and tide, we pursued a course from which we never deviated till we approached the Scandinavian waters, at the rate of 111 knots an hour. The sea, on this day, at least, was as smooth as glass, and the effect of the receding shore till out of sight of land, then of the sunlight dancing on the water, gleaming like frosted silver upon a dark ground, and subsequently, of the brilliant moon sparkling with a more subdued, but perhaps more enchanting light, occupied us pleasantly enough to keep us on deck till a late hour of the night. No doubt a long voyage is monotonous and tiresome enough, especially to those who have no useful employment to fall back upon, but for a few days the variety is sufficient to stave off the demon of ennui. The sea itself is at all times an object of interest; while the movements of the sailors, the passing of distant vessels, speculations as to the progress of the ship, the recurring meetings for meals in the saloon, and the strolls for conversation on deck in such fine weather as we were favoured with, render a short voyage not only endurable but agreeable, without any special or private occupation to engage our attention.

Our second day at sea was Sunday, and not wishing to lay aside our religious habits on leaving our own country, we ventured to suggest to the captain the propriety of holding divine service on board. Captain Fairburn having not only willingly but gladly consented, John, the good-tempered steward, or as he was commonly termed, “ the doctor," immediately affixed a paper to the mainmast, intimating that service would be held in the saloon at eleven o'clock, and a quarter of an hour before


that time commenced ringing the ship's bell in good style, as a hint to the congregation to assemble. Nearly the whole of the passengers, and as many of the crew as could be spared, united with us in worship; and, without describing our proceedings more particularly, I may say that in thus publicly acknowledging our dependence upon, and seeking the protection of, Divine Providence, we had the satisfaction of having discharged a religious duty, and set an example which would have a beneficial influence.

The day continued fine till late in the evening, when heavy rain and a dreary night set in; and as we were now approaching the dangerous Norwegian coast, and the darkness of the night compelled us to stand off the land for a few hours, I may take the opportunity of answering

I by anticipation a question which will probably be asked as to our motives for selecting Norway, in preference to other and more frequented countries, as the scene of our peregrinations.

In answer to this question, it might be sufficient to say, that as there are many interesting countries, and only one can be visited at a time, one is entitled to select which he pleases, without assigning any more particular reason ; but it is quite unnecessary, in this case, to shirk the question by asserting one's dignity and independence, as many substantial reasons may be assigned for placing Norway in a high position among the objects of interest to a tourist~the most important of which are its physical features, and its historical relations. A glance at each may not be useless or uninteresting.

Norway, as its name imports, is the most northern country of Europe, and is called by the natives Norge, or Norrike, which signifies northern kingdom, or kingdom of the Normans, or Northmen. It extends from the Naes, or Cape of Lindesnaes, in the south, in latitude 58 deg., to the North Cape, the most northerly point in Europe, in lat. 71 deg. north, and from 5 to 28 deg. of longitude east of Greenwich. Its greatest length is about 1,100 miles, and its greatest breadth about 240; but a glance at the map, which will convey a much better idea of its form and position than any description, will show that it varies much in breadth ; so much so, that in 67 deg. or 68 deg. north lat. the distance from the shores of the inlets to the Swedish frontier is not more than 20 miles. Its total area is estimated at 120,000 to 130,000 square miles, which is considerably greater than that of the British Islands. But although the surface of Norway is some thousands of square miles larger than that of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland together, the population differs exceedingly in the opposite direction; the number of inhabitants being, at the census of 1855, only about a million and a half, while that of Great Britain and its adjacent isles, in 1851, was nearly 27 millions. The difference in density is therefore very great; for while we have in England 233 persons to a square mile, in Norway the average is only about 10 or 12 persons in the same space. From the comparatively small proportion of inhabitants, it might be supposed that the means of subsistence would be larger than in England; but not so. So small a portion of the country is capable of cultivation, and so inconsiderable is its commercial and manufacturing development, that the amount of wealth, and the condition of the people generally, is much below that of the working classes in England, as I may have nccasion to observe when

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