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being melted, requires a greater ability in the fire for the fame purpose. Thus alfo lead requires more favorable circumstances for melting than tin, a veffel of tin will melt if used for baking in an oven, but lead will endure its ufual heat. --Thefe differing degrees of proportion respect comparisons with what they formerly were, or what they now are refpecting fome other persons or things but do not at all touch the exact relation requifite in each particular inftance between ability, capacity, and opportunity to the existence

of power.

16. I think properties as effential to power will alfo take another confideration without violence to their conception: We will diftinguish their general conception into adequate and inadequate. Thefe terms immediately lead us to think of an end, to which they are adequate or inadequate. This end may either be our conception of power, or else fome actual confequent efficiency, because both are fully connected and always co-exiftent.

When there is no defect of ability in relation to fuppofed capacity and suitable circumstances, effential to the existence of power and efficiency in any respect. I denominate the ability adequate.: but if there is a defect of ability in relation to the fuppofed capacity and circumstances effential to power and efficiency, either or both, confidered as their end-the ability is inadequate.

The adequacy of ability may confift in its fuitable

fuitable nature as a fimple active property, or as a compofition of active properties of different kinds, or as a collection of the fame kind. The property of aquafortis in refpect of the diffolving filver, is an inftance of the firft,-The property of a compofition of aquafortis and fal armonic in respect of diffolving gold is an inftance of the fecond,And the ability arifing from the proportes of a certain number of ounces in refpect of raising the scale, is an inftance of the laft. Thus alfo, the ability to fee in respect of actual fight--The ability arifing from a conjunction of what is called natural ability with moral ability in respect of the end, difcharge of duty-And, the ability refulting from the collected abilities of a team of horfes in refpect of drawing a load.

From attention to what has been faid of the adequacy of ability in refpect of the ends power and efficiency, it is evident, that the inadequacy of inadequate ability may confist in defect of kind, defect of composition, or defect of collection, or of all thefe.

Capacity alfo, like ability may be confidered in its nature or aggregate as adequate or inadequate. Here also we have respect to an end, either power, or its confequent efficiency related to which, adequate ability and circumstances are fuppofed.

The adequacy of capacity in refpect of its end, whether power or efficiency may confift either

in a fingle paffive property-a compofition of paffive properties—or in a collection of paffive properties. Thus, to give an inflance of the firft, Silver has an adequate paffive property to diffolution by aquafortis, and to power in that respect. To give an instance of the second, Man as combining the paffive properties of body and mind in his nature has adequate capacity to be inftructed, or to power in respect of learning. And to inftance the laft, Thus a certain number of candles by their collected paffive properties have adequate capacity in refpect of the end, enlightening a room to a certain degree, and to power in that respect.

It is evident, if this be a true representation, that the inadequacy of inadequate capacity muft confift in defect of kind, compofition, or collectien, or of all.

Circumftances may be alfo confidered as adequate or inadequate, for, we can conceive adequate ability and related eapacity where there is not adequate circumftances to the existence of power and efficiency. Adequate circumftances I have expreffed by the terms, fuitable circumftances.

No fimple circumftance is adequate to the exiftence of power or efficiency conceived as an end, because without both time and place in every inftance there can be no power or efficiency. Adequate circumftances ever confift in a combi


nation or arrangement of circumftances, and circumflances may be inadequate in respect of kind and compofition.

17. Probably, the objects of power are rightly diftinguished into abiding, enduring, and changes. Power confidered as effential to, and co-existent with, abiding, enduring, producing, and sustaining, may easily be illustrated from facts, which occur every day.--Inftances of abiding readily present. themselves.

Our dwellings abide. Furniture abides where we place it. Day and night ftill continue. And the heavenly bodies which were of old continue or abide at the present time. A cowflip in the field with ability in the foil, capacity in itself, and its root in the earth, abides in its vigor and beauty: let it be plucked up or torn off, fuitable circumflances no longer exift, power respecting abiding is no morç, it withers, drys, or rots on the ground.

Objects which abide, may be diftinguished into fuch as are generated, and fuch as are made. Things which are generated, maturate and decline. Things made may be improved, and then gradually or more rapidly decay. Both these kinds of objects are liable to be prematurely destroyed. The excellence of machines in their conftruction admit the following remarks. Thofe are the best that confift (1.) of the most valuable materials. (2.) that confift of the moft excellent properties, (3.) of the greatest number of valuable proper

ties. (4.) That are calculated in their parts for the greatest durability. (5.) And that are calculated fo that all their parts fhall be equally durable, and when they decline equally decline together.

Abiding is here taken in a popular sense, for ftrictly and philofophically judging, perhaps there is no fuch thing as abfolutely abiding among created things, fince even the air tends to oppose the place of bodies, and if oppofition to place only, is admitted, the object which abides ftrictly endures. And again as no body is perfectly free from fubjection to the operation of other bodies its whole continuance, even that of a diamond is a state of enduring.

Enduring respects more violent opposition, and includes the various degrees of juft fupporting, furmounting, and triumphing over, all which depend on adequate power. Thus gold endures the corrofive quality of aquafortis: a diamond the ability of both it and fire. Thus a child endures chastisement, a man affliction or an amputation. A houfe endures the wind, rain and lightening, and a ship the fwelling billows.

Power in respect of abiding and enduring feems the refult of ability to furmount oppofition -Capacity in oppofition to be furmountedTime, place, and other fuitable circumstances. But in refpect of evil objects their abiding and enduring depends on deficiency of ability in the oppofer

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