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nitely taught in what follows:-In our image, after our likeness. The idea here intended is doubtless the same as is embodied in the teaching of an apostle, that "we are the offspring of God." The correlative idea is presented in the affirmation that there is "one God and Father of all."

In scripture language generally, to be "the children of God," or to be "the sons of God," has reference to religious or moral character, or to what we may become by being imitators or "followers of God as dear children." Jesus therefore exhorts his disciples to love not merely their friends, but their enemies also, "that," says he, "ye may be the children of your Father who is in heaven," that is, like him morally. But to be the offspring of God, or to bear his image, relates to what we are constitutionally, or by virtue of creation; it being true that "there is a spirit in man," since God is not only "a spirit," but "the Father of spirits," even "the God of the spirits of all flesh." Man thus having a spiritual nature, and destined to an eternal existence, in a state of immortality, is therefore said to be made in the image of God. But whether this view of the subject is correct or not, it is the doctrine of Moses that mankind now, as an apostle also expressly affirms, "are made after the similitude of God." For that which he tells us the Creator proposed to make in his own image, and did thus make or create, was not merely Adam, nor Adam and Eve, but man—the genus homo, the race.

(27.) Male and female created he them. Some persons search the Scriptures diligently, if not daily, for the very laudable purpose of hunting out discrepancies therein. And they find one, as they think, in Moses's account, inasmuch as he here states that the race was created male and female; yet in the second chapter he tells of a time when there was a man, but no woman! Let such consider, if they are capable of it, that an after-description of an event and a description of an after-event are sometimes quite two things. Moses first relates in general terms that God created man male and female, placing the former first. He afterwards relates certain circumstances attendant on the creation of the one, and certain other circumstances connected with the creation of the other; and states

definitely, what he had before intimated, that the man was created first; and also mentions the additional fact that some little time elapsed after the man was made be fore the woman was formed.

Again: Some can not reconcile, with the account of man's creation in the first chapter of Genesis, the statement in the second, that " there was not a man to till the ground." Now what Moses really affirms, is, that there was no man up to the time when God made the herbs and plants. And we learn from the first chapter that man was made after vegetation was created. Where, then, is the discrepancy?

Some writers insist very particularly upon the fact that in the first chapter man is said to have been created, and in the second, to have been formed; and they contend that the first has relation to the mind, or spirit, the second, to the bodily organization. Now, in the language of Moses, to create, and to make, are convertible expressions. Thus he informs us that God said, Let the waters bring forth fish; and then adds that God created them. He tells us that God said, Let the earth bring forth land animals; and then adds that God made them. He relates also, that God said, Let us make man; and then adds, So God created man. Moreover he says in chap. ii. 4, "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens;" &c. To create, and to make, are, then, the same thing precisely..

(31.) And the evening and the morning were the sixth day: The period of time embraced in Moses's sixth view. So far as the production of living creatures is concerned, the work of creation by a direct process then ceased. The three verses following have very improperly been thrown into another chapter.

(Chap. ii. 1.) Thus the heavens and the earth were finished. They were created in the beginning; but the earth, at least, was not finished until the sixth day.

(2.) And on the seventh day God ended his work, &c. The sense intended, evidently is, that He had ended it. In chap. ii. 17, is also an instance of the imperfect tense for the preter-imperfect tense. We there read that the Creator "formed every beast of the field, &c., and brought

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them to Adam; which makes Moses seem to say the opposite of what he had said, that the animals were created before man. The true rendering then is, "had formed," &c. And it being a manifest fact that in these instances the preter-imperfect tense ought to have been used instead of the imperfect, is the statement incredible that chap. i. 16, ought to read, "Now God had made?" &c.

And he rested on that day. What is here meant by God's resting, is well expressed in Heb. iv. 11: "For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own work, as God did from his." That is, the Creator ceased from direct acts of creation. Note, God's Sabbath, as respects the earth, continues yet. Creation is still effected through the operation of the law of reproduction.

(3.) And God blessed the seventh day. Ordained that the seventh period of time should possess a distinguishing characteristic, analogous to a season of rest. And sanctified it. Set it apart to the purpose above mentioned.

We have now seen that Moses, after stating the general fact that the universe of worlds owes its origin to having been created by God, presents a view of the earth in a chaotic state, destitute of symmetry, void of inhabitants, and unfurnished with any accommodations for inhabitants had they existed; and that he ends with describing it as the residence of man, and so fitted and furnished for his reception, as that he, by the aid of his intellectual and physical powers, is able to render it quite a convenient and desirable abode. Only some of the more prominent of the processes by which the earth was thus improved, are by him presented. The principal of these are the following:

Water was formed, and covered the whole surface of the globe; but darkness rested upon its face, for the atmosphere had so much of an opaque substance floating in it that the light of the sun had never penetrated through it. The Creator willed, and light reached the earth's surface; and by the diurnal rotation of the earth, day and night succeeded each other in turn. Still the atmosphere contained an immense volume of vapor reaching quite down to the water all over the earth. He willed, and the vapor arose, leaving an expanse of clear air between the ocean and the clouds. The earth was now, as to its

surface, but one vast ocean. In due time, however, by the divine volition, the continents and islands appeared, and the ocean receded into somewhat smaller limits. And being thus made into a terraqueous body, its earthy parts were by the Divine power soon clothed with vegetation. Yet up to this time it had been constantly cloudy. Day and night had succeeded each other, but the cause of either was not apparent. The Creator willed, and by the disappearance of the clouds from the atmosphere, the sun, moon, and stars, became visible. And now the earth being sufficiently enlightened, and the waters of the ocean sufficiently cooled, the various aquatic tribes were produced; next, those which inhabit the air; next, land animals; and last of all, man, appointed to rule the whole.

In considering the character of Moses's account, that which strikes my mind as forcibly as any thing else, is its perfect naturalness. Had he presented the various events in any other order than he has, a want of consistency in his description would have been quite apparent. Thus, if his statement had been, that man was created before the animals, we should at once perceive an incongruity in man's having dominion granted him over what did not exist. Had he told us that the animals were produced before the plants and trees, we might have wondered what the cattle subsisted on in the absence of vegetation. Had he related that vegetables and trees were made before the dry land appeared, we might well wonder where they were stored until they could be planted. These examples are sufficient to illustrate the position that the order of events presented by Moses in his brief narration, is the exact order of nature.

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In conclusion, I observe that Moses's description of the primeval condition of the earth, and of the changes it underwent before becoming the habitation of man, was written more than thirty centuries before geology was ever studied as a distinct science. Yet his account when properly understood, is sustained by geology in all essential particulars; yea, it may be added that it conflicts with neither natural philosophy nor astronomy. Now that he, at that period, should have been able to write such an account, is, to say the least, a truly remarkable

fact, and, to me, it is a proof that he actually received information on the subject from an authentic and perfectly reliable source-THE ALMIGHTY CREATOR HIMSELF.

J. L.


The Unity of the Human Race.

I THINK it is commonly agreed that, so far as the Scriptures treat directly on the matter, they recognize the unity of the human race. The obvious doctrine of Moses, in Genesis, is, that all men sprang from one pair; St. Paul, at Athens, teaches that God "hath made of one blood all nations of men, to dwell on all the face of the earth;" and this is the ground which is evidently pre-supposed by the rest of the inspired writers.

Some, however, have argued that Moses was inconsis tent with himself; that although he teaches that Adam was the father of all nations, or the first man, and Eve the first woman, yet he indirectly recognizes Pre-Adamites. Where did Cain get his wife? Did he fear his parents would kill him? Did they need the mark set upon him to know him as a murderer? If Adam and Eve were the only persons living, who composed his city? These questions lead people to conclude that east of Eden, in the land of Nod (vagabond) there must have dwelt another race or people. Among them Cain found his wife; they were the men who composed his city, and whose vengeance he feared, because, forsooth, he had killed his brother. What I have to say in reply to this is chiefly negative. I do not know but that Cain took his wife with him from Eden to Nod,-that the mark on him was one forbidding his parents killing him, rather than one of recognition, that he simply founded a city, or was the progenitor of a race to people it, rather than the builder or finisher of it.. It is hard to look back through the dust of six thousand years and see precisely how the thing

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