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On this subject I will make two more quotations from Prof. Carpenter :

"The analogical argument derived from the phenomena presented by the domesticated species among the lower animals, is decidely in favor of the specific unity of the human race; the differences which have sprung up, in course of time, amongst the inhabitants of different parts of the world, being such as we have a fair right to attribute, according to the recognized principles of zoology, to the modifying influence of external conditions, acting upon a constitution peculiarly disposed to yield to it." (p. 76.)

That is, domesticated animals, known to have had a common ancestry, vary as extremely as the human race. This is true of dogs especially. And the differences which present themselves among these domesticated animals, are of the same kind as those that present themselves among the different races of men. They vary, too, with climate and country. The blood-hound in Spain was one thing, but introduced into the West Indies, in about three hundred years it degenerated into a wild race of a different form. The hog, in the same country, in a domesticated state, had various colors; but brought to our western shores, and left to run wild, it becomes uniform in color, its head elongated, and its bristles gave place to an apparent (or real) species of fur. As great changes have taken place in the horse, ass, ox, sheep, goat, dogs, birds, &c., carried to South America and the West Indies, three and a half centuries ago, by the Spaniards.

Pass, if you please, from the lower types of animal organization, over into the vegetable kingdom. Vegetables change with the climate. Naturalists inform us that apples, pears, plums, variable as they are in taste, form and color, sprang from the same seedling originally; and that the same is true of the cow-slip, ox-slip, primrose and polyanthus. Go into the granary of the husbandman, and look among his Indian corn. The most of it may be yellow or white. But occasionally you will find a red ear, a blue ear, a black ear, &c. The shape of the kernels, too, differs as much as the skulls of men belonging to different races. The facial angle, that is if we measure according to the method of Camper, varies in

man but ten degrees,-70° in the Negro, 80° in the European, and in no respect does the shape of the head vary more. Is there not a vastly wider difference be tween a kernel of rice-corn, for example, and the form of an old fashioned kernel of yellow corn? And if all our variously colored and shaped maize, sprang from one primal seedling, does not analogy teach, that the variously colored and shaped men that go to make up the five races, might have sprung from one original pair? And was St. Paul out of the way in affirming before the Athenians that we are all of one blood?

Prof. Carpenter says: "The most important physiological test of specific unity or diversity, is derived from the phenomena attending the reproductive process. It is well known that in plants, the stigma of the flower of one species may be fertilized with the pollen of an allied species; and that from the seeds produced, plants of an intermediate character may be raised. These hybrid plants, however, will not perpetuate the new race; for, although they may ripen their seed for one or two generations, they will not continue to produce themselves beyond a third or fourth. But if the intervention of one of the parent species be employed-its stigma being fertilized by the pollen of the hybrid, or vice versa-a mixed race may be kept up some time longer, but it will then have a manifest tendency to return to the form of the parent whose intervention has been employed. Where, on the other hand, the parents themselves were only varieties, the hybrid forms are but another variety, and its powers of reproduction are rather increased than diminished; so that it may continue to propagate its own race ad infinitum. In this way, many beautiful new varieties of garden flowers have been obtained; especially among such species as have a natural tendency to change their aspect. Amongst animals, the limits of hybridity are much more

5 In the adult Campanzee 35°; in the Orang 30°; for though as high as 60° in some new-born apes, the jaws are made to project wonderfully at the time of second dentition. These higher monkey tribes differ from man in other important particulars. They have three less vertebræ than a human being; they have a peculiar pouch connected with the larynx that belongs not to the human species, also less perfect feet. These dissimularities are not found among the varieties of men; we meet with them only by stepping down among a lower species.

narrow, since the hybrid is totally unable to continue its race with one of its own kind; and although it may be fertile with one of its parent species, the progeny will, of course approach in character to the pure breed, and the race will ultimately merge into it. On the other hand, in animals as among plants, the mixed offsprings originating from different races within the limits of the same species, generally exceed in vigor, and in the tendency to multiply, the parent races from which they are produced, so as to gain ground upon the older varieties, and gradually to supercede them. In this manner, by the crossing of the breeds of our domesticated animals, many new and superior varieties have been produced. The general principle is, then, that beings of distinct species, or descendants from stocks originally different, cannot produce a mixed race which shall posses the capability of perpetuating itself; whilst the union of varieties has a tendency to produce a race superior in energy and fertility to its parents.

"The application of this principle (if it be admitted as such) to the human races leaves no doubt with respect to their specific unity; for, it is well known, not only do all the races of men breed freely with each other, but the - mixed race is generally superior in physical development, and in tendency to rapid multiplication, to either of the parent stocks; so that there is much reason to believe that, in many countries, the mixed race between the Aborigines and European colonizers will untimately become the dominant power in the community. This is specially the case in India and South America." (p. 77.)

Such is the test, furnished by Carpenter, derived from the phenomena of the reproductive process. And he has given us one of a psychological character equally as conclusive, though I have not space to quote it.

I regret the attempts of scientific men to unsettle our faith in the doctrine of the unity of the race. So far as

6 When located at Richmond, Va., the writer heard this doctrine boldly denied. It was there contended that the mulatto, or the offspring of a European father and Indian mother, (or vice versa), could not perpetuate his species, with his own kind, beyond the fifth or seventh generation. I have more faith, however, in the affirmation of Carpenter, than in the opinions of uneducated men, who are anxious to justify slavery.

such attempts take effect, I think it evident, notwithstanding all that may be pleaded to the contrary, that they impair the public confidence in the record of Inspiration, and rather nourish the skeptical tendencies of our time. I do not say that the doctrine is so intrinsically inwoven in the revealed system of the Bible, that an explosion of it would necessarily be the destruction of all Christian faith. But it is easy to see whose sympathies are the most strongly engaged in its preservation, and whose in its rejection. Obviously the skeptical, and the skeptically-inclined are, generally speaking, the ones who are gratified by the appearance of pleas and allegations that go to make out different origins of mankind. Have the pleas and allegations of this kind, which have been hitherto advanced, rested on any ground sufficiently broad and firm to support so unnatural a conclusion? It is not only the doubters of revelation who seem to take an interest in the attempts to disprove the unity of our race; the defenders of slavery join with them in this one point, and appear to regard it as a "god-send," when a scientific man gives them an argument against the truth that "God hath made of one blood all nations of men to dwell on all the face of the earth." But until clearer proof is produced than we have yet seen, we shall "let God be true, but every man a liar."

W. N. B.

ART XXI.

The Righteous and the Wicked.

In various terms of opposition, the Scriptures speak of two widely differing states, which are denominated righteousness, justification, life, light, on the one hand; and sin, wickedness, condemnation, darkness, death, upon the other. Since the Scriptures are built on the idea of the opposition of these states, and since the terms chosen to characterize them are borrowed from the strongest contrasts of nature, such as light and darkness, life and

death, we seem led irresistibly to the conclusion, that the states themselves present the marks of a wide and manifest separation. For that style must be violent and distempered, which uses the terms of extreme opposition to describe simple gradations. And as we cannot believe that the language of the New Testament is so illy chosen, we are left only the conclusion that the two states mentioned mark, not gradations, but contrasts. The line between them may be narrower than that which anciently divided England from Scotland, but yet no man can stand with one foot in each of these two kingdoms, as some used to boast of having spanned the Tweed, but must be wholly in one or the other. We cannot either, in this matter, confine ourselves to the abstract idea of states, or conditions, as impersonal matters. These states, or conditions, are embodied, they become incarnate, they appear as characteristics of men; and men are known as righteous or wicked, godly or ungodly, alive or dead, sons of God or children of the devil, according as the characteristics of one or the other of these states appear in them. There are then, these two classes of men, the righteous, and the wicked, separated from each other by distinct lines. No intermediate standing-place, no neutrality, no compromise is provided for, either by the terminology or the spirit of the sacred Scriptures. Among the righteous, or among the wicked, every living man must be classed. This can be avoided only by evading one of the fundamental doctrines of the Bible. "They that are in the flesh cannot please God. But ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit; if so be that the spirit of God dwell in you." Rom. viii. 8, 9. It is our purpose to trace that dividing line which separates these two classes.

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But here we shall be met with the question, whether any such line really exists. It will be argued that in regard to religion, a state of things exists, similar to that which we find in respect to color. Every one admits that there are black men and white men, yet if you arrange the men in the world in one vast line placing the whitest man on the right, and the blackest man on the left, any one would admit the opposition of color in the extremes; but who in passing along the line, could say where the division should be made, that should sunder white from

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