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hold them of good use, in cities indeed upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street); for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides they keep both the wind and the sun off : for that which wouldstrike almost through the room, doth scarce pass the window. But let them be but few, four in the court on the sides only.
Beyond this court let there be an inward court of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside cloistered upon all sides; upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story. On the under story towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, or place of shade or estivation; and only have opening and windows towards the garden, and be level upon floor, no wbit sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness : and let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statues in the midst of this court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy galleries: whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chambers, anticamera, and recamera, joining to it: this upon the second story. Upon the ground story a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery, upon pillars, to take the prospect and
freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystaline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst, and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine 'avoidances. And thus much for the model of the palace; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts : and a green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellishments upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries, to pass from them to the palace itself.
Of Gardens. God Almighty first planted a Garden; and indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which buildings and palaces are but gross handyworks. And a man shall ever see, that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately, sooner than to garden finely: as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it in the royal ordering of Gardens, there ought to be Gardens for all the months in the year, in which, severally, things of beauty may be then in season. For December and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter; holly, ivy, bays, juniper, cypress trees,
' yews, pine-apple trees, fir-trees, rosemary, laven. der, perriwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue germander, flags, orange-trees, lemon-trees, and myrtle, if they be stoved, and sweet marjoram warm set. There followeth for the latter part of January and February, the mezerion tree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses, anemones, the early tulippa, hyacinthus orientalis, chamairis, frettellaria. For March there comes violets, especially the single blue, which are earliest; the yellow daffodil, thea daizy, the almond-tree in blossom, the peach-tree in blossom, the cornelian-tree in blossom, sweetbriar. In April follow the double white violet, the wall-flower, the stock gilly-flower, the cowslip, flower-de-luces, and lilies of all natures, rosemaryflower, the tulippa, the double piony, the pale daffodil, the French honey-suckle, the cherry-tree in
blossom, the damascene and plum-trees in blossom, the white thorn in leaf, the lilac tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, especially the blush-pink, roses of all kinds, except the musk, which comes later; honey-suckles, strawberries, bugloss, columbine, the French marygold, flos africanus, cherry-tree in fruit, ribes, figs in fruit, rasps, vine-flowers, lavender in flowers, the sweet-satyrian with the white flower, herba muscaria, lilium convallium, the apple-tree in blossom. In July come gilly-flowers of all varieties, musk-roses, and the lime-tree in blossom, early pears and plums in fruit, genitings, codlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit, pears, apricots, barberries, filberds, musk-melons, monks-hoods of all colours. In September come grapes, apples, poppies of all colours, peaches, melo-cotones, nectarines, cornelians, wardens, quinces. In October, and the beginning of November, come services, medlars, bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late, hollyoaks, and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London : but my meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuam, “ a constant spring,” as the place affords.
And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air, (where it comes and goes, like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses damask and red are flowers tenacious of their smells, so that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their sweetness; yea, though it be in a morning dew. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow, rosemary little, nor sweet-marjoram. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air, is the violet, especially the white double violet, which comes twice a year, about the middle of April, and about Bartholomewtide. Next to that is the musk-rose, then the strawberry-leaves dying with a most excellent cordial smell. Then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust, like the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. Then sweet-briar, then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlour, or lower chamber-window. Then pinks and gilly-flowers, especially the matted pink, and clove gilly-flower. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeysuckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of beanflowers, I speak not, because they are field-flowers. But those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, are three: that is, burnet, wild-thyme, and water-mints. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread.