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For Gardens, (speaking of those which are indeed prince-like, as we bave done of Buildings) the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground, and to be divided into three parts ; a green in the entrance, a heath or desert in the going forth, and the main garden in the midst, besides alleys on both sides. And I like well, that four acres of ground be assigned to the green, six to the heath, four and four to either side, and twelve to the main Garden. The green hath two pleasures ; the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the Garden. But because the alley will be long, and in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the Garden, by going in the sun through the green; therefore you are of either side the green to plant a covert alley upon carpenter's work, about twelve feet in height, by which you may go in shade into the Garden. As for the making of knots of figures, with divers coloured earths, that they may lie under the windows of the house, on that side which the Garden stands, they be but toys; you may see as good sights many times in tarts. The Garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge: the arches to be upon pillars of carpenter's work, of some ten feet high, and six feet broad, and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge, of some four feet high, framed also upon carpenter's work; and upon the upper hedge, over every arch a little turret, with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds; and over every space between the arches, some other little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some six feet, set all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the Garden should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on the hither side ground enough for diversity of side-alleys, unto which the two covert alleys of the green may deliver you ; but there must be no alleys with hedges at either end of this great inclosure: not at the higher end, for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green; nor at the further end, for letting your prospect from the hedge through the arches upon the heath.
For the ordering of the ground within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device. Advising nevertheless, that, whatsoever form you cast it into, first, it be not too busy, or full of work; wherein 1, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper, or other garden-stuff; they be for children. Little low hedges, round like welts, with some pretty pyramids, I like well : and in some places fair columns upon frames of carpenter's work. I would also have the alleys spacious and fair. You may bave closer alleys upon the side-grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also in the
middle a fair mount, with three ascents and alleys, enough for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or imbossments; and the whole mount to be thirty feet high, and some fine banqueting house, with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.
For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the Garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water, the other a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty feet square; but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well; but the main matter is, so to convey the water, as it never stay, either in the bowls, or in the cistern, that the water be never by rest discoloured, green or red, or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand; also some steps up to it, and some fine pavement about it doth well. As for the other kind of fountain, which we may call a bathing-pool, it may admit much curiosity and beauty, wherewith we will not trouble ourselves :-as that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; the sides likewise; and withal embellished with coloured glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low stature. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain, which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground by some equality of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms, (of feathers, drinking-glasses, canopies, and the like,) they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.
For the health, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, but some thickets, made only of sweet-briar and honey-suckle, and some wild vine amongst, and the ground set with violets, strawberries and primroses : for these are sweet, and prosper in the shade. And these to be in the heath, here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in
the nature of mole-hills, (such as are in wild heaths) to be set, some with wild thyme, some with pink, some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle, some with violets, some with strawberries, some with cowslips, some with daisies, some with red roses, some with lilium convallium, some with sweetwilliams, red; some with bear's-foot, and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly. Part of which heaps, to be with standards of little bushes, pricked upon their top, and part without; the standards to be roses, juniper, holly, bear-berries ; but here and there, (because of the smell of their blossom) red currants, gooseberries, rosemary, bays, sweet-briar, and such like. But these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of
For the side-grounds, you are to fit them with variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade; some of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some of them likewise for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery, And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts ; as well upon the walls, as in ranges. And this