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too much old times, are but a scorn to the new. It were good, therefore, that men in their Innovations would follow the example of time itself; which indeed innovateth greatly, but quietly, and by degrees scarce to be perceived: for otherwise whatsoever is new, is unlooked for; and ever it mends some, and impairs others: and he that is holpen, takes it for a fortune, and thanks the time; and he that is hurt, for a wrong, and imputeth to the author. It is good also, not to try experiments in States; except the necessity be urgent, or the utility be evident; and well to beware, that it be the reformation that draweth on the change, and not the desire of change that pretendeth the reformation. And lastly, that the novelty, though it be not rejected, yet be held for a suspect; and, as the Scripture saith; "That we make a stand upon the ancient way, and then look about us, and discover what is the strait and right way, and so to walk in it."

Of Dispatch.

AFFECTED Dispatch is one of the most dangerous things to business that can be. It is like that which the physicians call pre-digestion, or hasty digestion, which is sure to fill the body full of crudities, and secret seeds of diseases. There

fore measure not Dispatch by the times of sitting, but by the advancement of the business. And as in races, it is not the large stride, or high lift, that makes the speed; so in business, the keeping close to the matter, and not taking of it too much at once, procureth Dispatch. It is the care of some only to come off speedily for the time, or to contrive some false periods of business, because they may seem men of Dispatch. But it is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off; and business so handled at several sittings or meetings, goeth commonly backward or forward in an unsteady manner. I knew a wise man, that had it for a by-word, when he saw men hasten to a conclusion: "Stay a little, that we may make an end the sooner."

On the other side, true Dispatch is a rich thing. For time is the measure of business, as money is of wares; and business is bought at a dear hand, where there is small Dispatch. The Spartans and Spaniards have been noted to be of small Dispatch: "Mi venga la muerte de Spagna," "Let my death come from Spain, for then it will be sure to be long in coming."

Give good hearing to those that give the first information in business; and rather direct them in the beginning, than interrupt them in the continuance of their speeches: for he that is put out of

his own order, will go forward and backward, and be more tedious while he waits upon his memory, than he could have been, if he had gone on in his own course. But sometimes it is seen, that the Moderator is more troublesome than the Actor.

Iterations are commonly loss of time; but there is no such gain of time, as to iterate often the state of the question; for it chaseth away many a frivolous speech as it is coming forth. Long and curious speeches are as fit for Dispatch, as a robe or mantle with a long train is for a race.

Prefaces, and passages, and excusations, and other speeches of reference to the person, are great wasters of time; and though they seem to proceed of modesty, they are bravery. Yet beware of being too material, when there is any impediment or obstruction in men's wills; for pre-occupation of mind ever requireth preface of speech, like a fomentation to make the unguent enter.

Above all things, order, and distribution, and singling out of parts is the life of Dispatch, so as the distribution be not too subtile; for he that doth not divide, will never enter well into business: and he that divideth too much, will never come out of it clearly. To choose time, is to save time; and an unseasonable motion, is but beating the air. There be three parts of business; the preparation, the debate or examination, and the perfection; where

of if you look for Dispatch, let the middle only be the work of many, and the first and last the work of few. The proceeding upon somewhat conceived in writing, doth for the most part facilitate Dispatch: for though it should be wholly rejected, yet that negative is more pregnant of direction, than an indefinite; as ashes are more generative than Dust.

Of Seeming Wise.

IT hath been an opinion, that the French are

wiser than they seem, and the Spaniards seem wiser than they are. But howsoever it be between nations, certainly it is so between man and man. For as the Apostle saith of Godliness, "Having a show of Godliness, but denying the power thereof;" so certainly there are, in points of wisdom and sufficiency, that do nothing or little very solemnly; "Much ado about nothing." It is a ridiculous thing, and fit for a satire, to persons of judgment, to see what shifts these formalists have, and what prospectives to make superficies to seem body, that hath depth and bulk. Some are so close reserved, as they will not show their wares but by a dark light; and seem always to keep back somewhat: and when they know within themselves, they speak of that they do not well know, would nevertheless

seem to others to know of that which they may not well speak. Some help themselves with countenance and gesture, and are wise by signs; as Cicero saith of Piso, that when he answered him, he fetched one of his brows up to his forehead, and bent the other down to his chin: "You answerwhilst one eye-brow is lifted up to your forehead, and the other is drawn down to your chin-that cruelty is not pleasing to you." Some think to bear it, by speaking a great word, and being peremptory; and go on, and take by admittance that which they cannot make good. Some, whatsoever is beyond their reach, will seem to despise or make light of it, as impertinent or curious, and so will have their ignorance seem judgment. Some are never without a difference, and commonly by amusing men with a subtilty, blanch the matter; of whom A. Gellius saith, "The man is mad, who by quibbling about the minutiae of words destroys the weight of facts." Of which kind also Plato in his Protagoras bringeth in Prodicus in scorn, and maketh him make a speech, that consisteth of distinctions from the beginning to the end. Generally such men in all deliberations find ease to be of the negative side, and affect a credit to object and foretell difficulties: for when propositions are denied, there is an end of them; but if they be allowed, it requireth a new work; which false point of wisdom is the bane


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