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hats-unless they are very much better than what it is that causes baldness, or any your own--nor use public brushes or combs, germ which plays any weighty part in prounless you can wash and clean them first, ducing that condition. If all the germs although so prevalent have clean heads and that attack the scalp were at the bottom of scalps become, it is doubtful whether those the sea, we should still continue to grow in the better class of places, such as hotels bald; so that no germicide, however powerand Pullman-cars, are really a source of ful and searching, can possibly cure baldmuch danger.

ness. On the other hand, we cannot even The most dangerous agencies for the say that those who suffer severely from transmission of scalp diseases and insect ringworm, itch, or other diseases of the pests are barber shops, which are peculiarly scalp in childhood grow bald in later life exposed to infection. They should be com- any earlier or more frequently than those pelled by law to keep combs, brushes, chairs, who have not been so troubled. and tables scrupulously clean, dipping Broadly speaking, the inexpert and indisbrushes in hot water and rubbing them criminate use of germicides upon the scalp briskly upon a clean towel or toilet-paper will do far more harm than good. Partly

a after each use, and fumigating them thor- because many of them are dangerous poioughly every night.

sons and, the scalp unfortunately being sitThere is no need of any morbid cleanli- uated above the mouth, they are very apt ness or perpetual apprehension of infection gradually to sift themselves out of the hair of the scalp-because we have another and, and onto the face, the fingers, the food, and on the whole, more reliable line of defense so into the mouth. Contrary to popular yet in reserve, even if some prowling para- impression, there is no danger of absorbing site should wander into our hair. This is them through the scalp—which, indeed, is as that if we keep our scalps healthy and vigor- poison-proof as rhinoceros-hide-but there ous, any stray bug which may get upon them is considerable danger of their dusting into will feel utterly out of place. Indeed, in the the mouth or, in the case of mercurials, opinion of experts, most parasitic diseases being volatilized or evaporated and then and infections of the scalp are rather signs inhaled. of low bodily vitality and impoverished Nearly all germicides, whether or not blood than serious dangers in themselves. poisonous to the body, which are strong

Heads of hair which are falling into the enough to produce any effect upon germs sere and yellow leaf in life's August or even are apt to irritate the scalp, and if used too its July, frequently have dandruff or some freely or too long, thicken and inflame it so other form of germ-disease of the scalp; but as to create a most favorable soil for new the dandruff-germs are

mere vultures- infection to catch in as soon as their use is parasites preying upon the dying scalp- discontinued. So that the latter stage of and though you can easily kill them by the germicide-drenched scalp is worse than mild germicides, you will not, alas! stop, the first. On the scalp, as everywhere else, nor even much delay, the progress of bald- drugs, except in skilled hands, easily do ness by so doing. Indeed, it would be more more harm than good. correct to say that the baldness was the So if you have dandruff, scaliness, itching, cause of the dandruff, than the dandruff of or any other disagreeable condition of the the baldness.

scalp which does not yield to regular On the other hand, even the worst and brushing and scrupulous cleanliness, conmost furious parasitic diseases of the scalp, sult a doctor, and get him to recommend such as ringworm, itch, and mange, though you to a dermatologist or skin specialist, they may leave bald patches, very seldom who can tell you exactly what is the cause result in permanent baldness, or even in of the trouble and what is to be done to serious thinning of the hair. In fact, germ- cure it. Two-thirds of the time it will be enemies from without are only permanently found to be some disturbance of your gendangerous to the hair when they are as- eral health, or some wrong method of washsisted by traitors under the scalp in the form ing the hair, or the use of too strong soap, of poor blood or failing vitality.

insufficient brushing, or some other condiIt has been one of our keenest disap- tion upon which local applications, scalp pointments in the study of baldness that not revivers, hair-tonics, or other humbugs of even the most rigorous search with the mi- that description can have no effect whatcroscope has yet succeeded in discovering



present a neat and decorous postmortem-like tidiness of appearance in public, will suffice. It must be curried for at least seven to twelve minutes twice a day, with the same affectionate industry that a farmer's boy devotes to the shining coat of the colt that he is “shaping up” for exhibition at the county fair.

I have said that we did not know what was the use of the hair, or what to do to exercise it, but that was only partially correct. The real use of hair is to be brushed, as every small boy discovers, to his disgust. Who can forget Mark Twain's comi

cal dismay when it dawned upon him at the age of eight that every mortal morning of his whole life,

he would be compelled to go through the agony of washing his face and brushing his hair-three hundred and sixty-five times every year, and he might live seventy years! The prospect was almost too appalling to be faced.

The only known way to stimulate the growth of our own bristles is to bring them into animated conflict with other bristles, particularly those of our friend, the pig. Pigs like to be scratched

during life, and more than return the IRVIN compliment after they are dead.

Brushing does the hair good in several different ways; first by cleaning it and

sweeping out of it dust, lint, dirt, and It never occurred to the knights of the middle ages, who germs of all descriptions. (You can stewed their hair in iron pots they called helmets, that make hair cleaner in both the mechanhair needs light and air, like other growing things ical and the biological sense by thorough

brushing than you can by washing After every inch of the ground has been alone, although a combination of the two swept and reswept by the microscope, after will give the best result.) Then it helps to every bug that browses upon our cranial spread the natural oil from the glands of mountain-meadows has been caught and the scalp all through the hair, so as to keep labeled, after every form of torture from it glossy and waterproof. It helps to germ-poisons to electrocution and burning throw off the dead scales of epithelium which at the stake has been thoroughly tried out constantly form over the surface of the upon our luckless scalp, we have finally scalp as upon the rest of the skin, and, come to the conclusion that there is only most important of all, it increases the flow one unguent, one lubricant, which is of of blood through the scalp and thus proany real value upon the hair, and that is vides more food for the hair-bulbs and elbow-grease; and only one tonic, the brush. nourishes the roots of the hair. If we could condense into one sentence the Use good brushes; there is no place where whole local duty of man toward his hair, it is more ruinous to try to save money than of woman toward her crowning glory, it on hair-brushes. A bad brush not only would be, "Brush without ceasing." And may ruin your hair, but besides will not last it must be real brushing; "currying” would half, or in some cases a fourth, as long as be the better word. No mere perfunctory a good one. The dollar or two extra paid straightening and parting, so that it will is anything but wasted. More extrava

gant prices are usually due to

sixth to a third of an inch below fancy backs or mountings,

the surface of the scalp, it is obnot to the quality of the

vious that no lotion, oil, drug bristles. The best way

or any other

substance to test a brush is to

whatever which is applied use it on the palm

to the hair itself, or to of your hand.

the surface, can have The bristles of a

any real power to good brush should

stimulate growth. be fairly sharp

The only way a and firm, but per

hair-tonic or stimfectly springy and

ulant could proelastic, so that

duce any effect even if consider

at all, would be able pressure is

by injecting it brought to bear,

with a hypoderthey will not

mic needle into scratch the skin

the root of each or scalp. If on

particular hair. using the brush

The actual results on the palm of

of hundreds of the hand as you

years of experiwould on your

mentation absohead, it slips flab

lutely supports bily over the sur

this position, for face without tak

all of the thouing hold, it is too

sand and one soft, unless your

things which we hair is unusually

have poured and thin. If, on the

brushed and rubother hand, when

bed over our debriskly used, it

voted scalps, not produces a sensa

one of them has tion of burning A healthy, vigorous life that will build up a sound body is the been found to

first requisite for those who would seek the path of capillary have the slightest and scratching, it

salvation. Our savage forebears may have abused their hair, is too hard and but they certainly had plenty of it

real effect upon stiff. A good

the growth of the brush should give a pleasant sense of hair. Some of them, like the aromatic warmth and friction to the hand, without oils and extracts, by their “warmth," producing discomfort, even when vigor- redden the scalp slightly—that is, increase ously used. Generally speaking, unless the the flow of blood through it a trifle—but this palm is hardened by manual labor, what is about as powerful for hair growth as the you can stand on your hand will be a light of the moon is for melting icebergs. pretty good index of what will agree with If we would spend one-fifth of the dollars your scalp.

that we lavish on hair-lotions upon firstBrushing with a really good brush ought class bristle-brushes, and the energy which to be a pleasure in itself; indeed, if you we devote to rubbing them in to wielding do not so adjust the brush as to make it so, the brush, we should get ten times the you are not likely to keep regular and proper benefit. Ninety-nine per cent. of the virhabits of brushing your hair. It is best for tues of hair-tonics and scalp-remedies reside men to use two brushes, one in each hand, in the elbow-grease they are rubbed in with. as the desired currying of the scalp can be Keep the body healthy, the scalp clean, given more easily, quickly, and pleasantly and the hair well brushed, and you have with both hands at once, alternating done all in your power, and that usually is strokes, than with but one.

enough, to avert the curse of premature baldInasmuch as the only part of a hair ness and of having the hairs of your head which grows, or in the strict sense of the all become back-numbers. Take care of term is alive, is the root, which lies from a the scalp, and the hair will take care of itself.




By Dr. Harvey W. Wiley and Anne Lewis Pierce

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The future historian of the present age will probably chronicle no period in which fat ladies were fashionable. Should such a time come the fakers would be put to it to provide some panacea for the ill of unfashionableness. But they would do it-and reap a golden harvest. Any woman who believes that she can take off flesh by something put in her bath would believe that she could put it on by the same means, or something equally absurd. It would seem that the whole list of obesity-cures would strain credulity to the breaking - point; but the sad fact is that venders of such fakes are getting richer every day that a complaisant government allows their advertisements to go through the mails. We hope that the following article will cause a few of them to attempt to earn an honester living.


Samples of foods having only a local sale should not be sent to our Washington laboratory for analysis. The success of our general work for pure foods depends upon our having the facilities of our Washington Bureau available for the fight against adulteration in high places and by big manufacturers

ple old-time frauds under new names and new auspices, with marvelous scientific explanations as to how they do the work, and new assurances of harmlessness and effectiveness.

There is a strong convicHERE are countries on the map tion among substantial folk to the effect in which a woman's attractiveness that if you want to change a condition, is measured by the pound--the you must discover its cause and remove

more there is of her, the better that. Why is one person fat and another but the United States is not one of them. thin? Often the thinnest man eats the As the rage for slimness grow's apace, with most. Many factors enter into the probapparently no limit in sight, the number, lem. Your nervous, high-strung, worrying audacity, and unadulterated foolishness of woman will convert into energy the food the alleged obesity-cures and flesh-reducers that her placid, slow-moving, optimistic keeps step with the demand. Some are friend stores up as fat. The amount of merely picturesque and amusing; some exercise and food taken-whether the tendare dangerous; all are misleading, and no ency is to eat starchy, sweet foods or to little ingenuity is shown in presenting sim- choose lean meats, fruits, and vegetables



-and variations in completeness of diges- combatting fat-forming tendencies, but if tion and assimilation all enter into the you take it “in any quantity, at any time,” problem; but these matters have no terrors as advised, there is apt to be trouble. And for the vendor of a cure-all.

furthermore, citric acid artificially prepared Our whole mental and physical make-up is thought by many to have a very different and oui habits of life, our nerves, our organs, effect from pure lemon juice. Long-conand our ancestors, in mysterious conclave, tinued overdosing with acids cannot but decide whether we are to be fat or thin. derange the digestion. And into this awe-inspiring assembly the One correspondent wrote that symptoms advertised fat-reducer steps jauntily, with of "great weakness, severe headache, and a cathartic in one hand and a washing-soda loss of control of muscles of the tongue" bath-powder in the other, turns loose much had followed a severe régime of dieting language, and guarantees to circumvent all and taking copious drafts of "Get Slim. untoward conditions. And thousands lis- The druggist said it was harmless; what ten, and lose their money—but not their could the matter be? Plainly it was a case superfluous fat.

of acidosis (acid intoxication), due to the One feature of the advertising is par

accumulation of acid products in the body, ticularly amusing, and shows a keen knowl- acquired faster than they could be eliminedge of human nature if not of physiology. ated, and the patient became ill as well as Recognizing the discouraging effect it would slim-a result often following extreme have on sales to ask the jolly fat person to measures, though they involve only taking do anything unpleasant, to diet or exer- too much of the harmless ingredients found cise, one and all, in unanimous chorus, as- in mother's pies. You can in-tox-i-cate sure you that nothing of the sort is neces- (that means poison) yourself with many sary. The modern proprietary medicine- foods and drugs besides alcohol, by using vendor puts no limitations upon his cure- them improperly. You get a twelve days' alls; the mistaken habits of life are to be supply of this dyed citric acid for $1.00. enjoyed as before--immunity is secured by It is hard to figure out this, because “there taking the pill or powder offered. Let's is no prescribed dose," but we would back a take a look at some of them-a close look dozen lemons at thirty-five cents against through the chemist's eyes-and see what this amount of “Get Slim." Take one all this talk is about.

lemon a day in water, diet and exercise,

and save the balance. The dye and the Some of the Fakes

sugar aren't worth such a sum, and the Consider “Get Slim," introduced by one circular is misleading, if not dangerous. Jean Downs, of New York City. Our A very elaborate and alluring cure is curiosity is roused to the highest pitch by offered by Lucile Kimball-a complete being told all the things this remedy is not. treatment for seven dollars. Again you It is not a medicine, not a laxative; it is do not stint yourself in any way as to food, positively not injurious, no perspiring drink, or laziness. You just give up seven bath is necessary (though the Get Slim dollars, and “permanent slenderness” is bath-mixture will help), no dieting, no exer- yours. We looked into it. This is a threecising—“No change in your mode of living barreled cure. It is rather pretentious, is required." It is a pleasant, healthful and having been betrayed by simplicity, we drink, made from a combination of fruits; turned to the graceful pictures of Miss it reduced, said Jean, eighteen pounds in Kimball's slender form with hope in our four months. Just to tickle the imagina- eyes. We sent the pink tablets, the brown tion and raise the curtain of mystery a bit tablets, and the powder to the test-tube at the corner, we are told in a burst of con- man, and awaited his answer with bated fidence that Jean has “made pies of every breath. He seemed rather bored; it did one of its ingredients."

not strike him as being “distinctive and We refused to guess; we asked the chem- new," as claimed, but rather old and comist. “Citric acid, sugar, and a little pink monplace. dye, probably cochineal," came back the The brown tablet proved to be a timeanswer. Pink lemonade has always been honored cathartic of the aloin type; the associated with side-shows and fat ladies- pink pills were a tonic and stomachic, conand here it is again. Now, lemon juice sisting principally of red pepper, menthol, is well enough, among other things, in and bitter principles, probably from gentian

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