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family and the school at the same time.” South Carolina reports with definite negation, “commonly less efficient", and twenty-one states don't know anything about it and say so. Summarize, and you
. have six times as much evidence in favor of the married woman teacher as against her—and more ignorance on the subject than the sum of the verdicts for and against!
Whenever the New York Board, or any other school board, gets in a position to present a case against the teacher-mother because of proved inefficiency in the classroom there will be solid ground under foot. People may argue that being kind to the poor is not a function of · boards of education, that being grandmother to babies born of teacher-mothers is not their function, but nobody is going to argue that guardianship of the classroom is not their function; nobody is going to deny that teachingefficiency is their concern. When the New York Board stands flat-footedly on classroom efficency it gets support. When it wanders off into the old-fashioned home it gets mixed.
Neither the old-fashioned home nor the old-fashioned child that the old-fashioned mother bore and buried in the old-fashioned way has a chance against today's newfashioned requirements. Bearing twelve children and burying ten in infancy cannot be accepted today as the convincing evidence of upright living that it was once supposed to be. The waste of
woman in the old-fashioned Probably the most distinguished and influential superintendent of schools in way was so merciless that it this country, and especially revered in the West-Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, often took four wives to pictured in the electric runabout in which she goes from school to school. bring up one man's family. Married teachers are not discriminated against in Chicago, and the records in Sentimental reliance upon an Mrs. Young's office show that their efficiency marks are as high as those of old-fashioned phrase like“the unmarried teachers
old-fashioned home” is an
indefensible way in which to belittle the teeth locked on her own tortured soul. Six home of today. In vain for the Board years in the classroom, every year a longto urge its sociological function in defense drawn torment to herself! Do you suppose of its action in trying to force the that sort of thing has or hasn't an effect on new-fashioned teacher-mother back into classroom efficiency? Yet her marks were the old-fashioned home. As for sociolog- high-"a fine disciplinarian,” they called ical function, the Board was over-plastic,
her. conforming its argument now to this side, “What of this point the Board of Educanow to that, accepting or declining social tion makes as to the injurious effect of responsibility according to whether accept- school drudgery on women?” I asked of the ing or declining would best help it get rid dismissed elementary teacher. She turned of the teacher-mother. And what more eyes wide with inquiry toward me. “I right has it, one asks, to invade the don't know what they mean by “school teacher-mother's home for the avowed pur- drudgery. I never in my life finished a pose of forestalling neglect of her child, day in school without having received as than it has to invade the homes of teacher- much as I had given! Why can't people daughters, teacher-sisters, teacher-nieces, understand that some of us women want to in order to forestall neglect of the thousands teach because we love to teach?” of aged mothers, bedridden fathers, para- When the New York Board found the lyzed sisters, afflicted brothers, whom the elementary teacher "guilty” last autumn, spinster teachers undoubtedly could care the verdict left woman's case in the New for better if it were possible to be in two York public schools at this point: the places at once?
teacher could marry
the civil There is still another nice question to be courts had said so; but she could not bear weighed in connection with classroom ef- children; school or child, take your choiceficiency. It is that question of the spiritual the Board of Education had said so. To effect of motherhood on teaching power. challenge this anomalous state of affairs, Other things being equal, which should be to make a test case for all women, the eleable to educate more fully, more finely, the mentary teacher filed suit against the woman whose own child has brought her
Board, made the claim that she had been into more exquisite relation with all child- dismissed for childbearing, submitted the hood, or the childless woman? “It is not facts on which the claim rested and
-merely," said the majority report of the waited. Meanwhile the Board, equally committee on elementary schools, "the
determined, issued an order that the city formal and routine teaching that a teacher superintendent of schools should list all the may efficiently give that makes her a good women who had had children during 1913. teacher. She has a higher function.” This frightened eleven women into resigning. With so many people believing that mother- And then, in the middle of November, came hood adds far more to the teacher's comple- the decision of the Supreme Court, riddling ment of efficiency, through making her more the argument of the Board, sustaining the of an individual, than it takes away through teacher's plea that she had been tried and absence, it is not likely that the Board, convicted of motherhood, and granting her when it comes to ultimate decision as to petition for reinstatement. The Board of classroom efficiency, will be allowed to for- Education's immediate case crumpled like get this self-commitment on the higher func- a house of cards. tion of teaching. It is that higher function In its full significance, however, the questhat lifts the question of the relative merits tion is by no means settled even yet, or of the single teacher and the mother-teacher even for New York. In its full significance far above marks of attendance, punctuality, the question is, Have women any economic and “pure pedagogy.” It is recognition of
function except household service and are that higher function that makes you choose
they to express themselves through profesone woman rather than another for the
sional, industrial, and esthetic relations to teacher of your child.
life, as well as through motherhood, or are “Get off this lawn!” shrieked a woman I they to be limited to motherhood knew to a trio of childish interlopers. their one relation to life? It is, patently,
“Goodness,” said I, "you don't sound as a large question, and it may be long if you exactly liked children.
before it is settled, but when “settled" "I exactly hate them," she said, through it will be settled not only for the woman
Never has the saying.
needs of the child is piling scrap"The child is father
heaps high with many cherished to the man," been held
Can of greater signif
we afford to go backward by icance than it is to
holding that marriage and day. An enlightened
motherhood should keep comprehension of the
women out of the schools? teacher, but for
function and all women of
the expression all professions.
of her special And it will be
aptitudes, talsettled by the
ents, or genius; women them
for her, not selves. Assurely
for others, in this as the old, in
changing hour of discriminate, help
social and domestic lessly acquiescent
economy for women, motherhood is giv
to strike the balance ing way to a new, selec
between such social sertive, demandant mother
vice as mothering or teachhood, as surely as the
ing and such economic ideal of quantity is giv- With "liberate the personality" as her watchword. service as housekeeping; ing way to the ideal of Mme. Montessori bas made a world-famous contri- for her to say whether quality, as surely as the
bution to pedagogy. But were she to apply to the "duty” and the “sac- her availability would depend, not on her teaching lowed her only if she will
New York schools for a position, under the by-law's motherhood shall be alrifice" of motherhood
efficiency but on her economic situation nurse and cook and sweep are giving way to the choice and the glory of and dust and wash and iron and sew; or, motherhood, just so surely will woman more as well, when she has to or elects to, teach and more insist that it is for her, not for or paint or write or sing, or be a manufacothers, to assume direction of her biologic turer, a merchant, or a mill-hand.
"Well, you two seem to be great friends," Mrs. Lawrence said graciously, turning from her conversation with
Miss Lord. “This is our cue to sing For You Was Once My Wife,' Susan!" Peter suggested
“Friday's child is loving and giving;
By Kathleen Norris
Author of "Mother," "The Rich Mrs. Burgoyne," "Mothering Cecelia," etc.
Illustrated by Arthur I. Keller
Synopsis:-Susan Brown, a young, appealing San Francisco girl with an exhaustless fund of good spirits and goodfellowship, is longing for adventure when Peter Coleman, nephew of the head of the firm, is put into the office of the wholesale drug company where Susan is employed as an under clerk. Peter, young, handsome, magnetic, wealthy, and a great social favorite, fascinates Susan at once. In turn, he is strongly attracted toward her. Their meetings, however, are confined to chance encounters-delicious but feeting--at the office, until Thanksgiving day, when Susan goes with an office friend, Miss Thornton, to the big intercollegiate football game and meets Peter Coleman there with a large party of friends. After the game Susan is asked to go to the Palace Hotel for tea with the others. Once there, however, the cold, snobbish treatment she receives from these society folk blights all poor Susan's joy. Heartsick, she flees from the hotel back to the dingy boarding-house where, since the death of her parents, she has lived with her aunt, Mrs. Lancaster, and the latter's numerous relatives who help conduct the establishment. Later Susan tells her pitiful little anecdote to Billy Oliver, a brisk, energetic, ambitious young fellow who boards at Mrs. Lancaster's and is the chief means of making Susan forget cares and troubles during her spare hours. But this time Billy is not particularly sympathetic. Susan continues downcast until Christmas comes--and with it a huge bunch of violets from Peter Coleman.
Shortly after this she consents to help Peter, who is leaving town on a pleasure-trip, select some new clothes. Their joyous shopping accomplished, Peter takes her to his own home for tea, and there she meets his aunt, Mrs. Baxter, and when she finally returns to the boarding-house, does so in the Baxter family carriage. This wonderful experience is capped within a few weeks by a meeting with Emily Saunders--one of the girls who was so rude to her at the Palace. Now Miss Saunders is extremely cordial, both to Susan and Billy Oliver, with whom Susan is having a little after theater supper. When Miss Saunders invites Susan to tea it overshadows in her mind all that Billy has been saying of his ambitions and his plans for growing rich. Susan thrills at the prospect of the new vistas she feels opening up before her. With such chances, she thinks, she can fit herself to become a possible wife for Peter Coleman.
and pronounced her own name “Syusan.”
Thorny, Georgianna, and Billy had separ-
summoned to Mr. Brauer's of- these days.
that she could do the crediting, Francisco until the middle of March, but at forty dollars a month. Susan assented Susan had two of the long, ill-written and gravely, and entered that day upon her ill-spelled letters that are characteristic new work, and upon a new era. She worked the college graduate. It was a wet afterhard and silently now, with only occasional noon in Holy Week when she saw him flashes of her old silliness. She printed again. In his gloves and big overcoat, upon a card, and hung above her desk, with his hat on the back of his head, he these words:
was standing in Mr. Brauer's office, and the
electric light, turned on early this dark I hold it true, with him who sings
afternoon, shone full his handsome, To one clear harp in divers tones, That men may rise on stepping-stones
clean-shaven face. Of their dead selves to higher things.
Susan had some bills that she had
planned to show to Mr. Brauer this afterOn stepping-stones of her dead selves noon, and six months ago she would have Susan mounted. She wore a preoccupied, taken them in to him at once, and been responsible air, her voice softened, her man- glad of the excuse. But now she dropped ner was almost too sweet, too bright and her
eyes and busied herself with her work. gentle. She began to take cold, or almost Her heart beat high. She attacked a parcold, baths, to brush her hair and mend her ticularly difficult bill, one she had been gloves. She began to say “Not really?” avoiding for days, and disposed of in instead of “ 'S'at-so?” and “It's of no con- ten minutes. sequence," instead of “It don't matter.” A little later she glanced at Mr. Brauer's She called her long woolen coat, familiarly office. Peter was gone, and Susan felt a known as her “sweater,” her “field-jacket," sensation of sickness. She looked down as